Australian Antarctic Medal

Summary

The Australian Antarctic Medal (stylised AAM as post-nominal), originally designated the Antarctic Medal until 18 December 1997, is a meritorious service award of the Australian honours and awards system, instituted by Letters Patent[note 1] on 2 June 1987 (amended 18 December 1997 and 13 December 2011).[9]

Australian Antarctic Medal
Australian Antarctic Medal.png

Australian Antarctic Medal ribbon.png
Medal and ribbon
TypeMedal (Meritorious)[1]
Awarded forOutstanding service in scientific research or exploration, or in support of such work, in the course of, or in connection with, an Australian Antarctic expedition[2]
Description32 mm nickel-silver octagonal medal, ensigned with a hexagonal ice-crystal device, surmounted by a plain suspender bar, and suspended on a 32 mm snow-white moire ribbon, edged with three shades of blue.[3]
Presented byAustralia
EligibilityAustralian Antarctic expedition members and support staff[2]
Post-nominalsAAM[4]
StatusActive
Established2 June 1987 (as Antarctic Medal)[5]
First awarded22 June 1987[6]
Last awarded2021 Special Honours
Total104
Total awarded posthumously4[7]
Total recipients103
Order of Wear
Next (higher)Conspicuous Service Medal (CSM)
Next (lower)Royal Victorian Medal (RVM)
RelatedPolar Medal

Unique among the Australian meritorious service awards, the Australian Antarctic Medal may be awarded to the same person more than once.[10] The medal may be awarded to anyone who has given outstanding service in connection with an Antarctic expedition, in scientific research, exploration, or in support of such work.[11] Except in exceptional circumstances however, the medal will only be awarded if the nominee has also worked at least 12 months (cumulative) in Antarctic climates south of latitude 60° South, or in similar climate and terrain conditions elsewhere in the Antarctic region.[12]

The Australian Antarctic Medal is also unique in that (other than the first time when it was awarded, which occurred on 22 June 1987) awardees are announced in their own Midwinter's Day (21 June) awards list.[13]

The Australian Antarctic Medal has only in one instance been awarded to the same person twice - to Graham Robertson - and only four times posthumously (to Howard Burton, Neil Adams, John Oakes, and Patrick Quilty AM).[14]

DesignEdit

The Australian Antarctic Medal is a nickel-silver octagonal medal, 32 mm in diameter, ensigned with a hexagonal ice-crystal device, surmounted by a plain suspender bar.[3] The obverse (front of the medal) bears a depiction of the Southern Hemisphere showing Australia and the Antarctic enclosed by the inscription "FOR OUTSTANDING SERVICE IN THE ANTARCTIC".[3]

 
Reverse of Australian Antarctic Medal

The reverse (back) of the Australian Antarctic Medal has an Antarctic expeditioner outside Mawson's hut, leaning into a blizzard as they use an ice-axe.[15]

The Australian Antarctic Medal is suspended on a 32 mm snow-white moire ribbon,[note 2] with 3 mm edging of three shades of blue that merge into the white of the ribbon (representing the transition of water to ice as one approaches Antarctica).[3] A date bar, being a nickel-silver clasp of 30 mm wide and 6 mm high, inscribed with the year the eligible service was rendered, is attached to the ribbon of the medal.[3]

Second and subsequent awards of the Australian Antarctic Medal are recognised by the awarding of another nickel-silver date bar clasp, worn on the ribbon above the medal (and positioned above any earlier date bar clasps), and by the use of 9 mm replicas of the ice-crystal device for each subsequent award on the ribbon bar (worn on uniforms when not wearing the medal).[3]

The miniature of the Australian Antarctic Medal is a half-sized replica of the medal, suspended from a miniature of the ribbon that is 16 mm wide.[3] Half-sized replicas of date bar clasps are worn on the ribbon of the miniature medal.[3]

A lapel badge, being a 10 mm wide replica of the hexagonal ice-crystal device used on the medal, is also provided to awardees.[3]

