|Manufacturer||Aviadvigatel / UEC-Perm Engines|
|First run||summer 2014|
|Major applications||Irkut MC-21|
|Number built||More than 13|
|Developed from||Aviadvigatel PS-90|
|PD-14 engine with chevrons on the plane Il-76LL. Oktober 2015.|
|PD-14 engine in the assembly. Augustus 2015.|
|PD-14: Flight tests of the engine. November 2015. (in Russian)|
The PD-14 was announced in early 2010 with its development cost estimated at RUB 35 billion (US$1.1 billion). In April 2010, Aviadvigatel was expecting to start its certification procedure in 2012. Its core was first tested on 26 November 2010. It was displayed for the first time at the 2013 MAKS air show.
Flight tests began in 2015 on an Ilyushin Il-76. Between December 2016 and May 2017, the PD-14 operational performance and working efficiency at all altitudes and speeds were assessed on the Il-76 testbed aircraft at Gromov Flight Research Institute near Moscow. After two years exploring performance at most altitudes, airspeeds and operating modes, the first and second testing stages confirmed its basic operating parameters. A third phase of flight tests debuted in January 2018 from the GFRI Zhukovsky Airfield, conducted in co-operation with certification specialists to formally confirm the pre-certification efforts findings.
Ground tests will continue in parallel, and United Engine Corporation claims that the engine matches the performance of products from foreign competitors and surpasses them for noise and emissions. Bird strike tests on the fan, including high-speed video and vibration measurements, were conducted together with fan blade strength tests. The successful results are expected to reduce the time and cost of attaining full certification status.
United Engine will deliver five PD-14s to Irkut by the end of 2018, after Rosaviatsia certification, to start flight tests on the MC-21 in 2019 for type certification of the variant in 2021. EASA certification is expected when it will enter series production. In October 2018, Rosaviatsia granted certification to the PD-14, and deliveries of the first engines for two MC-21s are expected by the end of 2018. European certificate validation is planned for 2019.
The 1.9 m (75 in) fan has 18 titanium alloy blades, providing an 8.5:1 bypass ratio significantly improved from previous Russian engines, but slightly below the CFM LEAP's 10:1 or the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G's 12:1 for the MC-21 from 2017. The 3D aerodynamics shaped first high-pressure turbine stage has advanced cooling channels. Twenty new materials were developed for the powerplant, including monocrystalline alloys for vanes, and high-strength nickel and titanium alloys for shafts and disks.
Developed from the PS-12 (an uprated PS-90A), the 122-153 kN (27,500-34,500 lbf) thrust powerplant is designed by Aviadvigatel and manufactured by the Perm Engine Company. The two-shaft turbofan has a high-pressure core from the PS-12 with an eight-stage compressor and a two-stage turbine, and four low-pressure stages. The high-bypass engine does not employ an exhaust mixer, fuel burn should be reduced by 10-15% from the CFM International CFM56 and it could power an upgraded Tupolev Tu-204.
Launched in the summer of 2016 by United Engine Corporation through Aviadvigatel and NPO Saturn, the 35 tf (77,000 lbf) thrust PD-35 will be developed till 2025 for 180 billion rubles ($3 billion) including 60 billion for test benches and laboratory equipment, to power future wide-body aircraft including the Russo-Chinese CRAIC CR929. The 8 m (26 ft) long engine will weigh 8 t (18,000 lb), its fan will be 3.1 m (10 ft) in diameter and its scaled up PD-14 core will have a nine-stage high-pressure compressor and two-stage turbine.
On 19 January 2018, the Russian government awarded UEC-Aviadvigatel a ₽64.3 billion ($1.13 billion) contract to develop a PD-35-1 demonstrator by 2023, including wide-chord composite fan blades and fan case, a 23:1 compressor pressure ratio, ceramic matrix composites – silicon carbide-silicon carbide (SiC-SiC) and carbon-silicon carbide (C-SiC) – and advanced cooling for 1,450 °C (2,640 °F) temperatures. It could power the Ilyushin IL-96-400, the Il-76 airlifter, Il-78 tanker and an Antonov An-124 replacement Ilyushin Il-106 PAK VTA. A de-rated version would meet the An-124 thrust requirements.
|Configuration||Twin-spool high bypass turbofan|
|Take-off thrust||107 kN; 24,000 lbf||123 kN; 28,000 lbf||137 kN; 31,000 lbf||153 kN; 34,000 lbf|
|Dry weight||2,350 kg (5,180 lb)||2,870 kg (6,330 lb)||2,970 kg (6,550 lb)|
|Fan diameter||1,677 mm (66.0 in)||1,900 mm (75 in)|
|Compressor||1 fan + 1 LP + 8 HP||1 fan + 3-stage LP + 8-stage HP||1 fan + 4 LP + 8 HP|
|Turbine||2 HP + 5 LP||2-stage HP + 6-stage LP|
|TSFC||14.9 g/kN/s; 0.526 lb/lbf/h in cruise|
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