Baikonur

Summary

Baikonur (Kazakh: Байқоңыр, Baiqoñyr, Kazakh pronunciation: [bɑjqoŋəɾ]; Russian: Байконур, romanizedBaykonur, [bəjkɐˈnur]), formerly known as Leninsk, is a city in Kazakhstan on the northern bank of the Syr Darya river. It is currently leased and administered by the Russian Federation as an enclave until 2050.[3] It was constructed to service the Baikonur Cosmodrome and was officially renamed Baikonur by Russian president Boris Yeltsin on December 20, 1995. During the Soviet period, it was sometimes referred to as Zvezdograd (Звездоград), Russian for Star City.[4]

Baikonur
Baiqoñyr/Байқоңыр (Kazakh)
Байконур (Russian)
From the top, View over Baikonur, Gagarin's Start, Gagarin Avenue
An aerial view of Baikonur
Official seal of Baikonur
Baikonur is located in Kazakhstan
Baikonur
Baikonur
Location in Kazakhstan
Baikonur is located in Asia
Baikonur
Baikonur
Baikonur (Asia)
Baikonur is located in Eurasia
Baikonur
Baikonur
Baikonur (Eurasia)
Coordinates: 45°37′0″N 63°19′0″E / 45.61667°N 63.31667°E / 45.61667; 63.31667
CountryKazakhstan
Russia (administered)
Founded1955
Incorporated (city)1966
Government
 • AdministratorKonstantin Dmitrievich Busygin
Area
 • Total57 km2 (22 sq mi)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total39,341
 • Density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+05:00[2]
Postal code
710501
Area code+7 73622
Vehicle registrationN, 11 (Kazakhstan), 94 (Russia)
ClimateBWk
Websitewww.baikonuradm.ru Edit this at Wikidata

The rented area is an ellipse measuring 90 kilometres (56 mi) east to west by 85 km (53 mi) north to south, with the cosmodrome situated at the area's centre.

Foreign visitors and tourists can visit the cosmodrome and city but need to obtain a specific permit from Roscosmos.[5]

History edit

Historical affiliations

  Kazakh SSR 1955–1991
constituent republic of the Soviet Union
  Kazakhstan 1991–present
∟ administered by the Russian Federation 1991–2050

The original Baikonur (Kazakh for "wealthy brown", i.e. "fertile land with many herbs") is a mining town 320 kilometres northeast of the present location, near Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan's Karagandy Region. Starting with Vostok 1 in April 1961, the launch site was given this name to cause confusion and keep the location secret. (The original Baikonur's residents took advantage of the confusion by ordering and receiving many scarce materials before government officials discovered the deception.)[6] Baikonur's railway station predates the base and retains the old name of Tyuratam. This was the original Soviet railway station (railhead) on the Moscow to Tashkent Railway that the Cosmodrome was initially named after.

The fortunes of the city have varied according to those of the Soviet or Russian space program and its Baikonur Cosmodrome.

Due to the city's military and scientific significance, it was closed off by Soviet authorities. It did not appear on maps available to the general public during the Soviet period prior to perestroika.

The Soviet government established the Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Ispytatel'nyi Poligon N.5 (NIIIP-5), or Scientific-Research Test Range N.5 by its decree of 12 February 1955. The U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance plane found and photographed the Tyuratam missile test range (cosmodrome Baikonur) for the first time on 5 August 1957.[7][8]

The town has unique ties with space, and hence the history of the rocket building and space binds all the sights in the area and the cosmodrome. However, there are only a few exceptions: old locomotive, an Orthodox Church and a new mosque.[9]

The city administratively belongs to the Odintsovsky District of Moscow Oblast.[10][11]

Climate edit

Baikonur features a cold desert climate (BWk). Summers are hot with July highs averaging slightly over 34 °C (93 °F), while winters are cold, with longer periods of sustained below-freezing temperatures.[12]

