BT-4 (rocket engine)

Summary

BT-4
Country of originJapan
DesignerIHI Aerospace
Associated L/VHTV, Cygnus
StatusIn production
Liquid-fuel engine
PropellantN2O4 / Hydrazine
CyclePressure fed
Configuration
Chamber1
Performance
Thrust (vac.)500 N (110 lbf)
Dimensions
Length80 cm (31 in)
Dry weight4 kg (8.8 lb)

The BT-4 is a pressure-fed liquid rocket engine designed and manufactured by IHI Aerospace of Japan. It was originally developed for the LUNAR-A project, but it has been used as a liquid apogee engine in some geostationary communications satellite based on the Lockheed Martin A2100 and GEOStar-2 satellite buses. It has also been used on the HTV and Cygnus automated cargo spacecraft.

History

During the 1970s, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries had built under license the Rocketdyne MB-3 for the N-I rocket, for which it had also developed the second stage attitude control system.[1][2] In the 1980s it also developed the thrusters for ETS-4 (Kiku-3), the first to be built in Japan. In 2000 it acquired and merged with the aerospace division of Nissan and became IHI Aerospace.[2]

IHI Aerospace started developing the BT-4 for the later cancelled LUNAR-A mission to the moon. While the mission was cancelled, the thruster has seen success as a liquid apogee engine on the Lockheed Martin A2100 and Orbital ATK GEOStar-2 platforms.[3] Two other Orbital ATK products that use the BT-4 due to their leverage of the GEOStar-2 platform are the Cygnus spacecraft and the Antares Bi-propellant Third Stage (BTS).[4][5][6][7][8][9]

The use on the A2100 platform has allowed IHI to export the BT-4 even to American military programs such programs as the MUOS and AEHF.[10][11][12][13][14]

On March 9, 2006, IHI Aerospace announced that the AEHF-2 BT-4 engine had successfully performed its mission, unlike AEHF-1's.[14][15][16] On November 29, 2010 IHI Aerospace announced that it had received and order from Lockheed Martin of four BT-4 engines for AEHF-4, MUOS-4, MUOS-5 and Vinasat-2. With this order, it achieved its 100th-unit foreign engine export since it started selling abroad in 1999.[17] [18]

For the HTV project, IHI developed a new version, the HBT-5, which enabled them to replace the American R-4D from the third flight onward.[19][20]

On October 3, 2013, with the successful berthing of the Cygnus Orb-D1 mission, IHI announced that the propulsion was based on their 500N Delta-Velocity Engines.[21]

In January 2018, a BT-4 kick motor was used on the GovSat-1 geosynchronous commsat flight.[22]

Versions

The BT-4 is a family that has been used as liquid apogee engine, orbital maneuvering engine and as a thruster. Known variations:

  • BT-4 (Cygnus): Used mainly as thruster, it burns MMH/N2O4 with a thrust of 450 N (100 lbf). It weighs 4 kg (8.8 lb) and is 65 cm (26 in) tall.[9][10]
  • BT-4 (450N): Used mainly as LAE, it burns Hydrazine/N2O4 in a 1.69 O/F ratio. It has a thrust of 450 N (100 lbf), a specific impulse of 329 s (3.23 km/s) and an input pressure of 1.62 MPa (235 psi). As of 2014, it had a demonstrated life of 32,850 seconds.[18]
  • BT-4 (500N): Used mainly as LAE, it burns Hydrazine/N2O4 with a thrust of 500 N (110 lbf), a specific impulse of 329 s (3.23 km/s). It weighs 4 kg (8.8 lb) and is 80 cm (31 in) tall.[14]
  • 490N MON Thruster: Burns MMH/MON-3 with a 478 N (107 lbf) nominal thrust, a specific impulse of 316 s (3.10 km/s) and an inlet pressure of 1.72 MPa (249 psi). As of 2014, it had a demonstrated life of 15,000 seconds.[18]
  • HBT-5: Developed for the HTV to crew-rated standards, it burns MMH/MON-3, and has a thrust of 500 N (110 lbf). Used in HTV-3 and since HTV-5 onward.[19][23]
  • SELENE OME: Based on the DRTS Liquid apogee engine, the SELENE Orbital Maneuvering Engine burned a Hydrazine/MON-3 mixture. It had a thrust of 547 ± 54 N (123 ± 12 lbf) and a specific impulse of 319.8 ± 5.1 s (3.136 ± 0.050 km/s) with an input pressure of 1.77 MPa (257 psi).[24][25]

References

  1. ^ Wade, Mark. "MB-3-3". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  2. ^ a b IHI Aerospace. "IHI Corporate Profile" (PDF). pp. 6–7. Retrieved 2016-08-29.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Lunar A". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  4. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Cygnus-PCM". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  5. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-08-19). "Cygnus-PCM (enhanced)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  6. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-08-12). "Antares (Taurus-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  7. ^ Brügge, Norbert. "Antares, Propulsion". B14643.DE. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  8. ^ "Antares Fact Sheet" (PDF). Orbital ATK. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  9. ^ a b "ISS Utilization: Cygnus". eoPortal Directory. Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  10. ^ a b DeSantis, Dylan. "Satellite Thruster Propulsion-H2O2 Bipropellant Comparison with Existing Alternatives" (PDF). The Ohio State University. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  11. ^ Wade, Mark. "AS 2100". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  12. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-06-24). "MUOS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  13. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-06-24). "AEHF 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  14. ^ a b c "ロッキード・マーチン社向け衛星用エンジンがフライトに成功〜独自開発の世界最高性能のエンジンで2回連続のフライトに成功〜" [Success in two successive flights for the engine with world's best performance] (in Japanese). IHI Aerospace. March 9, 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-09-24. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  15. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-08-05). "OSC → Orbital ATK: StarBus → Star-2 → GeoStar-2". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  16. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Telkom 2". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  17. ^ "IHI Aerospace Manufactured Engines Selected for AEHF-4, MUOS-4, MUOS-5, and Vinasat-2 Satellites by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company". IHI Aerospace. November 29, 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  18. ^ a b c "IHI Aerospace Bipropellant Thrusters" (PDF). IHI Aerospace. December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  19. ^ a b IHI Aerospace. "IHI Corporate Profile" (PDF). pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2016-08-29.[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-08-24). "HTV 1, ..., 9 (Kounotori 1, ..., 9)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  21. ^ "Orbital Sciences developed CygnusTM Spacecraft which uses IHI Aerospace's Delta-Velocity Engine as its main engine successfully berthed to the International Space Station". IHI Aerospace. October 3, 2013. Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  22. ^ https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/01/spacex-govsat-1-falcon-9-launch/
  23. ^ "HTV4 (KOUNOTORI 4) Mission Press Kit" (PDF). JAXA. August 2, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  24. ^ "On-orbit operation result of "KAGUYA" Lunar Explorer propulsion subsystem" (PDF). JAXA. 2008. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  25. ^ Ideo Masuda (JAXA); Hideshi Kagawa (JAXA); Daisuke Goto (JAXA); Hiroyuki Minamino (JAXA); Kenichi Kajiwara (JAXA); Yoshihiro Kishino (IHI Aerospace); Masayuki Tamura (IHI Aerospace); Mamoru Takahashi (IHI Aerospace); Yosuke Iwayama (NEC Toshiba Space Systems); Shingo Ikegami (NEC Corporation); Makoto Miyata (NEC Corporation). "Final Operations of Kaguya" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2016-08-29.