HistoryEdit

Prior to 2 June 1987,[note 3] eligible service on Australian Antarctic expeditions (known as Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions at that time) was recognised by the Polar Medal under the Imperial honours system.[18]

OriginsEdit

When Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke came to power in 1983, he declared his government would no longer be making any recommendations for Imperial honours and awards.[19] The Australian Antarctic Names and Medals Committee, which had been set up by Ministerial appointment, declared at its meeting of 3 December 1984 that an Australian award should be created to honour outstanding achievement in the Australian Antarctic Territory, including for scientific achievement and exploration, and outlined some design specifications for the proposed medal.[20] On 26 January 1986, Hawke announced the intention to seek Letters Patent for a new meritorious service award to recognise extraordinary service in the Antarctic region by Australian polar expeditioners, to be called the Australian Antarctic Medal.[21]

Initial designs of the medal were drafted by Michael Tracey, but the Australian Antarctic Names and Medals Committee expressed some dissatisfaction with some of his design elements, and Stuart Devlin AO CMG replaced him as designer (although Tracey's map on the obverse of the medal was retained).[22] Stuart Devlin's final design was approved by the government on 21 January 1987.[23]

On 2 June 1987, the Queen of Australia, Elizabeth II, issued Letters Patent instituting the Antarctic Medal.[24]

Production delaysEdit

Although 16 inaugural awardees of the Antarctic Medal were announced on 22 June 1987, covering meritorious service as far back as 1981, extended production delays with the Antarctic Medal and its ribbon resulted in it taking two years before these medals were presented to them.[25]

Re-naming and post-nominalsEdit

In 1993, the then Keating federal government established a Review of Australian Honours and Awards Committee, to make recommendations about the Australian honours and awards system.[26] The committee delivered its report in 1995, and one of its recommendations was that the Antarctic Medal be re-named the Australian Antarctic Medal, and be granted the post-nominal AAM (the preceding Imperial Polar Medal and the Antarctic Medal had no entitlement to use of a post-nominal).[27]

On 18 December 1997, the Queen of Australia, Elizabeth II, issued Letters Patent authorising the amendment of the original Letters Patent to change the designation of the Antarctic Medal to the Australian Antarctic Medal and authorised the use of the AAM post-nominal to those who had been awarded this medal.[28]

Expansion of eligibilityEdit

Prior to 13 December 2011, the conditions for the award of the Australian Antarctic Medal were that, except in exceptional circumstances, only those who had accumulated 12 months or more in Antarctic climate and terrain conditions, and who had given outstanding service in (either directly, or in support of) scientific research or exploration, in the course of, or in connection with, an Australian Antarctic expedition were eligible to be considered for this meritorious award.[29]

On 13 December 2011, the Queen of Australia, Elizabeth II, issued Letters Patent authorising the amendment of the original Letters Patent (and its regulations) to allow eligibility for the Australian Antarctic Medal to be expanded so that persons representing an Australian agency or institution on foreign Antarctic expeditions could also be considered for this medal.[30]

List of recipientsEdit

As at Midwinter's Day (21 June) 2020, the Australian Antarctic Medal (also known as the Antarctic Medal prior to 1998) has been awarded 104 times to 103 individuals (one person has received the medal twice).[31] In four cases the medal was awarded posthumously.[32] Apart from its inaugural award, which occurred on 22 June 1987, it has always been awarded on Midwinter's Day, although in some years no awards have been made (2003, 2010, 2014, 2015, 2017 and 2019).[33]

From 1987 to 1991, no short citation was given when the medal was awarded.[34] From 1992 to 1997, the short citation For outstanding service in connection with Australian Antarctic expeditions was used.[35] In 1998, the short citation For outstanding service in support of Australia's Antarctic Program was used.[36] From 1999 to 2011 the short citation For outstanding service in support of Australian Antarctic expeditions was used.[37] Generic short citations were replaced with individual short citations from 2012 until 2016, when short citations were no longer given.[38]

