Atari SA


Atari SA (formerly Infogrames Entertainment SA) is a French video game holding company headquartered in Paris. Its subsidiaries include Atari Interactive and Atari, Inc.[2] It is the current owner of the Atari brand through Atari Interactive. Because of continuing pressures upon the company and difficulty finding investors, it sought bankruptcy protection under French law in January 2013; its subsidiaries in the United States have sought Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as well.[3] All three subsidiaries have since exited bankruptcy.

Atari SA
FormerlyInfogrames Entertainment SA (1983–2009)
Société Anonyme
Euronext Paris: ATA
IndustryVideo games
FoundedJune 1983; 38 years ago (1983-06) in Lyon, France
FounderBruno Bonnell
Area served
Key people
  • Frédéric Chesnais (chairman)
  • Wade J. Rosen (CEO)
  • Philippe Mularski (CFO)
RevenueIncrease 20.6 million[1] (2019)
Increase €8.5 million (2017)
Increase €7.7 million (2017)
Total assetsIncrease €20.0 million (2017)
Total equityIncrease €7.4 million (2017)
SubsidiariesSee § Subsidiaries


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Early history (1983–1996)Edit

The founders wanted to christen the company Zboub Système (which can be approximately translated to Dick System in English), but were dissuaded by their legal counsel.[4] According to Bonnell in a TV interview, they then used a mix-and-match computer program to suggest other names, one of which was "Infogramme": a portmanteau of the French words "informatique" (information technology) and "programme" (a computer program). The final choice, Infogrames, was a slightly modified version of that suggestion.

The company logo and mascot is an armadillo (tatou in French), chosen when the company was moved to Villeurbanne. Bonnell commented: "This dinosaur [sic] is our symbol. The armadillo has always survived changes to its environment, from the melting of glaciers to the worst of heat waves."[4]

In the late 1980s, Infogrames was noted for its French computer games that often featured original game ideas and occasionally humorous content. They had acquired several licences for popular Franco-Belgian comics.

In 1992, they released Alone in the Dark, a 3D horror adventure game, to international attention.[5]

By 1995, Infogrames was held by many shareholders, including a 20% stake from Pathé Interactive (joint-venture between Phillips Media and Chargeurs) and 3.3% by Productions Marcel Dassault.[6] By August, Phillips Media acquired Chargeurs' stake in Pathé Interactive, which led to the 20% shareholding stake of the company transferring fully over to Phillips.[7]

Growth through acquisition (1996–2002)Edit

In 1996, Infogrames embarked on an acquisition campaign that would last seven years and cost more than $500 million; the objective was to become the world's leading interactive entertainment publisher.[8] While the company's debt increased from $55 million in 1999 to $493 million in 2002, the company's revenue also increased from $246 million to $650 million during the same period.[9]

Early acquisitions (1996–1999)Edit

The company's logo from 1996-2000.

In April 1996, Infogrames announced they would buy and merge with British company Ocean International Ltd., the owners of Ocean Software and fellow-subsidiary Ocean of America, for $100 million.[10] After the merger, Ocean International Ltd. was renamed to Infogrames United Kingdom, Ltd., with Infogrames retaining the Ocean Software brand until 1998.[11] With this merger, Infogrames Entertainment S.A. classified themselves as a "Super Publisher", referring to them being the largest in Europe.[12]

In 1997 Infogrames announced to fully acquire Phillips Media for ₣191.5 Million.[13] The sale included German distributor Bomico Entertainment Software GmbH[14] and German publisher Laguna Video Games,[15] but didn't include the UK-based Leisuresoft. The stake in the company that Phillips Media owned was transferred over to its management.

In December 1998, IESA acquired a majority share of 62.5% in the game distributor OziSoft,[16] which had then recently relinquishing its controlling share from Sega.

