Banach algebra

Summary

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra over the real or complex numbers (or over a non-Archimedean complete normed field) that at the same time is also a Banach space, that is, a normed space that is complete in the metric induced by the norm. The norm is required to satisfy

This ensures that the multiplication operation is continuous.

A Banach algebra is called unital if it has an identity element for the multiplication whose norm is and commutative if its multiplication is commutative. Any Banach algebra (whether it has an identity element or not) can be embedded isometrically into a unital Banach algebra so as to form a closed ideal of . Often one assumes a priori that the algebra under consideration is unital: for one can develop much of the theory by considering and then applying the outcome in the original algebra. However, this is not the case all the time. For example, one cannot define all the trigonometric functions in a Banach algebra without identity.

The theory of real Banach algebras can be very different from the theory of complex Banach algebras. For example, the spectrum of an element of a nontrivial complex Banach algebra can never be empty, whereas in a real Banach algebra it could be empty for some elements.

Banach algebras can also be defined over fields of -adic numbers. This is part of -adic analysis.

Examples edit

The prototypical example of a Banach algebra is  , the space of (complex-valued) continuous functions, defined on a locally compact Hausdorff space  , that vanish at infinity.   is unital if and only if   is compact. The complex conjugation being an involution,   is in fact a C*-algebra. More generally, every C*-algebra is a Banach algebra by definition.

  • The set of real (or complex) numbers is a Banach algebra with norm given by the absolute value.
  • The set of all real or complex  -by-  matrices becomes a unital Banach algebra if we equip it with a sub-multiplicative matrix norm.
  • Take the Banach space   (or  ) with norm   and define multiplication componentwise:  
  • The quaternions form a 4-dimensional real Banach algebra, with the norm being given by the absolute value of quaternions.
  • The algebra of all bounded real- or complex-valued functions defined on some set (with pointwise multiplication and the supremum norm) is a unital Banach algebra.
  • The algebra of all bounded continuous real- or complex-valued functions on some locally compact space (again with pointwise operations and supremum norm) is a Banach algebra.
  • The algebra of all continuous linear operators on a Banach space   (with functional composition as multiplication and the operator norm as norm) is a unital Banach algebra. The set of all compact operators on   is a Banach algebra and closed ideal. It is without identity if  [1]
  • If   is a locally compact Hausdorff topological group and   is its Haar measure, then the Banach space   of all  -integrable functions on   becomes a Banach algebra under the convolution   for  [2]
  • Uniform algebra: A Banach algebra that is a subalgebra of the complex algebra   with the supremum norm and that contains the constants and separates the points of   (which must be a compact Hausdorff space).
  • Natural Banach function algebra: A uniform algebra all of whose characters are evaluations at points of  
  • C*-algebra: A Banach algebra that is a closed *-subalgebra of the algebra of bounded operators on some Hilbert space.
  • Measure algebra: A Banach algebra consisting of all Radon measures on some locally compact group, where the product of two measures is given by convolution of measures.[2]
  • The algebra of the quaternions   is a real Banach algebra, but it is not a complex algebra (and hence not a complex Banach algebra) for the simple reason that the center of the quaternions is the real numbers, which cannot contain a copy of the complex numbers.
  • An affinoid algebra is a certain kind of Banach algebra over a nonarchimedean field. Affinoid algebras are the basic building blocks in rigid analytic geometry.

Properties edit

Several elementary functions that are defined via power series may be defined in any unital Banach algebra; examples include the exponential function and the trigonometric functions, and more generally any entire function. (In particular, the exponential map can be used to define abstract index groups.) The formula for the geometric series remains valid in general unital Banach algebras. The binomial theorem also holds for two commuting elements of a Banach algebra.

The set of invertible elements in any unital Banach algebra is an open set, and the inversion operation on this set is continuous (and hence is a homeomorphism), so that it forms a topological group under multiplication.[3]

If a Banach algebra has unit   then   cannot be a commutator; that is,    for any   This is because   and   have the same spectrum except possibly  

The various algebras of functions given in the examples above have very different properties from standard examples of algebras such as the reals. For example:

  • Every real Banach algebra that is a division algebra is isomorphic to the reals, the complexes, or the quaternions. Hence, the only complex Banach algebra that is a division algebra is the complexes. (This is known as the Gelfand–Mazur theorem.)
  • Every unital real Banach algebra with no zero divisors, and in which every principal ideal is closed, is isomorphic to the reals, the complexes, or the quaternions.[4]
  • Every commutative real unital Noetherian Banach algebra with no zero divisors is isomorphic to the real or complex numbers.
  • Every commutative real unital Noetherian Banach algebra (possibly having zero divisors) is finite-dimensional.
  • Permanently singular elements in Banach algebras are topological divisors of zero, that is, considering extensions   of Banach algebras   some elements that are singular in the given algebra   have a multiplicative inverse element in a Banach algebra extension   Topological divisors of zero in   are permanently singular in any Banach extension   of  

