In mathematics, the binary tetrahedral group, denoted 2T or ⟨2,3,3⟩,^{[2]} is a certain nonabelian group of order 24. It is an extension of the tetrahedral group T or (2,3,3) of order 12 by a cyclic group of order 2, and is the preimage of the tetrahedral group under the 2:1 covering homomorphism Spin(3) → SO(3) of the special orthogonal group by the spin group. It follows that the binary tetrahedral group is a discrete subgroup of Spin(3) of order 24. The complex reflection group named 3(24)3 by G.C. Shephard or 3[3]3 and by Coxeter, is isomorphic to the binary tetrahedral group.
The binary tetrahedral group is most easily described concretely as a discrete subgroup of the unit quaternions, under the isomorphism Spin(3) ≅ Sp(1), where Sp(1) is the multiplicative group of unit quaternions. (For a description of this homomorphism see the article on quaternions and spatial rotations.)
8fold 
12fold 
24 quaternion elements:

Explicitly, the binary tetrahedral group is given as the group of units in the ring of Hurwitz integers. There are 24 such units given by
with all possible sign combinations.
All 24 units have absolute value 1 and therefore lie in the unit quaternion group Sp(1). The convex hull of these 24 elements in 4dimensional space form a convex regular 4polytope called the 24cell.
The binary tetrahedral group, denoted by 2T, fits into the short exact sequence
This sequence does not split, meaning that 2T is not a semidirect product of {±1} by T. In fact, there is no subgroup of 2T isomorphic to T.
The binary tetrahedral group is the covering group of the tetrahedral group. Thinking of the tetrahedral group as the alternating group on four letters, T ≅ A_{4}, we thus have the binary tetrahedral group as the covering group, 2T ≅ .
The center of 2T is the subgroup {±1}. The inner automorphism group is isomorphic to A_{4}, and the full automorphism group is isomorphic to S_{4}.^{[3]}
The binary tetrahedral group can be written as a semidirect product
where Q is the quaternion group consisting of the 8 Lipschitz units and C_{3} is the cyclic group of order 3 generated by ω = −1/2(1 + i + j + k). The group Z_{3} acts on the normal subgroup Q by conjugation. Conjugation by ω is the automorphism of Q that cyclically rotates i, j, and k.
One can show that the binary tetrahedral group is isomorphic to the special linear group SL(2,3) – the group of all 2 × 2 matrices over the finite field F_{3} with unit determinant, with this isomorphism covering the isomorphism of the projective special linear group PSL(2,3) with the alternating group A_{4}.
The group 2T has a presentation given by
or equivalently,
Generators with these relations are given by
with .
A Cayley Table with these properties, elements ordered by GAP, is
1 2 r 4 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 s 15 16 17 t 19 20 21 22 23 24 2 6 7 8 9 1 13 s 15 16 17 t r 4 1 20 21 22 23 10 11 12 24 19 r 8 1 10 11 20 23 9 t 12 1 19 s 21 24 7 16 2 4 15 22 13 17 6 4 16 19 1 12 13 8 17 23 r 10 1 15 20 21 9 t 7 11 22 6 24 2 s 1 9 11 12 1 15 17 t 2 19 r 4 21 22 6 23 7 8 10 24 13 s 16 20 6 1 13 s 15 2 r 4 1 20 21 22 7 8 9 10 11 12 24 16 17 t 19 23 7 s 9 16 17 10 24 15 22 t 2 23 4 11 19 13 20 6 8 1 12 r 21 1 8 20 23 9 t r s 21 24 7 16 2 1 10 11 15 22 13 17 12 1 19 6 4 9 15 17 t 2 1 21 22 6 23 7 8 11 12 1 24 13 s 16 19 r 4 20 10 10 7 4 11 19 s 9 16 17 1 12 r 24 15 22 t 2 23 1 13 20 6 8 21 11 t 1 19 r 24 16 2 8 4 1 10 22 13 20 17 23 9 12 6 s 21 7 15 12 23 10 1 4 21 t 7 16 11 19 1 6 24 13 2 8 17 r s 15 20 9 22 13 4 15 20 21 16 19 1 12 22 6 24 8 17 23 r 10 1 s 9 t 7 11 2 s 10 24 15 22 7 4 11 19 13 20 6 9 16 17 1 12 r 21 t 2 23 1 8 15 1 21 22 6 9 11 12 1 24 13 s 17 t 2 19 r 4 20 23 7 8 10 16 16 13 8 17 23 4 15 20 21 9 t 7 19 1 12 22 6 24 2 r 10 1 s 11 17 22 2 23 7 19 20 6 s 8 9 16 12 r 10 21 24 15 t 1 4 11 13 1 t 24 16 2 8 11 22 13 20 17 23 9 1 19 r 6 s 21 7 4 1 10 15 12 19 17 12 r 10 22 2 23 7 1 4 11 20 6 s 8 9 16 1 21 24 15 t 13 20 r s 21 24 8 1 10 11 15 22 13 23 9 t 12 1 19 6 7 16 2 4 17 21 12 6 24 13 23 10 1 4 s 15 20 t 7 16 11 19 1 22 2 8 17 r 9 22 19 20 6 s 17 12 r 10 21 24 15 2 23 7 1 4 11 13 8 9 16 1 t 23 21 t 7 16 12 6 24 13 2 8 17 10 1 4 s 15 20 9 11 19 1 22 r 24 11 22 13 20 t 1 19 r 6 s 21 16 2 8 4 1 10 15 17 23 9 12 7
There is 1 element of order 1 (element 1), one element of order 2 ( ), 8 elements of order 3, 6 elements of order 4 (including ), 8 elements of order 6 (which include and ).
The quaternion group consisting of the 8 Lipschitz units forms a normal subgroup of 2T of index 3. This group and the center {±1} are the only nontrivial normal subgroups.
All other subgroups of 2T are cyclic groups generated by the various elements, with orders 3, 4, and 6.^{[4]}
Just as the tetrahedral group generalizes to the rotational symmetry group of the nsimplex (as a subgroup of SO(n)), there is a corresponding higher binary group which is a 2fold cover, coming from the cover Spin(n) → SO(n).
The rotational symmetry group of the nsimplex can be considered as the alternating group on n + 1 points, A_{n+1}, and the corresponding binary group is a 2fold covering group. For all higher dimensions except A_{6} and A_{7} (corresponding to the 5dimensional and 6dimensional simplexes), this binary group is the covering group (maximal cover) and is superperfect, but for dimensional 5 and 6 there is an additional exceptional 3fold cover, and the binary groups are not superperfect.
The binary tetrahedral group was used in the context of Yang–Mills theory in 1956 by Chen Ning Yang and others.^{[5]} It was first used in flavor physics model building by Paul Frampton and Thomas Kephart in 1994.^{[6]} In 2012 it was shown ^{[7]} that a relation between two neutrino mixing angles, derived ^{[8]} by using this binary tetrahedral flavor symmetry, agrees with experiment.