The only awardee to have received the Australian Antarctic Medal twice (where an additional clasp is given to the recipient, to place on the ribbon of the medal, and the ice crystal device is worn on the ribbon bar, when the medal is not worn) is Graham Robertson (who received his medal in 1989, and his additional clasp in 2012).[39]

The four posthumous awards made to date are to Howard Burton (d. 5 November 1993) in 1994, Neil Adams (d. 23 March 2012) in 2012, John Oakes (d. 23 July 2016) in 2018, and Patrick Quilty (d. 26 August 2018) in 2020.[40]

Date awarded Name Post-nominals Details Notes
22 June 1987 Ricky Besso AAM For outstanding service as Senior Carpenter (Davis 1985) in support of science and general expedition duties. [41]
22 June 1987 David Andrew Blaby AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector (Mawson 1980) in support of science and general expedition duties. [42]
22 June 1987 Harry Roy Burton AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology, limnology) and in support of general expedition duties. [43]
22 June 1987 John Gerard Corcoran AAM For outstanding service (Casey 1980) in Antarctic exploration (surveying) and in support of science and general expedition duties. [44]
22 June 1987 Charles Henry Lewis Cosgrove AAM For outstanding service (Mawson 1982) in support of science and general expedition duties. [45]
22 June 1987 Malcolm Charles Ellson AAM For outstanding service (Davis 1985) in support of science and general expedition duties. [46]
22 June 1987 Anthony Peter Everett AAM For outstanding service (Mawson 1985) in support of science and general expedition duties. [47]
22 June 1987 Lloyd Douglas Fletcher AAM For outstanding service as Medical Officer (Casey 1986) in support of science and general expedition duties. [48]
22 June 1987 Raymond John Morris AAM For outstanding service (Davis 1985) in Antarctic scientific research (physics) and in support of general expedition duties. [49]
22 June 1987 Robert Campbell Orchard AAM For outstanding service as Communications Officer (Davis 1984) in support of science and general expedition duties. [50]
22 June 1987 David Arnold Pottage AAM For outstanding service (Mawson 1985) in Antarctic scientific research (meteorology) and in support of general expedition duties. [51]
22 June 1987 Donald Alexander Reid AAM For outstanding service as Carpenter (Davis 1986) in support of science and general expedition duties. [52]
22 June 1987 Shane Anthony Rollins AAM For outstanding service as Senior Diesel Mechanic (Davis 1982) in support of science and general expedition duties. [53]
22 June 1987 Ulrich Schmitter AAM For outstanding service as Cook (Casey 1980) in support of science and general expedition duties. [note 4][55]
22 June 1987 Peter Graham Sullivan AAM For outstanding service as Medical Officer (Davis 1985) in support of science and general expedition duties. [56]
22 June 1987 Herman Henk Edward Westerhof AAM For outstanding service as Radio Technical Officer (Casey 1981) in support of science and general expedition duties. [57]
21 June 1988 Ian Frederick Allison AO, AAM, FAA[58] For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (glaciology) and in support of general expedition duties. [note 5][60]
21 June 1988 Martin Stephen Betts AAM For outstanding service as Voyage Leader in support of science and general expedition duties. [61]
21 June 1988 Neil Joseph Conrick AAM For outstanding service as Carpenter (Macquarie Island 1987) in support of science and general expedition duties. [62]
21 June 1988 Maxwell Cecil Dietrich AAM For outstanding service as Foreman (Mawson 1986) in support of science and general expedition duties. [63]
21 June 1988 William Leslie Robinson AAM For outstanding service as Chef (Casey 1987) in support of science and general expedition duties. [64]
21 June 1988 Bernard William Sorensen AAM For outstanding service as Chef (Mawson 1986) in support of science and general expedition duties. [65]
21 June 1989 Denise Mary Allen AAM For outstanding service (Davis 1988) in Antarctic scientific research (meteorology) and in support of general expedition duties. [note 6][67]
21 June 1989 Willem Philip Barnaart AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader (Mawson 1988) in support of science and general expedition duties. [note 7][69]
21 June 1989 David Rockley McCormack AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector (Mawson 1988) in support of science and general expedition duties. [note 8][71]
21 June 1989 Daniel Henry O'Reilly AAM For outstanding service as Construction Services Leader (Davis 1988) in support of science and general expedition duties. [72]
21 June 1989 Russell Albert Rachinger AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader (Casey 1987) in support of science and general expedition duties. [73]
21 June 1989 Graham George Robertson AAM For outstanding service (Mawson 1988) in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [74]
21 June 1989 Diana Lynn Williams AAM For outstanding service (Heard Island 1986) in Antarctic scientific research (medicine) and in support of general expedition duties as Medical Officer. [75]