In February 1999, Infogrames acquired a 50% stake in Canal+ Multimedia.[17] In the same year IESA bought Gremlin Interactive, alongside DMA Design for $40 million, and renamed the developer to Infogrames Sheffield House. Infogrames though would later sell off DMA Design to Take-Two Interactive in the same year.[18] In April, IESA purchased Accolade for $60 million which was renamed as Infogrames North America, Inc. [19][20] and later purchased Beam Software, which was renamed to Infogrames Melbourne House Pty Ltd.[21]

Purchase of GT Interactive Software (1999–2000)Edit

In December 1999, IESA made one of the most expensive acquisitions in the company's history. Infogrames bought 70% of GT Interactive for $135 million, and assumed the new subsidiary's $75 million bank debt. By June 2000 Infogrames had invested another $30 million in GT Interactive.[22][23] IESA justified the purchase by stating that GT Interactive provided Infogrames with a "distribution network for all of its products in the United States, as well as a catalog of products that includes Driver, Duke Nukem, Oddworld, Unreal Tournament and Deer Hunter".[22]

Included in the GT Interactive purchase were the game development studios SingleTrac, Humongous Entertainment,[24] Legend Entertainment[25] and Reflections Interactive.[26]

GT Interactive became Infogrames, Inc.[27]

Purchase of Hasbro Interactive (2001)Edit

The final Infogrames logo (2000–2009)

In January 2001, IESA purchased Hasbro Interactive and the handheld game console from Hasbro for $100 million; with $95 million as 4.5 million common shares of Infogrames and $5 million in cash.[28][29]

With the acquisition of Hasbro Interactive, which was renamed as Infogrames Interactive, Inc,[30] IESA became the owner of:

Also under the terms of the sale agreement, Infogrames gained the exclusive rights to develop and publish games based on Hasbro properties, which included Dungeons & Dragons, Mr. Potato Head, My Little Pony and others, for a period of 15 years plus an option for an additional 5 years based on performance.[29]

Later acquisitions (2000–2002)Edit

In 2000, the developer Paradigm Entertainment was bought for $19.5 million and in-flight games developer Den-o-Tech Int. (DTI) , later renamed to Infogrames DTI, was also acquired for $5.6 million.[11][22] In June 2000, the company was one of the interested parties to acquire Eidos Interactive.[31]

In 2002, IESA acquired the remaining 80% of game development studio Eden Games[32] for $4.1 million.[9] In May, Shiny Entertainment was bought from Interplay Entertainment for $47 million. With Eden Games, IESA would publish all of Eden Games' titles, such as V-Rally 3 and later Test Drive Unlimited, and with the Shiny Entertainment acquisition, IESA obtained the rights to develop and publish Enter the Matrix which was the first game based on The Matrix films and sold more than 5 million copies.[33]

In 2002, IESA bought the remaining shares of OziSoft and other share holders for $3.7 million,[9] then renamed them to Infogrames Australia Pty, Ltd. and Infogrames New Zealand Pty, Ltd.[34] Also in 1998, the distributors ABS Multimedia, Arcadia, and the Swiss Gamecity GmbH were acquired.[35][22]

In the fiscal year of 2002, IESA had a net loss of $67 million on revenues of $650 million, and in 2003 the net losses increased to $89 million.[11] In 2006, IESA reported a net loss of $201 million on revenues of $525 million, and debts of around $290 million.[9] From 1999 to 2006 IESA accumulated losses totalling €500 million.[9]

Distribution DealsEdit

In April 2002, Infogrames Japan K.K. signed a Japanese distribution deal with Konami for select titles.[36]

Atari rebranding (2003–2009)Edit

Atari logo used by Infogrames from 2003 to 2010

In October 2001, Infogrames announced to "reinvent" the Atari brand (which they acquired from Hasbro Interactive which they used as a brand for arcade game remakes) with the launch of three new games featuring prominent Atari branding on their boxarts: Splashdown, MX Rider and TransWorld Surf.[37] The company focused the Atari brand mainly for console games aimed at a 18–34 year-old demographic. PC, educational and casual games retained the Infogrames banner. In June 2002, Infogrames Japan relaunched the Atari brand in the country with the publishation of Splashdown, TransWorld Surf and V-Rally 3 in the region.[38]

