Burlington, Ontario


Burlington is a city in the Regional Municipality of Halton at the northwestern end of Lake Ontario in Ontario, Canada. Along with Milton to the north, it forms the western end of the Greater Toronto Area and is also part of the Hamilton metropolitan census area.

City of Burlington
Brant Street in Downtown Burlington
Brant Street in Downtown Burlington
Official logo of Burlington
Stand By
Burlington is located in Southern Ontario
Coordinates: 43°22′12″N 79°48′51″W / 43.37000°N 79.81417°W / 43.37000; -79.81417[1]Coordinates: 43°22′12″N 79°48′51″W / 43.37000°N 79.81417°W / 43.37000; -79.81417[1]
City status1974
 • MayorMarianne Meed Ward
 • Governing BodyBurlington City Council
 • MPsKarina Gould (Lib), Pam Damoff (Lib), Adam van Koeverden (Lib)
 • MPPsJane McKenna (PC), Parm Gill (PC), Effie Triantafilopoulos (PC)
 • Total185.66 km2 (71.68 sq mi)
74 m (243 ft)
 • Total183,314 (Ranked 28th)
 • Density946.8/km2 (2,452/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Burlingtonian, Burlingtonite
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)905, 289, 365, and 742
Highways Queen Elizabeth Way
 Highway 403
 Highway 407
Former Highway 2 Former Highway 5
Burlington in the Regional Municipality of Halton


The Brant Hotel in 1902. Located on the shore of Lake Ontario in Burlington, the hotel was erected on the former homestead of Joseph Brant, and was the largest resort in Canada. The hotel was expropriated and used as a military hospital in 1917, demolished and rebuilt in the 1930s, and then demolished in 1964.[3]

Before the 19th century, the area between the provincial capital of York and the township of West Flamborough was home to the Mississauga nation. In 1792, John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, named the western end of Lake Ontario "Burlington Bay" after the town of Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.[4]

The British purchased the land on which Burlington now stands from the Mississaugas in Upper Canada Treaties 3 (1792), 8 (1797), 14 (1806), and 19 (1818). Treaty 8 concerned the purchase of the Brant Tract, 14.0 km2 (3,450 acres) on Burlington Bay which the British granted to Mohawk chief Joseph Brant for his service in the American Revolutionary War.[5][6] Joseph Brant and his household settled on this tract of land around 1802.[7] Brant is accordingly often referred to as the founder of Burlington, and the city of Burlington still celebrates an annual Joseph Brant Day in early August.[8][9] Subsequent disputes between the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation and the Canadian government over payment for the Brant Tract and the Toronto Purchase were settled in 2010 for the sum of $145 million (CAD).[6][10]

By the turn of the 19th century, the name "Burlington" was already in common use. With the completion of the local survey after the War of 1812, the land was opened for settlement. Early farmers prospered in the Burlington area because the area had fertile soil and moderate temperatures. Produce from the farms was shipped out via the bustling docks of the lakeside villages of Port Nelson and Wellington Square, as well as Brown's Wharf in the nearby village of Port Flamborough (which was to become Aldershot). Lumber taken from the surrounding forests also competed for space on the busy docks. In the latter half of the 19th century, increased wheat production from Western Canada convinced local farmers to switch to fruit and vegetable production.

In 1874, Wellington Square and Port Nelson were incorporated into the Village of Burlington. The arrival of large steamships on the Great Lakes made the small docks of the local ports obsolete, and the increased use of railway to ship goods marked the end of the commercial wharves.

Farming still thrived though, and the resultant growth resulted in continued prosperity. By 1906, the town boasted its own newspaper—the Burlington Gazette—as well as a town library and a local rail line that connected Burlington to nearby Hamilton. During the First World War, 300 local men volunteered for duty in the Canadian Expeditionary Force—38 did not return. In 1915, Burlington was incorporated into a town.