21 June 1990 David John Grant AAM For outstanding service (Mawson 1989) in Antarctic scientific research (meteorology) and in support of general expedition duties. [76]
21 June 1990 Roderick Bentley Ledingham AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [77]
21 June 1990 Robert John Tingey AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (geology) and in support of general expedition duties. [78]
21 June 1990 Dudley Raymond Twigg AAM For outstanding service as Senior Technical Officer (Radio) in support of science and general expedition duties. [note 9][80]
21 June 1990 Egon Wehrle AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [81]
21 June 1990 Charlie Robert Reid Weir AAM For outstanding service (Macquarie Island 1989) in support of science and general expedition duties. [82]
21 June 1991 Peter James Gormly AAM For outstanding service as Senior Medical Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [83]
21 June 1991 Graham John Mills AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector (Davis 1990) in support of science and general expedition duties. [84]
21 June 1991 Eric William Osborn AAM For outstanding service as Carpenter (Davis 1990) in support of science and general expedition duties. [85]
21 June 1991 William Royce Ware AAM For outstanding service in support of meteorological science and general expedition duties. [86]
21 June 1992 Murray James Hotchin AAM For outstanding service as Electrical Works Supervisor in support of science and general expedition duties. [87]
21 June 1992 Jeffrey Roger Mackereth AAM For outstanding service as Electrical Fitter (Macquarie Island 1991) in support of science and general expedition duties. [88]
21 June 1992 Richard Williams AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (marine biology) and general expedition duties. [89]
21 June 1993 Albert Bruehwiler AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector (Mawson 1990) in support of science and general expedition duties. [90]
21 June 1993 David James Hasick AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader (Mawson 1992) in support of science and general expedition duties. [91]
21 June 1993 Knowles Ronald Kerry AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [92]
21 June 1993 Paul John Munro AAM For outstanding service as Senior Electrical Fitter (Mawson 1992) in support of science and general expedition duties. [93]
21 June 1993 Ray James Pike AAM For outstanding service as Construction Foreman (Mawson 1992) in support of science and general expedition duties. [94]
21 June 1994 Russell James Brand AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector in support of science and general expedition duties. [95]
21 June 1994 Howard Douglas Burton AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [96]
21 June 1994 Geoffrey James Moore AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and general expedition duties. [97]
21 June 1995 Erwin Erb AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [98]
21 June 1995 Peter Damian Franzmann AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (microbiology) and in support of general expedition duties. [99]
21 June 1995 Norman Leigh Hornsby AAM For outstanding service as Senior Helicopter Pilot in support of science and general expedition duties. [100]
21 June 1995 Robert Patrick Kiernan AAM For outstanding service (Davis 1994) in Antarctic exploration (surveying) and in support of science and general expedition duties. [101]
21 June 1995 Vincent Ivor Morgan AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (glaciology) and general expedition duties. [102]
21 June 1995 Meredy Jayne Zwar AAM For outstanding service as Chef (Mawson 1994) in support of science and general expedition duties. [103]
21 June 1996 Judith Rebekah Clarke AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [104]
21 June 1996 Trevor Michael Craven AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (glaciology) and general expedition duties. [105]
21 June 1996 Robert Tracy Jones AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader (Mawson 1994) in support of science and general expedition duties. [106]
21 June 1996 Allen Carey Rooke AAM For outstanding service as Communications Officer (Macquarie Island 1994) in support of science and general expedition duties. [107]
21 June 1996 Lloyd Peter Symons AAM For outstanding service as Electronic Engineer (Davis 1995) in support of science and general expedition duties. [108]
21 June 1997 Paul Robert Delaney AAM For outstanding service as Construction Foreman (Mawson 1996) in support of science and general expedition duties. [109]
21 June 1998 Robert Leslie Easther AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [110]
21 June 1999 Michael Robert Whittle AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [111]
21 June 2000 John Joseph Jones AAM For outstanding service as Trades Team Leader (Davis 1998) in support of science and general expedition duties. [112]
21 June 2000 Nicolas Andrew Mortimer AAM For outstanding service as search and rescue team member (Mawson 1999) in support of science and general expedition duties. [113]