On 7 May 2003, IESA officially reorganised its subsidiaries under Atari branded names. Infogrames Inc. US subsidiary as a separate Nasdaq listed company known as Atari Inc.,[39] named its European operations as Atari Europe, renamed Infogrames Interactive, Inc. to Atari Interactive, Inc.,[30] (a wholly owned subsidiary of IESA),[40] rebranded Infogrames Australia Pty Ltd as Atari Australia Pty Ltd,[16] renamed Infogrames Melbourne House Pty Ltd to Atari Melbourne House Pty Ltd,[21] Infogrames UK became Atari UK,[11] while IESA became a holding company.[41]

Atari, Inc. is a public company that, as of 2007, had, as a majority stockholder, the company California U.S. Holdings, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of IESA.[42] Atari Inc. licences the Atari trademark from Atari Interactive, a licence which was set to expire in 2013.[40] Atari, Inc. has the rights to publish and sublicense in North America certain intellectual properties either owned or licensed by IESA or its subsidiaries, including Atari Interactive.[40] Atari's Australian subsidiary also distributes games for Konami of Europe, Codemasters UK, Eidos Interactive and SCi. Konami has an Australian headquarters but this is for Konami's Gaming Machines.

Losses and Delisting (2003–2009)Edit

On September 1, 2006, Atari, Inc. announced that its stock faced delisting from the NASDAQ stock exchange due to its price having fallen below $1.00.[43] On September 5, 2006, David Pierce was appointed as new CEO of Atari, replacing Bruno Bonnell. Pierce previously worked as an executive at Universal Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, and Sony Wonder.[44]

In April 2007, Infogrames' founding chairman Bruno Bonnell left the company after 24 years; on the day of the announcement of his departure IESA's shares jumped 24%.[45] After his resignation, Infogrames through the remainder of 2006[clarification needed] sold intellectual properties and some studios in order to raise cash and stave off the threat of bankruptcy.[46] In the same year, Infogrames fired the majority of Atari's directors and laid off 20% of its workforce. For the 2006–2007 fiscal year, Atari posted a net loss of $70 million.[47] On November 7, GameSpot reported that Atari was beginning to run out of money, losing 12 million dollars in the first fiscal quarter of 2008.[48]

On May 9, 2008, it was revealed that NASDAQ would be removing Atari from the NASDAQ stock exchange.[49] Atari has stated its intentions to appeal the decision. Atari was notified of NASDAQ's final decision on April 24, 2008, and the appeal hearing took place on May 1, 2008. Atari was expected to raise its value to $15 million USD from the period of December 20, 2007 through to March 2008. Atari received notice of its absolute delisting on September 12, 2008.[50]

Sell-offs and divests (2000–2006)Edit

Following the purchase of the studio, Infogrames silently shuttered down SingleTrac at the end of 2000.

In 2001, Following the purchase of the brand, Infogrames began to slowly phase out the MicroProse name, with many MicroProse branded titles that were previously released by Hasbro being reissued with Infogrames' logo on the packaging. The final two games branded under the MicroProse name were Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror and Grand Prix 4. Infogrames then shut down MicroProse's UK studio in Chipping Sodbury in September 2002,[51] In October 2002, the company shuttered their internal development studio Lyon House.

In 2003, The Sheffield House development studio (which was planned to be renamed to "Atari Sheffield House") was closed. Many of the ex-Gremlin assets including the Premier Manager series and titles such as Hogs of War and Actua Sports were acquired by Zoo Digital Publishing in October 2003.[52][53] Atari's Hunt Valley development studio was shuttered in November 2003,[54] which was MicroProse's original location and had just completed work on Dungeons & Dragons: Heroes (under the name of "Atari Hunt Valley").