Climate data for Baikonur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−4.2
(24.4)
4.2
(39.6)
17.5
(63.5)
26.3
(79.3)
31.9
(89.4)
34.1
(93.4)
31.5
(88.7)
24.9
(76.8)
14
(57)
4.5
(40.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.6
(14.7)
−8.7
(16.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
11.4
(52.5)
19.4
(66.9)
24.8
(76.6)
27.2
(81.0)
24.4
(75.9)
17.9
(64.2)
8.2
(46.8)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.8
(21.6)
9.1
(48.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −13.6
(7.5)
−13.2
(8.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
5.3
(41.5)
12.6
(54.7)
17.8
(64.0)
20.3
(68.5)
17.4
(63.3)
10.9
(51.6)
2.5
(36.5)
−3.9
(25.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
3.5
(38.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.5)
9
(0.4)
15
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
12
(0.5)
6
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
6
(0.2)
14
(0.6)
14
(0.6)
16
(0.6)
131
(5.3)
Source: Climate-data.org[12]

Places of interest edit

South of city center, near the Syr Darya River there is a large park with several sports and amusement facilities. Among these is a ferris wheel, which is no longer in use. The park is located at coordinates 45°36′42″N 63°19′06″E / 45.61167°N 63.31833°E / 45.61167; 63.31833.

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2020 года" (PDF). Комитет по статистике Министерства национальной экономики Республики Казахстан. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  2. ^ On the time change in the city of Baikonur and Kyzylorda region, Administration of the city of Baikonur, 13 December 2018 (in Russian).
  3. ^ "Kazakhstan: Russia to keep using Baikonur until at least 2050 | Eurasianet".
  4. ^ Barensky, C.; Lardier, Stefan (2013). The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph. New York: Springer. p. 189. ISBN 978-1461454595.
  5. ^ "British YouTube travel star Benjamin Rich arrested at Baikonur Cosmodrome, Russia says". Reuters. 2022-05-08. Retrieved 2023-09-02.
  6. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. NASA. p. 284.
  7. ^ "Baikonur Cosmodrome - Tyuratam Missile Range. History. Mug and T-shirt". www.astronauticsnow.com. Retrieved 2023-09-02.
  8. ^ "The U-2 Program: A Russian Officer Remembers — Central Intelligence Agency". 2008-02-13. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2023-09-02.
  9. ^ "Baikonur". Archived from the original on 2021-04-14. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  10. ^ odi_love. "Знаете что связывает космодром Байконур и Одинцовский район?". LiveJournal. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  11. ^ Obukhov, Aleksei (20 December 2016). "Самым безопасным городом Подмосковья оказался Байконур в Казахстане". MKRU. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  12. ^ a b "Climate: Baikonur". Retrieved October 23, 2018.

Further reading edit

  • "Testing of rocket and space technology - the business of my life" Events and facts - A.I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.[1];
  • "Baikonur. Korolev. Yangel." - M. I. Kuznetsk, Voronezh: IPF "Voronezh", 1997, ISBN 5-89981-117-X;
  • «At risk» – A. A. Toul, Kaluga, "the Golden path", 2001. ISBN 5-7111-0333-1
  • "Unknown Baikonur" - edited by B. I. Posysaeva, M.: "globe", 2001. ISBN 5-8155-0051-8
  • "Rocket and space feat Baikonur" - Vladimir Порошков, the "Patriot" publishers 2007. ISBN 5-7030-0969-3
  • A.I. Ostashev, Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov - The Genius of the 20th Century — 2010 M. of Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training MGUL ISBN 978-5-8135-0510-2.
  • "Bank of the Universe" - edited by Boltenko A. C., Kyiv, 2014., publishing house "Phoenix", ISBN 978-966-136-169-9
  • "We grew hearts in Baikonur" - Author: Eliseev V. I. M: publisher OAO MPK in 2018, ISBN 978-5-8493-0415-1

External links edit

  • RussianSpaceWeb.com on Baikonur town
  • Baikonur cosmodrome placemark
  • Launch of the manned spacecraft Soyuz from the Baikonur Cosmodrome
  •   Baikonur travel guide from Wikivoyage