21 June 2000 Andrew Jason Reinke AAM For outstanding service as search and rescue team member (Mawson 1999) in support of science and general expedition duties. [114]
21 June 2000 Garry Iain Watson AAM For outstanding service as search and rescue team member (Mawson 1999) in support of science and general expedition duties. [115]
21 June 2000 Madeleine Wilcock AAM For outstanding service as Medical Officer (Mawson 1999) in support of science and general expedition duties. [116]
21 June 2001 Alan Elcheikh AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (glaciology) and in support of general expedition duties. [117]
21 June 2001 Joseph Vaughan Johnson CSC, OAM, AAM, RFD, ED[118] For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [119]
21 June 2001 Ian John McLean AAM For outstanding service as Senior Communication Technical Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [120]
21 June 2001 Dale Allan Main AAM For outstanding service as Communication Technical Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [121]
21 June 2001 Peter Helmut Sprunk AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [122]
21 June 2001 Michael Stephen Stone AAM For outstanding service as Plant Inspector (Casey 1999) in support of science and general expedition duties. [123]
21 June 2002 Jonathan James Reeve AAM For outstanding service as Marine Science Support Manager in support of science and general expedition duties. [124]
21 June 2004 Patricia Margaret Selkirk AC,AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (terrestrial science) and in support of general expedition duties. [note 10][126]
21 June 2005 Geoffrey Reginald Copson AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [127]
21 June 2005 Andrew Graeme Tink AAM For outstanding service as Chef in support of science and general expedition duties. [128]
21 June 2006 Per Brun Larsen AAM For outstanding service as Bo'sun (RSV Aurora Australia) in support of science and general expedition duties. [129]
21 June 2007 Sharon Rae Labudda AAM For outstanding service as Senior Aircraft Ground Support Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [130]
21 June 2008 Matthew Wayne Filipowski AAM For outstanding service as the Wilkins Runway Construction Supervisor in support of science and general expedition duties. [131]
21 June 2009 David Ernest Pullinger AAM For outstanding service in position of Helicopter Pilot in support of science and general expedition duties. [132]
21 June 2011 Murray Patrick Doyle AAM For outstanding service as Master of the RSV Aurora Australis in support of science and general expedition duties. [133]
21 June 2011 Stephen Nicol AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (marine biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [134]
21 June 2012 Graham George Robertson AAM and Clasp For continued outstanding research on seabird mortality in long line fisheries. [135]
21 June 2012 Neil David Adams AAM For outstanding contributions to the development of the science of Antarctic meteorology. [136]
21 June 2012 James Doube AAM For outstanding contributions to the theory and practice of polar medicine. [137]
21 June 2012 Stephen Rich Rintoul AAM For outstanding contributions as Leader, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Oceans Program. [138]
21 June 2013 Scott Francis Laughlin AAM For outstanding service to the Australian Antarctic program as a crew member and Master of the RSV Aurora Australis. [139]
21 June 2013 Barbara Christine Wienecke AAM For outstanding service to research into sea birds and the effect of commercial fishing operations on sea bird populations. [140]
21 June 2016 John Frederick Cadden AAM For outstanding service as Expedition Medical Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [141]
21 June 2016 Kym Blair Newbery AAM For outstanding service as Electronics Engineer in support of science and general expedition duties. [142]
21 June 2016 Robert William Rowland AAM For outstanding service as Plumber in support of science and general expedition duties. [143]
21 June 2018 Graham David Cook AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader in support of science and general expedition duties. [144]
21 June 2018 Garry Studd AAM For outstanding service as Senior Pilot in support of science and general expedition duties. [145]
21 June 2018 Martin Travers Tucker AAM For outstanding service as Fisheries Observer in support of science and general expedition duties. [146]
21 June 2018 John Alfred Oakes AAM For outstanding service as Helicopter Pilot in support of science and general expedition duties. [147]
21 June 2020 Simon Cross AAM For outstanding service as Field Training Officer in support of science and general expedition duties. [148]
21 June 2020 Bradley Allen Collins AAM For outstanding service as Refuelling Supervisor in support of science and general expedition duties. [149]
21 June 2020 Alison Audrey Dean AAM For outstanding service as Station Leader in support of science and general expedition duties. [150]