In January 2004, Legend Entertainment was shuttered, with Atari citicing that they had no projects in development.[55] On July 29, 2004, Epic Games, the developer behind the Unreal franchise, announced they had ended their publishing contract with Atari and signed a three-game publishing deal with Midway Games beginning with Unreal Championship 2: The Liandri Conflict in 2005, although Atari would continue to publish the existing back catalogue of titles.[56][57] On November 25, 2004, Infogrames announced they had sold the Civilization franchise to an undisclosed partner for $22.3 million.[58] In January 2005, it was revealed that Take-Two Interactive was the purchaser, and that they had also acquired previous installments in the series, alongside several other Sid Meier titles previously handled by Infogrames, such as the then-recent Sid Meier's Pirates! after signing a new deal with Firaxis Games.[59][60]

On June 9, 2005, Hasbro bought back the digital gaming rights for their properties from Atari for $65 million.[61][27][62] Within the deal, Hasbro purchased back the video game rights to Transformers, My Little Pony, Tonka, Magic: The Gathering, Connect Four, Candy Land and Playskool, while obtaining a seven-year exclusive deal to produce video games based on Monopoly, Scrabble, Game of Life, Battleship, Clue, Yahtzee, Simon, Risk and Boggle, alongside an expanded separate deal with the Dungeons & Dragons franchise.

On May 10, 2006, Infogrames sold the site to AOL.[63] On the same day, the company also sold Paradigm Entertainment and the Stuntman franchise to THQ[64] and the publishing rights to TimeShift to Vivendi Games. The sales generated $25 million in revenue.[65] On June 17, 2006, Midway acquired the publishing rights to the Unreal back catalogue from Infogrames.,[66] this was followed on in when developer Reflections Interactive and the Driver franchise were sold for $21.6 million to Ubisoft.[67] In October, Shiny Entertainment was acquired by Foundation 9 Entertainment for $1.6 million.,[67][68] with the last studio put up for sale - Atari Melbourne House, being sold to Krome Studios in November 2006, and was renamed to Krome Studios Melbourne.[21] After this the only developers still owned by Atari were Eden Games and Humongous, Inc.

In July 2007, Atari sold back their exclusive Hasbro licensing deal back to Hasbro for $19 Million,[69] which concluded with Hasbro signing a new casual game deal with Electronic Arts a month later.[70]

Merger with Atari, Inc. and asset selling to Namco Bandai Games (2008–2009)Edit

On 6 March 2008, Infogrames made an offer to Atari Inc. to buy out all remaining public shares for a value of US$1.68 per share or US$11 million total. The offer would make Infogrames the sole owner of Atari Inc., making it a privately held company.[71] On 30 April, Atari Inc. announced its intentions to accept Infogrames' buyout offer and merge with Infogrames,[72] which was completed by October 9.[73] With that acquisition Infogrames was the only owner of the Atari brand.[74] Infogrames said that it planned to reduce administrative costs and to focus on online gaming.[75]

In September 2008, Namco Bandai Games and Infogrames formed a joint venture called Distribution Partners.[76] Distribution Partners was defined by Infogrames as a regrouping of "Infogrames' distribution operations in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America."[77] This new entity consisted mainly of Infograme's distribution network in the PAL region.[78] Distribution Partners was 34% owned by Namco Bandai and 66% owned by Atari.[77]

In December 2008, Infogrames bought Cryptic Studios for $26.7 million in cash plus performance bonuses. Cryptic Studios is a massively multiplayer online game developer and its acquisition is in line with the company's new business strategy which focuses on online games.[79]

In May 2009, Namco Bandai acquired Atari Europe from Infogrames.[80] Its sale and marketing personnel were transferred to Distribution Partners.[80] In March 2009, Infogrames announced that it was getting out of the distribution business in the PAL region with its decision to sell its 66% stake at Distribution Partners.[76] According to an Infogrames press-release, this sale allowed "Atari to focus its financial resources and creative energy exclusively on developing and publishing online-enabled games".[81]

In July, the deal valued at €37 million was completed;[82] Distribution Partners was renamed to Namco Bandai Partners. At that time the company had operations in 50 countries and 17 dedicated offices.[83]

