Bulgaria 1300


Bulgaria 1300
Mission typeScience
COSPAR ID1981-075A
SATCAT no.12645Edit this on Wikidata
Spacecraft properties
SSA[citation needed]
Launch mass1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date7 August 1981, 13:35 (1981-08-07UTC13:35Z) UTC
Launch sitePlesetsk 43/3
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude825 kilometres (513 mi)
Apogee altitude906 kilometres (563 mi)
Inclination81.2 degrees
EpochEpoch start: 1981-08-06 20:00:00 UTC

Interkosmos 22, more commonly known as Bulgaria 1300 (Bulgarian: Интеркосмос 22-България 1300), was Bulgaria's first artificial satellite.

It was named after the 1300th anniversary of the foundation of the Bulgarian state. It was designed to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth.[1]


The satellite was developed by the Bulgarian Space Agency around the "Meteor" bus, provided by the Soviet Union as part of the Interkosmos program.[2] Assembly took place in Bulgaria, and the spacecraft was launched from Plesetsk in 13:35 local time on 7 August 1981.[3] During that same year the Bulgarian government organized a massive celebration to commemorate the 1300th anniversary of the country's founding.

Interkosmos 22 was successfully inserted in a near-polar orbit. The outer skin of the spacecraft, including the solar panels, is coated with a conducting material in order to allow the proper measurement of electric fields and low energy plasma. Power is provided by the two solar panels, which generate 2 kW of electricity. A rechargeable battery pack is used as an energy supply when the spacecraft is in an eclipse period. Gathered data is stored on two tape recorders, each with a capacity of 60 megabits. The main transmitter radiates 10 W in the 130-MHz band. No operational limit was planned. As of 2009, the satellite was operational and it is still on BSA's list of active programs. It provides data about the extraterrestrial environment over Earth's polar regions.[4]


The satellite contains a large set of scientific devices, designed and built in Bulgaria:

A copy of the SEIT unit from the satellite, National Polytechnical Museum in Sofia
  • Ion Drift Meter combined with a Retarding Potential Analyzer;
  • Spherical Electrostatic Ion Trap (SEIT);
  • Cylindrical Langmuir probe;
  • Double spherical electron temperature probes;
  • Low-Energy Electron-Proton Electrostatic Analyzer Array in 3 orthogonal directions
  • Ion Energy-Mass Composition Analyzers
  • Wavelength Scanning UV Photometer
  • Proton Solid-State Telescope
  • Visible Airglow Photometers
  • Triaxial Spherical Vector Electric Field Probes
  • Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer

See also


  1. ^ Serafimov, K.; Chapkanov, S.; Gogoshev, M.; Kutiev, I.; Gousheva, M.; Ivanova, T.; Petkov, N.; Samardjiev, T.; Sargoichev, S.; Balebanov, V.; Podgorni, I. (1983). "First results of the Bulgaria-1300". Acta Astronautica. Elsevier. 10 (5–6): 263–268. doi:10.1016/0094-5765(83)90075-9.
  2. ^ "Interkosmos 22". Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  3. ^ "NSSDCA Spacecraft Details". NASA. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Intercosmos 22 Satellite details". n2yo.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.