As more settlers arrived and cleared the land, cash crops replaced subsistence farming. Gradually, mixed farming and market gardens became the dominant form of agriculture, and in the early 20th century the area was declared the Garden of Canada. The first peaches grown in Canada were cultivated in the Grindstone Creek watershed in the city's south-west part. The farming tradition has passed down through the generations. Today over forty percent of the Grindstone Creek watershed is still devoted to farms, orchards and nurseries.[11]

Following the Second World War, cheap electricity from nearby Niagara Falls and better transportation access due to the new (1939) Queen Elizabeth Way encouraged both light industry and families to move to Burlington. The population skyrocketed as new homes were built, encouraging developers to build even more new homes. On 1 January 1958, Burlington officially annexed most of the Township of Nelson, as well as Aldershot, formerly a part of East Flamborough Township. By 1967, the last cash crop farm within the city had been replaced by the Burlington Centre.[12]

Burlington was the site of the Brant Inn built by the lake in 1917, which became famous during the ’40s and ’50s for showing big-band performers.

By 1974, with a population exceeding 100,000, Burlington was incorporated as a city. The extremely high rate of growth continued, and between 2001 and 2006, the population of Burlington grew by 9%, compared to Canada's overall growth rate of 5.4%. By 2006, the population topped 160,000.

Geography and climateEdit

Burlington is at the southwestern end of Lake Ontario, just to the north east of Hamilton and the Niagara Peninsula, roughly in the geographic centre of the urban corridor known as the Golden Horseshoe. Burlington has a land area of 187 km2 (72 sq mi). The main urban area is south of the Parkway Belt and Hwy. 407. The land north of this, and north Aldershot is used primarily for agriculture, rural residential and conservation purposes. The Niagara Escarpment, Lake Ontario and the sloping plain between the escarpment and the lake make up the land area of Burlington. The city is no longer a port; sailing vessels in the area are used for recreational purposes and moor at a 215 slip marina in LaSalle Park.

Burlington's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with warm, humid summers and long, cold and snowy winters. The climate is moderated somewhat by its proximity to Lake Ontario. Monthly mean temperatures range from 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in July to −4.4 °C (24.1 °F) in January. The average annual precipitation is 763 mm (30.0 in) of rain and 99 cm (39 in) of snow.

Although it shares the continental climate found in Southern Ontario, its proximity to Lake Ontario moderates winter temperatures and it also benefits from a sheltering effect of the Niagara Escarpment, allowing the most northerly tracts of Carolinian forest to thrive on the Escarpment that runs through western sections of city. Several species of flora and fauna usually found only in more southern climes are present in Burlington, including paw-paw, green dragon (Arisaema dracontium), tuckahoe (Peltandra virginica), American columbo (Frasera caroliniensis), wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria), plus the Louisiana waterthrush, the hooded warbler, the southern flying squirrel and the rare eastern pipistrelle. Near the visible promontory of Mount Nemo that rises some 200 m (650 ft) above the lake level, a "vertical forest" of white cedar clinging to the Escarpment face includes many small trees that are more than a thousand years old.[13]

Hamilton Harbour, the western end of Lake Ontario, is bounded on its western shore by a large sandbar, now called the Beach strip, that was deposited during the last ice age. A canal bisecting the sandbar allows ships access to the harbour. The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway (part of the Queen Elizabeth Way), and the Canal Lift Bridge allow access over the canal.

Climate data for Burlington TS
Climate ID: 6151064; coordinates 43°20′N 79°50′W / 43.333°N 79.833°W / 43.333; -79.833 (Burlington TS), elevation: 99.1 m (325 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1866–present[note 1]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.4
Average high °C (°F) −0.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.4
Average low °C (°F) −8.1
Record low °C (°F) −30.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 31.8
Average snowfall cm (inches) 34.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.4 9.6 11.0 12.5 11.8 10.9 10.1 10.2 10.9 10.7 13.9 11.9 135.8
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.9 4.5 8.0 11.7 11.8 10.9 10.1 10.2 10.9 10.7 12.7 7.7 113.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 8.1 6.0 3.6 0.84 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 5.4 25.5
Source: Environment Canada[14][15]



In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Burlington had a population of 186,948 living in 73,180 of its 74,891 total private dwellings, a change of 2% from its 2016 population of 183,314. With a land area of 186.12 km2 (71.86 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,004.4/km2 (2,601.5/sq mi) in 2021.[17]

According to the 2016 census, Burlington's population was 183,314 where 48% of residents were male and 52% female. Minors (individuals up to the age of 19) made up 22.6% of the population (almost identical to the national average of 22.4%), and seniors (age 65+) were 19.2% (higher than the national average of 16.9%). This older population was also reflected in Burlington's median age of 43.3, which was higher than the Canadian median of 41.2.[18]

Ethnic origin[19] Population %
English 56,130 31.2
Canadian 42,935 23.8
Scottish 40,050 22.2
Irish 37,160 20.6
German 18,645 10.4
French 16,585 9.2
Italian 14,235 7.9
Polish 10,475 5.8
Dutch 9,115 5.1
Ukrainian 8,160 4.5
East Indian 7,245 4.0

The 2016 Census records a visible minority of 16%.[20]

The top 11 ethnic origins from the 2016 Census are listed in the accompanying table. Percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents can report more than one ethnicity.