Despite restructuring, Infogrames continued to struggle to become profitable. For the 2008 fiscal year the company posted €51.1 million ($72.17 million) in net losses and for the 2009 fiscal year, which ended in March, Infogrames posted losses of €226.1 million ($319.33 million).[84]

Rebranding to Atari SA (2009)Edit

During their fiscal year meeting (May 2009), IESA announced that it would be changing its corporate name to an Atari branded name, in line with the use of the name for its subsidiaries. In reference to this, Atari, Inc's CEO Jim Wilson said: "We've gotten rid of the Infogrames and Atari duality, the confusion around that. We are one simplified company, under one management team, under one brand."[85]

Infogrames' 29 May earnings report stated:

"The Board agreed to change Infogrames Entertainment's name to Atari. This decision will enable us to make the best use of the Atari brand, capitalising on worldwide strong name recognition and affinity, which are keys drivers to implement the Company's online, product and licensing strategies."[86]

An earnings press release on 24 July 2009 also provided clarification regarding the ensuing name change that was initially announced some two months prior, rebranding themselves as Atari, SA from Infogrames Entertainment, SA. Furthermore, this release also stated their intentions of henceforth utilising the much more recognisable 'Atari Group' moniker with all Atari-related brands and similar such subsidiaries already under their control.[87]

BlueBay restructuring (2010–2013)Edit

On 21 October 2010, Atari announced Atari's reference shareholders BlueBay Value Recovery (Master) Fund Limited and BlueBay Multi-Strategy (Master) Fund Limited are exploring a disposal of the shares and equity-linked instruments held by them.[88] However, BlueBay shareholders later interrupted the sale process of its holding in Atari.[89] BlueBay later converted the conversion of a portion of the ORANEs held by them.[90]

In 2012, Atari, SA, BlueBay Value Recovery (Master) Fund Limited, and The BlueBay Multi-Strategy (Master) Fund Limited reached an agreement following their negotiations regarding the restructuring of the debt and capital structure of the Atari group. As part of the agreement, the €20.9 million Credit Facility Agreement was extinguished via €10.9 million loan forgiveness from BlueBay Value Recovery (Master) Fund Limited and Atari's payment of €10 million; the cancellation of the dilutive effect of the ORANEs held by BlueBay; €20 million capital increases to be submitted to the vote of Atari shareholders (of which €10 million with preferential subscription right).[91]

Bankruptcy (2013–2014)Edit

On 21 January 2013, Atari, Inc., Atari Interactive, Inc., Humongous, Inc. and California US Holdings, Inc. (collectively, the "Companies") filed petitions for relief under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York.[92]

Sell-off of Intellectual Properties (2013–present)Edit

In July 2013, Atari began to sell its game assets, developers and the famous "Fuji" logo and the Atari name in a bankruptcy auction.[93] During the sale, the Battlezone and MoonBase Commander games were bought by Rebellion Developments.[94] The Backyard Sports franchise was sold to Epic Gear LLC[94] and later to Day 6 Sports Group LLC. Appeal Studios acquired Outcast.[95] Glu Mobile acquired the Deer Hunter franchise.[96] Tommo bought Humongous Inc. and over 100 different games (Including games from the companies Accolade and MicroProse, and Math Gran Prix).[94] Nordic Games acquired the rights to Desperados and Silver.[97]Total Annihilation and Master of Orion were sold to Wargaming and lastly, Star Control was bought by Stardock.[94] Atari also had plans to sell off the Test Drive and RollerCoaster Tycoon franchises.[94] Eden Games also closed down during the bankruptcy, but reopened a year later as an independent developer by its founder, David Nadal.[98]

In 2015, Alternative Software acquired Hogs of War and Fragile Allegiance and re-released them both on Steam.

