Bismuth(III) nitrate


Bismuth(III) nitrate is a salt composed of bismuth in its cationic +3 oxidation state and nitrate anions. The most common solid form is the pentahydrate.[3] It is used in the synthesis of other bismuth compounds.[4] It is available commercially. It is the only nitrate salt formed by a group 15 element, indicative of bismuth's metallic nature.[5]

Bismuth(III) nitrate
Other names
Bismuth trinitrate, Bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate
  • anhydrous: 10361-44-1 checkY
  • pentahydrate: 10035-06-0 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • anhydrous: Interactive image
  • anhydrous: 96880
  • pentahydrate: 141368
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.707 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • anhydrous: 600-076-0
  • anhydrous: 107711
  • pentahydrate: 160911
  • anhydrous: 4R459R54N0 checkY
  • pentahydrate: FO2ICY167B checkY
  • anhydrous: DTXSID30883121 Edit this at Wikidata
  • anhydrous: InChI=1S/Bi.3NO3/c;3*2-1(3)4/q+3;3*-1
  • anhydrous: [N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[Bi+3]
Molar mass 485.07 g/mol (pentahydrate)
Appearance colorless, white
Density 2.90 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)[1]
Decomposes to form bismuth oxynitrate[2]
Solubility Slightly soluble in acid[2]
-91.0·10−6 cm3/mol
GHS labelling:
GHS03: OxidizingGHS07: Exclamation markGHS09: Environmental hazard
H272, H315, H319, H335, H411
P210, P220, P221, P261, P264, P271, P273, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P370+P378, P391, P403+P233, P405, P501
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Preparation and reactions edit

Bismuth nitrate can be prepared by the reaction of bismuth metal and concentrated nitric acid.[6]

Bi + 4HNO3 → Bi(NO3)3 + 2H2O + NO

It dissolves in nitric acid but is readily hydrolysed to form a range of oxynitrates when the pH increases above 0.[7]

It is also soluble in acetone, acetic acid and glycerol but practically insoluble in ethanol and ethyl acetate.[8]

Some uses in organic synthesis have been reported for example the nitration of aromatic compounds and selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides.[8]

Bismuth nitrate forms insoluble complexes with pyrogallol and cupferron and these have been the basis of gravimetric methods of determining bismuth content.[9]

On heating bismuth nitrate can decompose forming nitrogen dioxide, NO2.[10]

Structure edit

The crystal form is triclinic, and contains 10 coordinate Bi3+, (three bidentate nitrate ions and four water molecules).[1]

References edit

  1. ^ a b Lazarini, F. (15 August 1985). "Redetermination of the structure of bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O". Acta Crystallographica Section C. 41 (8): 1144–1145. doi:10.1107/S0108270185006916.
  2. ^ a b John Rumble (June 18, 2018). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (99th ed.). CRC Press. pp. 4–41. ISBN 978-1138561632.
  3. ^ "Normal Bismuth Nitrate, Bi(NO3)3".
  4. ^ Mary Eagleson (1994). Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-011451-8.
  5. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  6. ^ Rich, Ronald (2007). Inorganic Reactions in Water (e-book). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-73962-3.
  7. ^ Lazarini, F. (1981). "Thermal dehydration of some basic bismuth nitrates". Thermochimica Acta. 46 (1): 53–55. doi:10.1016/0040-6031(81)85076-9. ISSN 0040-6031.
  8. ^ a b Suzuki, Hitomi, ed. (2001). Organobismuth Chemistry. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-20528-4.
  9. ^ A.I. Vogel,(1951), Quantitative Inorganic analysis, (2d edition), Longmans Green and Co
  10. ^ Krabbe, S.W.; Mohan, R.S. (2012). "Environmentally friendly organic synthesis using Bi(III) compounds". In Ollevier, Thierry (ed.). Topics in Current chemistry 311, Bismuth-Mediated Organic Reactions. Springer. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-3-642-27239-4.