According to the 2011 Census, 70% of Burlington residents identify as Christian, with Catholics (31.5%) making up the largest denomination, followed by Anglican (10%), United Church (9.2%), and other denominations. Others identify as Muslim (2%), Hindu (1.1%), Sikh (1%), Buddhist ( 0.4%), Jewish (0.4%), and with other religions. 25% of the population report no religious affiliation.[21]

According to the 2016 Census, the most common mother tongue in Burlington is English (78.7%), followed by French (1.6%), Spanish (1.5%), Polish (1.3%), and Arabic (1.2). The three most commonly known languages are English (99.1%), French (9%), and Spanish (2.5%).[22]

Mother tongue Population %
English 142,605 78.7
French 2,970 1.6
Spanish 2,680 1.5
Polish 2,365 1.3
Arabic 2,205 1.2
Italian 1,845 1.0
Punjabi 1,795 1.0
German 1,645 0.9
Mandarin 1,555 0.9
Portuguese 1,545 0.9
Tagalog (Filipino) 1,290 0.7
Dutch 1,080 0.6
Knowledge of language Population %
English 178,540 99.1
French 16,140 9.0
Spanish 4,455 2.5
Polish 2,920 1.6
Italian 2,865 1.6
Arabic 2,750 1.5
German 2,685 1.5
Punjabi 2,565 1.4
Hindi 2,055 1.1
Portuguese 2,040 1.1
Mandarin 1,990 1.1
Tagalog (Filipino) 1,830 1.0


Burlington's economic strength is the diversity of its economic base, mainly achieved because of its geography, proximity to large industries in southern Ontario (Canada's largest consumer market), its location within the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) and proximity to Hamilton, and its transportation infrastructure including the Port of Hamilton on Burlington Bay. This diversity has allowed for sustained growth with regards to the economy.[23] The city has a robust economy with potential for growth – it is at the hub of the Golden Horseshoe, is largely driven by both the automotive and manufacturing sectors.

No single employer or job sector dominates Burlington's economy. The leading industrial sectors, in terms of employment, are food processing, packaging, electronics, motor vehicle/transportation, business services, chemical/pharmaceutical and environmental. The top five private sector employers in Burlington are Fearmans Pork Inc, Cogeco Cable, Evertz Microsystems, Boehringer Ingelheim and EMC2. Other notable business include The EBF Group, ARGO Land Development, The Sunshine Doughnut Company and TipTapPay Micropayments Ltd.[24][25][26] The largest public sector employers in the city are the City of Burlington, the Halton District School Board, the Halton Catholic District School Board and Joseph Brant Hospital.

Burlington Centre and Mapleview Centre are popular malls within the city.[citation needed] The city's summer festivals include Canada's Largest Ribfest, and the Burlington Sound of Music Festival which also attract many visitors.[citation needed]

Media and journalismEdit

Television stationsEdit

Burlington is primarily served by media based in Toronto (other than those noted below), as it is geographically in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA).

  • YourTV from the studio in the Cogeco Cable Headquarters at Harvester Road & Burloak Drive.
  • Yes TV is based in Burlington with studios on the North Service Road near the junction of the QEW, 403 and 407.
  • Hamilton based television station CHCH-TV serves Hamilton, Halton and Niagara, thus including Burlington.


Burlington is part of the Hamilton radio market. One radio station, FM 107.9 CJXY, is licensed to Burlington and another, FM 94.7 CHKX, to "Hamilton/Burlington." Both presently broadcast from studios in Hamilton. Burlington listeners are also served by stations licensed to Toronto, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls and Buffalo, New York.

Print mediaEdit

Several publications are either published in or around Burlington, or have Burlington as one of their main subjects, including Burlington Post and View Magazine.[citation needed]


Burlington's public elementary and secondary schools are part of the Halton District School Board. Burlington's Catholic elementary and secondary schools are part of the Halton Catholic District School Board. French public elementary and secondary schools are part of the Conseil scolaire Viamonde and French catholic elementary and secondary schools are part of the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir. Several private schools are also available in the city.