In December 2016, Atari sold the Test Drive franchise to Bigben Interactive.[99] and also sold the V-Rally series to the company without a formal announcement.[100]

In 2017, Piko Interactive acquired several titles from Atari: 40 Winks, Bubble Ghost, Chamber of the Sci-Mutant Priestess, Death Gate, Drakkhen, Eternam, Glover, Monty Mole, Hostage: Rescue Mission, Marco Polo and Time Gate: Knight's Chase.[101][102][103][104][105]

On 19 September 2018, THQ Nordic announced they had acquired the Alone in the Dark franchise and Act of War.[106]

On March 3, 2020, Ziggurat Interactive acquired dozens of ex-Atari owned titles, including Deadly Dozen.[107]

Turnaround strategy (2014–present)Edit

In 2014, all 3 Ataris emerged from bankruptcy and entered the social casino gaming industry with Atari Casino.[108] Frédéric Chesnais, who now heads all three companies, stated their entire operations consist of a staff of 10 people.[109]

In 2015, Atari announced a turnaround strategy that would focus on re-releasing the catalogue of Atari games. The strategy was focused on "download games, MMO games, mobile games and licensing activities, based in priority around traditional franchises." Projects in the turnaround strategy included:

On 8 June 2017 a short teaser video was released, promoting a new product;[111][non-primary source needed] and the following week CEO Fred Chesnais confirmed the company was developing a new game console – the hardware was stated to be based on PC technology, and be still under development.[112] In mid July 2017 an Atari press release confirmed the existence of new hardware, referred to as the Ataribox. The box design was derived from early Atari designs (e.g. 2600) with a ribbed top surface, and a rise at the back of the console; two versions were announced; one with a traditional wood veneer front, and another with a glass front. Connectivity options were given as including HDMI, USB (x4), and an SD card – the console was said to support both classic and current games.[113] According to an official company statement of 22 June 2017 the product was to initially launch via a crowdfunding campaign in order to minimise financial risk to the parent company.[114] In March 2018, the Ataribox was renamed the Atari VCS. P In April 2019, Atari announces that they would begin trading on the Nasdaq Nordic stock exchange under the ticker ATA SDB.

Atari Chain and new investments (2020–present)Edit

In 2020, the Atari Token was launched by Atari,[115][116][117] in equal partnership with the ICICB Group.[118][119][120] The group was granted with issuance license to launch an online gaming platform using crypto-currencies, including the Atari Token.[121][122]

The group partnering with Atari gave birth to a new company incorporated in Gibraltar called Atari Chain LTD.[123][124][125]

In March 2021, Atari extended its partnership with ICICB Group for the development of Atari branded hotels, with the first hotels to be constructed in Dubai, Gibraltar and Spain.[126][127][128][129][130] The licensing agreement includes potential additional countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia.[131]

On April 2021, Atari restructured the company by splitting into Atari Gaming, who will focus on video games; and Atari Blockchain, who will focus on cryptocurrency, blockchain, and other businesses.[132]

On July 5, 2021, Atari Gaming announced to fully reenter the premium console and handheld industry and put a lesser extent to free-to-play and mobile games, leading to possible titles being closed or sold, alongside the closure of Atari Casino.[133]

On November 24, 2021, Atari announced they had invested $500,000 in retro gaming streaming platform Antstream, and a deal to potentially purchase MobyGames for $1.5 million through to the end of March 2022.[134] The purchase was completed on 8 March 2022, with Freyholtz remaining as general manager.[135]



Name Location Founded Acquired Former names Ref.
Atari Blockchain 2021
Atari Chain Ltd. Gibraltar 2020
Atari Europe S.A.S.U. Early 90's Infogrames Multimedia SA (early-1990's-2000)
Infogrames Europe SA (2000-2003)
Atari Gaming U.S. 2021
Atari, Inc. New York, New York, U.S. 1993 1999 GT Interactive Software Corp. (1993-2000)
Infogrames, Inc. (2000-2003)
Atari Interactive 1995 2001 Hasbro Interactive, Inc. (1996-2000)
Infogrames Interactive, Inc. (2000-2003)
Atari Japan KK Japan 2000 Infogrames Hudson KK (2000-2002)
Infogrames Japan KK (2002-2003)
MobyGames United States 1999 2022 [138]