Spectral theory edit

Unital Banach algebras over the complex field provide a general setting to develop spectral theory. The spectrum of an element   denoted by  , consists of all those complex scalars   such that   is not invertible in   The spectrum of any element   is a closed subset of the closed disc in   with radius   and center   and thus is compact. Moreover, the spectrum   of an element   is non-empty and satisfies the spectral radius formula:

 

Given   the holomorphic functional calculus allows to define   for any function   holomorphic in a neighborhood of   Furthermore, the spectral mapping theorem holds:[5]

 

When the Banach algebra   is the algebra   of bounded linear operators on a complex Banach space   (for example, the algebra of square matrices), the notion of the spectrum in   coincides with the usual one in operator theory. For   (with a compact Hausdorff space  ), one sees that:

 

The norm of a normal element   of a C*-algebra coincides with its spectral radius. This generalizes an analogous fact for normal operators.

Let   be a complex unital Banach algebra in which every non-zero element   is invertible (a division algebra). For every   there is   such that   is not invertible (because the spectrum of   is not empty) hence   this algebra   is naturally isomorphic to   (the complex case of the Gelfand–Mazur theorem).

Ideals and characters edit

Let   be a unital commutative Banach algebra over   Since   is then a commutative ring with unit, every non-invertible element of   belongs to some maximal ideal of   Since a maximal ideal   in   is closed,   is a Banach algebra that is a field, and it follows from the Gelfand–Mazur theorem that there is a bijection between the set of all maximal ideals of   and the set   of all nonzero homomorphisms from   to   The set   is called the "structure space" or "character space" of   and its members "characters".

A character   is a linear functional on   that is at the same time multiplicative,   and satisfies   Every character is automatically continuous from   to   since the kernel of a character is a maximal ideal, which is closed. Moreover, the norm (that is, operator norm) of a character is one. Equipped with the topology of pointwise convergence on   (that is, the topology induced by the weak-* topology of  ), the character space,   is a Hausdorff compact space.

For any  

 
where   is the Gelfand representation of   defined as follows:   is the continuous function from   to   given by   The spectrum of   in the formula above, is the spectrum as element of the algebra   of complex continuous functions on the compact space   Explicitly,
 

As an algebra, a unital commutative Banach algebra is semisimple (that is, its Jacobson radical is zero) if and only if its Gelfand representation has trivial kernel. An important example of such an algebra is a commutative C*-algebra. In fact, when   is a commutative unital C*-algebra, the Gelfand representation is then an isometric *-isomorphism between   and  [a]

Banach *-algebras edit

A Banach *-algebra   is a Banach algebra over the field of complex numbers, together with a map   that has the following properties:

  1.   for all   (so the map is an involution).
  2.   for all  
  3.   for every   and every   here,   denotes the complex conjugate of  
  4.   for all  

In other words, a Banach *-algebra is a Banach algebra over   that is also a *-algebra.

In most natural examples, one also has that the involution is isometric, that is,

 
Some authors include this isometric property in the definition of a Banach *-algebra.

A Banach *-algebra satisfying   is a C*-algebra.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Proof: Since every element of a commutative C*-algebra is normal, the Gelfand representation is isometric; in particular, it is injective and its image is closed. But the image of the Gelfand representation is dense by the Stone–Weierstrass theorem.

References edit

  1. ^ Conway 1990, Example VII.1.8.
  2. ^ a b Conway 1990, Example VII.1.9.
  3. ^ Conway 1990, Theorem VII.2.2.
  4. ^ García, Miguel Cabrera; Palacios, Angel Rodríguez (1995). "A New Simple Proof of the Gelfand-Mazur-Kaplansky Theorem". Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 123 (9): 2663–2666. doi:10.2307/2160559. ISSN 0002-9939. JSTOR 2160559.
  5. ^ Takesaki 1979, Proposition 2.8.
  • Bollobás, B (1990). Linear Analysis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38729-9.
  • Bonsall, F. F.; Duncan, J. (1973). Complete Normed Algebras. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-06386-2.
  • Conway, J. B. (1990). A Course in Functional Analysis. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Vol. 96. Springer Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97245-5.
  • Dales, H. G.; Aeina, P.; Eschmeier, J; Laursen, K.; Willis, G. A. (2003). Introduction to Banach Algebras, Operators and Harmonic Analysis. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511615429. ISBN 0-521-53584-0.
  • Mosak, R. D. (1975). Banach algebras. Chicago Lectures in Mathematics. University of Chicago Press). ISBN 0-226-54203-3.
  • Takesaki, M. (1979). Theory of Operator Algebras I. Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences. Vol. 124 (1st ed.). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-42248-8. ISSN 0938-0396.