Elementary schoolsEdit

There are 29 public elementary schools and 14 Roman Catholic elementary schools in Burlington.

High schoolsEdit

There are six public high schools and three Catholic high schools in the area. There are also 10 private schools in Burlington.[citation needed]



Universities and collegesEdit

  • McMaster University DeGroote School of Business – Ron Joyce Centre opened in September 2010 and offers MBA and Executive Management programs.[27]
  • Australian university Charles Sturt University has had a study centre in Burlington since 2005 and offers programs in Master of International Education, Bachelor of Early Childhood Studies and Master of Business Administration. .[28]
  • Oxford College of Arts, Business and Technology is licensed by the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities


Burlington Transit, the public transport provider in the city, provides service on a transportation grid centred on three commuter GO Train stations: Appleby, Burlington and Aldershot.

Major transportation corridors through the city include the Queen Elizabeth Way, Highway 403, Highway 407, and Dundas Street (former Highway 5). Commuter rail service is provided by GO Transit at the Appleby GO Station, Burlington GO Station and the Aldershot GO station. Intercity rail service is provided by Via Rail at Aldershot, which also serves Hamilton. Rail cargo transportation is provided by both Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific.

Burlington Airpark in the city's north end is a thriving general-aviation without regular commercial passenger flight service. Some charter operations are provided.

On 26 February 2012, a Via Rail train traveling from Niagara Falls to Toronto Union Station derailed in Burlington, with three fatalities.[29]

Emergency servicesEdit

Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital, downtown

Policing in Burlington is performed by the Halton Regional Police Service.[30]

Fire service is provided by the Burlington Fire Department with eight fire stations.

Paramedic services are provided by Halton Region Paramedic Services with four paramedic stations.[citation needed]


City Hall, on Brant Street
The federal and provincial riding of Burlington, which covers a large portion of the city of Burlington. (The riding of Halton covers the northeast parts of the city.) Author: Elections Canada.

Local governmentEdit

The city is divided into six wards, each represented by a city councillor. The mayor, who chairs the city council, is Marianne Meed Ward.

Council elected for 2018–2022Edit

  • Mayor: Marianne Meed Ward
  • Ward 1: Kelvin Galbraith
  • Ward 2: Lisa Kearns
  • Ward 3: Rory Nisan
  • Ward 4: Shawna Stolte
  • Ward 5: Paul Sharman
  • Ward 6: Angelo Bentivegna



Federally, the city is represented by three MPs whose ridings cover parts of the city:


Provincially, the city is represented by three MPPs, whose ridings are geographically contiguous with their federal counterparts:

Recreation and sites of interestEdit

Spencer Smith Park on Burlington's waterfront

There are 115 parks and 580 hectares (1,400 acres) of parkland in the city.

Brant Street Pier

On the shore of Lake Ontario, Spencer Smith Park features an expansive shoreline walking path. The park was renovated in 2006, with the addition of an observatory, water jet play area and restaurant. The park includes the Burlington Rotary Centennial Pond, a 10,000 square-foot water feature, used for model sail boating in the spring, summer and fall. In winter, it offers free recreational ice-skating. Many annual free festivals take place in Spencer Smith Park, including Canada's Largest Ribfest and the Sound of Music Festival, Canada Day, Children's Festival and Lakeside Festival of Lights. There is also the semi-annual prix fixe Taste of Burlington dining event.

The Brant Street Pier opened in Spencer Smith Park during the Sound of Music Festival on Father's Day weekend 2013.[32] Thousands of people from Burlington and beyond flocked to the pier to enjoy sunshine and scenic views. The pier extends 137 metres over Lake Ontario and provides views of the lake and Burlington's shoreline. In the evenings, the entire pier is lit, making it a major attraction to both tourists and residents. Generally, the lighting choices are based on nationally recognized holidays or events, but also invite special requests.