21 June 2020 Leanne Mary Millhouse AAM For outstanding service in support of science and general expedition duties. [151]
21 June 2020 Patrick Gerard Quilty AM, AAM[152] For his outstanding contribution to Antarctic science. [note 11][154]
21 June 2020 Colin Jeffrey Southwell AAM For outstanding service in Antarctic scientific research (biology) and in support of general expedition duties. [155]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Australia, Letters Patent are an official prerogative instrument of law making, made under the royal prerogative (which is that power of the Crown still existing and not superseded by parliamentary legislation), enabled by section 61 of the Australian Constitution. As the Sovereign has remained the font of "all honour and dignity" in Australia, the practice of instituting Australian honours and awards via Letters Patent continues, although in practice the role of the Sovereign is very limited, as Letters Patent are drafted by the government of the day and by convention the Sovereign is guided by the advice of that government to sign them, making the role taken by the Sovereign overwhelmingly symbolic.[8]
  2. ^ Formally known as the riband.[16]
  3. ^ The last award of the Polar Medal under the Imperial honours system in Australia was on 5 May 1982. Before 1968, the Polar Medal was not a meritorious service medal but recognised those who had wintered in the Arctic and Antarctic while on expedition.[17]
  4. ^ Ulrich Schmitter was previously awarded the Imperial Polar Medal on 23 December 1980, and is whom Schmitter Peak, a small mountain peak in the Prince Charles Mountains region of Antarctic, is named after.[54]
  5. ^ Dr Ian Allison received the Phillip Law Medal in 2013 for outstanding service to Antarctic science.[59]
  6. ^ Denise Allen participated in the Australian Antarctic culture oral history project, which can be accessed via the reference.[66]
  7. ^ Willem Barnaart was the first person to have been station leader at all four permanent Australian Antarctic stations (Mawson, Davis, Casey and Macquarie Island).[68]
  8. ^ Dave McCormack was previously awarded the Imperial Polar Medal on 23 December 1980. David McCormack also received the Phillip Law Medal in 2017 for outstanding service in the recovery and preservation of Antarctic heritage artefacts.[70]
  9. ^ Dudley Twigg was previously awarded the Imperial Polar Medal on 21 July 1961 (Polar Medals before 1968 were not a meritorious service medal but recognised those who had wintered in the Arctic and Antarctic while on expedition).[79]
  10. ^ Dr Patricia Selkirk received the Phillip Law Medal in 2018 for outstanding contributions to Antarctic science.[125]
  11. ^ Professor Patrick Quilty received the Phillip Law Medal in 2016 for outstanding service to Antarctic science.[153]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 7. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 42. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 61. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  4. ^ Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 43. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  5. ^ Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 39. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  6. ^ "Australian Antarctic Medal". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020. the first recipients of the Australian Antarctic Medal were announced on 22 June 1987.
  7. ^ Refer:
    • Burton "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. GN 8. Canberra, Australia. 24 June 1987. p. 296. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
    • Adams "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 75. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
    • Oakes "Government Notices Gazette" (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2018. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
    • Quilty "Midwinter's Day Honours List" (PDF). The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Government House. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  8. ^ Jordan, Roy (8 September 2003). "A Rare Form of Law Making: Legislation Made Outside Parliament" (PDF). Department of the Parliamentary Library: Research Note. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. pp. 1–2.
  9. ^ Refer:
    • Letters Patent Constituting the Antarctic Medal 1997, cl 2
    • Letters Patent (1997) Amending Letters Patent Constituting the Antarctic Medal, cl 3
    • Letters Patent (2011) Amending Letters Patent Constituting the Australian Antarctic Medal, cl 3
    • Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. pp. 39–40. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  10. ^ Refer:
    • Australian Antarctic Medal Regulations (Cth) reg 4(2)
    • "Australian Antarctic Medal celebrates 25 years". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 25 June 2020. Unique among the Meritorious Service Awards, the Australian Antarctic Medal can be awarded to the same person for a second and subsequent occasion, and there is no quota imposed on the number of awards per year. The medal can be awarded posthumously and it may also be withdrawn.