Sold to Namco Bandai GamesEdit

Name Location Founded Former names Ref.[139]
Distribution Partners SAS 2008 [139]
Atari do Brasil Ltda. Brazil 1998 Infogrames do Brasil Ltda. (1998-2003)
Atari France S.A.S. France 1991 Infogrames France S.A.S. (1991-2003)
Atari Italia S.p.A. Italy 1994 Infogrames Italia S.p.A. (2000-2003)
Atari Ibérica S.A. Spain 1990's Infogrames Ibérica S.A. (1990s-2003)
Atari Nordic AB Denmark 2001 Infogrames Nordic AB (2001-2003) [140]
Atari Bénélux B.V. Brussels, Netherlands 1994 Infogrames Entertainment Benelux B.V. (1994-2003)
Atari Hellas EURL Greece 2000 Infogrames Hellas EPE (2000-2003)
Atari United Kingdom Limited Manchester, England 1984 Ocean Software Limited (1984-1998)
Infogrames United Kingdom Limited (1998-2003)
Atari Deutschland GmbH Germany Bomico Entertainment Software GmbH (19??-1999)
Infogrames Deutschland GmbH (1999-2003)
Atari Israel Ltd. Israel
A+ Multimedia Ltda Portugal
Atari Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd./Atari Asia Holdings Pty, Ltd. Australia 2000 Infogrames Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd. (2000-2003) [142]
Atari Korea Ltd. Korea Infogrames Korea Ltd. (unknown-2003)
Atari Taiwan Ltd. Taiwan
Atari Singapore Pty, Ltd. Singapore
Atari Hong Kong Ltd. Hong Kong
Atari Australia Pty, Ltd. Sydney, Australia 1982 OziSoft Pty, Ltd. (1982-1992, 1998-2002)
Sega OziSoft Pty, Ltd. (1992-1998)
Infogrames Australia Pty, Ltd. (2002-2003)
Atari NZ Limited New Zealand 1990 OziSoft NZ Limited (1990-2002)
Infogrames NZ Limited (2002-2003)

Founded by Infogrames/AtariEdit

Name Location Founded Closed Fate Former names Ref.
Atari Studios Asia Pty, Ltd. 1999 unknown Closed Infogrames Studios Asia Pty, Ltd. (1999-2003) [146]
Infogrames Lyon House 1998 2002 Closed [147]
Humongous, Inc. 2006 2013 Filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy alongside other US Atari assets.
Humongous' assets were sold to Tommo in the same year.
Infogrames Limited [148]