The Brant Street Pier extends 137 metres over Lake Ontario

The Art Gallery of Burlington is adjacent to Spencer Smith Park, and contains diverse permanent and changing exhibits. The Gallery houses a prominent collection of Canadian ceramics. The Gallery's exhibition spaces, which feature new exhibitions every eight to ten weeks, are fully accessible and are free to visitors.[33]

"Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial" (1995) by André Gauthier, Spencer Smith Park

"Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial (1995)" by André Gauthier is a 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) high cast bronze statue of a World War II Canadian sailor in the position of attention saluting his lost shipmates, which was erected in Spencer Smith Park. The model for the statue was a local Sea Cadet wearing Mike Vencel's naval service uniform.[34] On the black granite base, the names of Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Merchant Navy ships sunk during World War II are engraved. On the granite wall, the names of all Royal Canadian Navy ships and Canadian Merchant Marine vessels which saw service in World War II are engraved.[35] Atop the wall is the ship's bell from HMCS Burlington. A monument commemorating the Korean War was erected in the summer of 2014 to mark the 61st anniversary of the armistice to end the war.[36]

Burlington is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, which has the world's largest lilac collection. Ontario's botanical garden and National Historic Site of Canada features over 11 km2 (2,700 acres) of gardens and nature sanctuaries, including four outdoor display gardens, the Mediterranean Garden under glass, three on-site restaurants, the Gardens' Gift Shop, and festivals.

Lasalle Park, in the Burlington neighbourhood of Aldershot, is owned by the city of Hamilton but is leased by Burlington, which also assumes responsibility for maintenance.

Several conservation areas are minutes away and feature year round activities. Mount Nemo Conservation Area is the only area in Burlington that is operated by Conservation Halton. Bronte Creek Provincial Park, along the city's eastern boundary, features a campground and recreational activities and events year-round.

The local sections of the Bruce Trail and the Niagara Escarpment, which is a UNESCO designated World Biosphere Reserve, provide hiking trails. Kerncliff Park, in an abandoned quarry on the boundary with Waterdown, is a naturalized area on the lip of the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail runs through the park, at many points running along the edge of the cliffs, providing a clear overlook of Burlington, the Burlington Skyway Bridge, Hamilton, and Oakville. On a clear day, one can see the CN Tower in Toronto, approximately 50 km (31 mi) from the park.[citation needed]

The Joseph Brant Museum and Ireland House are also local attractions.[citation needed] Joseph Brant Museum has ongoing exhibits on the history of Burlington, the Eileen Collard Costume Collection, Captain Joseph Brant and the visible storage gallery. Ireland House at Oakridge Farm is a history museum depicting family life from the 1850s to the 1920s. In 2017 the Freeman Railway Station, originally built 1906 for the Grand Trunk Railway was reopened as an interpretive center.

Burlington offers four indoor and two outdoor pools, one splash park, nine splash pads, seven arenas and ice centres, six community centres and nine golf courses.[37] The Appleby Ice Centre is a 4-pad arena, used year-round for skating and ice hockey.[38]

The Burlington Performing Arts Centre opened in 2011. This 940-seat facility is on Locust Street in the downtown core with a main theatre featuring a six-story fly tower, a community studio theatre, and a family lobby.[39]

Malls and shoppingEdit

Burlington Centre is a two-storey mall at Guelph Line and Fairview Street. Opened in 1968, several renovations have been completed at various intervals over the years.[citation needed]

Mapleview Centre is a two-storey mall, which opened in 1990 and is located at the intersection of Fairview Street and Maple Avenue. Only 45 minutes from downtown Toronto,[citation needed] Mapleview leases retail space to over 165 upscale[citation needed] and destination stores including Banana Republic, H&M, Bath & Body Works.[citation needed]


The Burlington Teen Tour Band has operated in the city since 1947, including members between the ages of 13 and 21. The marching band, nicknamed The Redcoats due to the colour of its uniforms, are regular participants in major international parades. They are also referred to as "Canada's Musical Ambassadors" and have represented Canada all over the world.[40] One such occasion was during the 2018 Tournament of Roses Parade, where the band represented Canada for the fifth time in the band's history.[41] The band is led by Rob Bennett, managing director. [42]

The Junior Redcoats are the younger version of the Teen Tour Band. The band includes children between the ages of 9 to 12. The Junior Redcoats' major performances are most commonly at the Burlington Santa Claus Parade, the Waterdown Santa Claus Parade, the Burlington Performing Arts Centre (along with the Teen Tour Band) and the Sound of Music Parade. They are directed by Caroline Singh. [43]

