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The Cabinet Office (内閣府, Naikaku-fu) (CAO) is an agency of the Cabinet of Japan. It is responsible for handling the day-to-day affairs of the Cabinet. The Cabinet Office is formally headed by the Prime Minister.
The Cabinet Office was established on 6 January 2001, following the reorganization of the central government. It was created to assist in the planning and overall coordination of government policies led by the Cabinet (including the Cabinet Secretariat). The Cabinet Office is different from other ministries and agencies, as it is installed in the Cabinet and includes several Ministers of State called Minister of State for Special Missions.
Early on, some argued it was inappropriate to use the name Cabinet Office because "it is an organization that divides and manages administrative affairs and not the cabinet itself".
The National Administrative Organization Law does not apply, and all necessary items are stipulated in the Cabinet Office Establishment Law. Since many important policy issues require cross-ministerial responses, many operations have been concentrated since the establishment of the Cabinet Office. Its presence has increased, such as its jurisdiction over certified children's educational institutions. The number of ministers in charge of extraordinary missions has increased from six at the beginning of the Cabinet Office, to nine as of April 2019.
In the Third Abe Cabinet, as a review of the work, the “Act for Partial Revision of the National Administrative Organization Act, etc. for Strengthening Functions Related to Comprehensive Coordination, etc. of the Important Policy of the Cabinet” was enacted, and future work to each ministry Transfer, etc. were established.
The Cabinet Office's function is to help the Cabinet work on important policy and streamline critical issues facing Japan into the future.
Its responsibilities extend to:
The Imperial Family, honorary and official systems
Promotion of the formation of a gender-equal society
Promotion and development of Okinawa and the northern territories
Protection of the public from disasters
Promotion of fair and free competition between businesses
Ensuring national security
Identifying specific individuals in administrative procedures
Ensuring the proper handling of numbers, etc.
Ensuring appropriate functions of finance
Promoting measures for the realization of a society where consumers can live in a safe and secure consumer life
As such, the Cabinet Office is responsible for several agencies and internal ministries and administrations through which these responsibilities are spread.