Name Location Founded Acquired Closed/Sold Fate/Extra Information Former names Ref.
Atari Interactive Hunt Valley Studio Hunt Valley, Maryland, United States 1982 2001 2003 Closed MicroProse (internal development team) (1982-2001)
Infogrames Interactive Hunt Valley Studio (2001-2003)
Atari Interactive, Inc. 1998 2001 2003 Merged with Infogrames Interactive HIAC XI, Corp. (1998)
Atari Interactive Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd. Australia 1997 2001 2004 Closed MicroProse Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd. (1997-1998)
Hasbro Interactive Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd. (1998-2001)
Infogrames Interactive Asia Pacific Pty, Ltd. (2001-2003)[149]
Atari Melbourne House Pty, Ltd. Melbourne, Australia 1977 1999 2006 Sold to Krome Studios and renamed Krome Studios Melbourne.
Closed in 2010.
Melbourne House (Publishers) Ltd. (1977-1980)
Beam Software (1980-1997)
Melbourne House (1997-1999)
Infogrames Melbourne House Pty, Ltd. (1999-2003)
Atari Pty Limited Australia 1997 1999 Unknown Closed GT Interactive Australia Pty, Ltd. (1997-2000)
Infogrames Pty Limited (2000-2003)
Cryptic Studios Los Gatos, United States 2000 2008 2011 Sold to Perfect World.
DMA Design Ltd. Dundee, Scotland, 1984 1999 1999 Acquired as part of Gremlin Interactive purchase.
Sold to Take-Two Interactive and transitioned to Rockstar Games subsidiary, later renamed to Rockstar North Ltd.
Eden Games S.A.S. Lyon, France 1998 2002 2013 Filed for Judicial liquidation following ownership issues by Atari.
Reopened by its management in the same year as an independent developer.
Eden Studios (1998-2003)
Europress Adlington, Cheshire, United Kingdom Unknown 2001 2002 Sold back to its founders
GT Interactive Software (Europe) Limited United Kingdom 1995 1999 Unknown Unknown, possibly folded into Infogrames United Kingdom [153]
Humongous Entertainment, Inc. City of Industry, United States 1992 2000 2006 Transitioned from Atari, Inc. to Infogrames Entertainment, S.A. in 2005, and silently closed a while afterward.
Humongous, Inc. was later founded to hold the assets of the company.
Infogrames Chippenham Chipping Sodbury, United Kingdom unknown 2001 2002 MicroProse Ltd. (2001)
Infogrames Entertainment, Inc. San Jose, United States 1990's 1996 1999 Purchased by Infogrames
later folded into Infogrames North America
Ocean of America, Inc. (1990's-1998)
Infogrames Interactive Limited 1995 2001 unknown unknown, likely folded. Hasbro Interactive Limited (1995-2001) [154]
Infogrames Interactive Direct Limited 1998 2001 Unknown Unknown Hasbro Interactive Direct Limited (1998-2001) [155]
Infogrames North America, Inc. San Jose, United States 1984 1999 2000 Purchased by Infogrames, later folded into Infogrames, Inc.
Accolade brand sold to Tommo in 2013.
Accolade, Inc. (1984-1999)
Infogrames North America (Internal Development Team) San Jose, United States 1997 1999 2000 Purchased in Accolade purchase
Closed by Infogrames[156]
Accolade (Internal Development Team) (1984-1999)
Infogrames Studios Limited/Sheffield House Sheffield, United Kingdom 1984 1999 2003 Closed
Some franchises and games sold to Zoo Digital Publishing, with some going to the founder of Gremlin, Ian Stewart.[157]
Gremlin Interactive Limited (1984-1999)
Atari Sheffield House (Planned name change)
Legend Entertainment Virginia, United States 1994 2000 2004 Closed
MacSoft 1994 2000 2004 Sold to Destineer [158]
Paradigm Entertainment Carrollton, United States, 1997 2000 2006 Sold to THQ alongside the Stuntman franchise.
Later closed in 2008.
Paradigm Systems (1997-1999?)
Phillips Media BV Eindhoven, Netherlands 1997 1997 Folded following purchase
Reflections Interactive Limited Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 1984 2000 2006 Sold to Ubisoft, which also included the Driver series.
Now known as Ubisoft Reflections Limited.
Shiny Entertainment, Inc. Laguna Beach, United States 1993 2002 2006 Purchased from Interplay Entertainment.
Sold to Foundation 9 Entertainment, later merging with The Collective to form Double Helix Games a year later.
SingleTrac Entertainment Technologies, Inc. Salt Lake City, United States 1994 2000 2000 Closed
WizardWorks Plymouth, Minnesota 1980 2000 2004 Originally merged with GT Interactive in 1996.
Before closure, it was solely used as offices for Atari's operations.

Game franchises owned by Atari, SAEdit

As of 2018, Atari, SA own the rights to the following games and game franchises. The majority of these are original works by Atari, Inc, Hasbro Interactive or Infogrames, however the most notable outside of these are a large number of intellectual properties formerly belonging to Ocean Software, which Atari, SA never lost the rights.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Atari Annual Financial Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  2. ^ "Anthony Jacobson and Pierre Hintze Hire Release FINAL" (PDF) (Press release). Atari. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Game almost over as Atari goes bankrupt". The Australian. 23 January 2013.
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External linksEdit

  • Official website