The Burlington Concert Band has been in operation since 1908. The band, composed of local volunteer musicians, plays a wide variety of musical styles and repertoire. It primarily performs to raise money for charitable causes. The Burlington Concert Band is a participating member of Performing Arts Burlington as well as the Canadian Band Association. The band maintains an open membership policy, allowing anyone who feels they can handle the music competently to join without an audition. Its primary venue has been the Burlington Performing Arts Centre since it opened in 2011. Zoltan Kalman is the former director of the Burlington Concert Band that is led by an elected board headed by Steven Hewis.[44] The current musical director is Joanne Romanow.[45]

The current Burlington Area Scouts came into existence in 1958 as "Burlington District" with amalgamation of several groups from Burlington and surrounding area. There are 17 active groups within the Area, providing Scouting to over 700 members. The Area stretches outside the city limits of Burlington and encompasses the additional communities of Waterdown, Kilbride, and Carlisle.[46]

The Burlington Symphony Orchestra, formed in 1973, is a community orchestra under the direction of Denis Mastromonaco.[47]


Club Sport League Venue
Burlington Cougars Ice hockey Ontario Junior Hockey League Appleby Ice Centre
Burlington Chiefs Box lacrosse Ontario Junior A Lacrosse League Central Arena
Burlington Jr. Barracudas Ice hockey Provincial Women's Hockey League Mainway Ice Centre
Halton United Soccer Canadian Soccer League Norton Park
Burlington SC Soccer League1 Ontario

Local teamsEdit

The following are the names associated with Burlington sport teams:

NEXXICE is a synchronized skating team associated with the Burlington Skating Club (and the Kitchener Waterloo Skating Club). They were the 2018 Canadian Senior champions, and were the first (and only) Canadian team to win a world championship.[citation needed]

International competitionEdit

Burlington, Ontario, founded the Burlington International Games (B.I.G.). The games were first held in 1969 "to offer an athletic and cultural exchange experience for the youth of Burlington".[citation needed] Until recently,[when?] the games took place between Burlington, Ontario, and Burlington, Vermont, United States. But, other cities from places such as Quebec, Japan, the Netherlands, and the U.S. have all had athletes compete since 1998.[48] The games celebrated their 40th anniversary in 2009 and the competition ceased in 2010 due to limited participation in later years.[citation needed]

Burlington at night

Notable peopleEdit

Visual art and writingEdit



TV, film, and stageEdit


Twin citiesEdit

Burlington has twin-city relationships with the following cities:[50]

Past city relationships:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Long term records have been recorded at various climate stations in or nearby Burlington since 1866


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  4. ^ Rayburn, Alan (1997). Place Names of Ontario. Toronto-Buffalo-London: University of Toronto Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-8020-7207-0.
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  6. ^ a b Duric, Donna (28 May 2017). "The Brant Tract Treaty, No. 8 (1797)". Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
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  10. ^ "Ontario band approves $145M land claim settlement". CTV News. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
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  13. ^ "Niagara Escarpment Commission: Flora & Fauna". Niagara Escarpment Commission. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
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  16. ^ "Burlington, City Ontario (Census Subdivision)". Census profile, Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
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  18. ^ "Statistics Canada. 2017. Burlington, CY [Census subdivision], Ontario and Halton, RM [Census division], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  19. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Burlington, City - Ethnic origin". Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada.
  20. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Burlington, City - Visible minority". Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada.
  21. ^ "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013.
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  29. ^ "Canadian passenger train crash kills three in Ontario". BBC News. 27 February 2012.
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  36. ^ McNeil, Mark (29 July 2014). "Burlington memorial pays tribute to Korean War navy vets". The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via www.thespec.com.
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  38. ^ "Appleby Ice Centre (City of Burlington)". Retrieved 14 December 2015.
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  45. ^ "Burlington Concert Band". Burlington Concert Band.
  46. ^ "Burlington Area Scouting Website". bu.scouter.ca. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  47. ^ "HISTORY". Burlington Symphony.
  48. ^ "City of Burlington Website, Burlington International Games". Archived from the original on 1 September 2006.
  49. ^ "Buzz builds over Burlington hoops phenom Simisola Shittu". The Hamilton Spectator. 29 January 2015 – via www.thespec.com.
  50. ^ "Twin Cities - Apeldoorn and Itabashi". www.burlington.ca. Retrieved 27 March 2018.

External linksEdit

  • Official website