Beryllium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BeCl2. It is a colourless, hygroscopic solid that dissolves well in many polar solvents. Its properties are similar to those of aluminium chloride, due to beryllium's diagonal relationship with aluminium.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||79.9182 g/mol|
|Appearance||White or yellow crystals|
|Density||1.899 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||399 °C (750 °F; 672 K)|
|Boiling point||482 °C (900 °F; 755 K)|
|15.1 g/100 mL (20 °C)|
|Solubility||soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, and pyridine |
slightly soluble in chloroform and sulfur dioxide
Heat capacity (C)
|7.808 J/K or 71.1 J/mol K|
|63 J/mol K|
Std enthalpy of
|−6.136 kJ/g or -494 kJ/mol|
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
Std enthalpy of
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|86 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 0.002 mg/m3|
C 0.005 mg/m3 (30 minutes), with a maximum peak of 0.025 mg/m3 (as Be)
|Ca C 0.0005 mg/m3 (as Be)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Ca [4 mg/m3 (as Be)]|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
(what is ?)
Beryllium chloride is prepared by reaction of the metal with chlorine at high temperatures:
Two forms (polymorphs) of BeCl2 are known. Both structures consist tetrahedral Be2+ centers interconnected by doubly bridging chloride ligands. One form consist of edge-sharing polytetrahedra. The other form resembles zinc iodide with interconnected adamantane-like cages. In contrast, BeF2 is a 3-dimensional polymer, with a structure akin to that of quartz.
In the gas phase, BeCl2 exists both as a linear monomer and a bridged dimer with two bridging chlorine atoms where the beryllium atom is 3-coordinate. The linear shape of the monomeric form is as predicted by VSEPR theory. The linear shape contrasts with the monomeric forms of some of the dihalides of the heavier members of group 2, e.g. CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, SrCl2, BaCl2, BaBr2, and BaI2, which are all non-linear. Beryllium chloride dissolves to give tetrahedral [Be(OH2)4]2+ ion in aqueous solutions as confirmed by vibrational spectroscopy.