  11. ^ Refer:
    • Australian Antarctic Medal Regulations (Cth) reg 4(2)
    • Letters Patent (2011) Amending Letters Patent Constituting the Australian Antarctic Medal, cl 3
  12. ^ Australian Antarctic Medal Regulations (Cth) reg 4(3)
  13. ^ Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 7. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  14. ^ Refer:
    • Robertson - 1st "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 204. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 1989. p. 1. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
    • Robertson - 2nd "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 75. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
    • Burton "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. GN 8. Canberra, Australia. 24 June 1987. p. 296. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
    • Adams "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 75. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
    • Oakes "Government Notices Gazette" (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2018. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
    • Quilty "Midwinter's Day Honours List" (PDF). The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Government House. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  15. ^ Refer:
    • "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 57. Canberra, Australia. 16 February 1989. p. 1. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
    • Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 61. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Orders, Decorations, and Medals". Army Manual of Dress (PDF). Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 2017. p. 6-4.
  17. ^ "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 87. Canberra, Australia. 5 May 1982. p. 1. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  18. ^ "Australian Antarctic Medal". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Prime Minister" (PDF) (Press release). Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 8 April 1983. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  20. ^ "Australian Antarctic Medal celebrates 25 years". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  21. ^ "Prime Minister" (PDF) (Press release). Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 26 January 1986. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  22. ^ "Australian Antarctic Medal celebrates 25 years". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  23. ^ "Australian Antarctic Medal celebrates 25 years". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  24. ^ Refer:
    • Letters Patent Constituting the Antarctic Medal 1997, cl 2
    • Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 39. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  25. ^ Refer:
    • "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. GN 8. Canberra, Australia. 24 June 1987. p. 296. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
    • "Australian Antarctic Medal celebrates 25 years". Australian Antarctic Division. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Review of Australian Honours and Awards" (PDF) (Press release). Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 28 May 1993. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  27. ^ Refer:
    • A matter of honour: the report of the Review of Australian Honours and Awards. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 1995. ISBN 0644456205.
    • John Howard, Prime Minister (29 October 1997). "Questions on Notice: Review of Australian Honours and Awards" (PDF). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Commonwealth of Australia: House of Representatives. col. 10198. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  28. ^ Refer:
    • Letters Patent (1997) Amending Letters Patent Constituting the Antarctic Medal, cl 3
    • Meritorious Service Awards (PDF) (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia: Government House. 2014. p. 40. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. GN 8. Canberra, Australia. 24 June 1987. pp. 295–296. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  30. ^ Letters Patent (2011) Amending Letters Patent Constituting the Australian Antarctic Medal, cl 3
  31. ^ Refer:
    • Robertson - 1st "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 204. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 1989. p. 1. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
    • Robertson - 2nd "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 75. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  32. ^ Refer:
    • Burton "Government Notices Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. GN 8. Canberra, Australia. 24 June 1987. p. 296. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
    • Adams "Special Gazette". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. No. S 75. Canberra, Australia. 21 June 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
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