Cabinet of Japan

Summary

The Prime Minister's Official Residence is where the Cabinet is located
Cabinet of Japan
Native name
内閣
Naikaku
Founded22 December 1885
HeadquartersJapan
Key people
Fumio Kishida (Prime Minister)
Naruhito (Emperor)
OwnerGovernment of Japan

The Cabinet of Japan (Japanese: 内閣, Hepburn: Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. It consists of the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the National Diet, and up to nineteen other members, called Ministers of State. The Prime Minister is designated by the Diet, and the remaining ministers are appointed and dismissed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet is collectively responsible to the Diet and must resign if a motion of no confidence is adopted by the Diet.

Appointment

Under the constitution, Cabinet ministers are appointed after the selection of the Prime Minister. A majority of the Cabinet, including the Prime Minister, must be members of the Diet, and all members must be civilians. Under the Cabinet Law, the number of Cabinet Ministers (excluding the Prime Minister) must be fourteen or less, but this may be increased to nineteen if a special need arises. If the Cabinet collectively resigns, it continues to exercise its functions until the appointment of a new Prime Minister. While they are in office, legal action may not be taken against Cabinet ministers without the consent of the Prime Minister. The Cabinet must resign en masse in the following circumstances:

  • When a motion of no confidence is adopted, or a vote of confidence defeated, by the House of Representatives, unless there is a dissolution of the house within ten days.
  • Upon the first convocation of the Diet after a general election to the House of Representatives (even if the same Prime Minister is to be re-elected and appointed, and every other minister is to be reappointed).
  • When the position of Prime Minister becomes vacant, or the Prime Minister declares his intention to resign.

Powers

The Cabinet exercises two kinds of power. Some of its powers are nominally exercised by the Emperor with the binding "advice and approval" of the Cabinet. Other powers are explicitly vested in the Cabinet. Contrary to the practice in many constitutional monarchies, the Emperor is not even the nominal Chief Executive. Instead, the Constitution explicitly vests executive authority in the Cabinet. Hence, nearly all of the day-to-day work of governing is done by the Cabinet.

In practice, much of the Cabinet's authority is exercised by the Prime Minister. Under the Constitution, the Prime Minister exercises "control and supervision" over the executive branch, and no law or Cabinet order can take effect without the Prime Minister's countersignature (and the Emperor's promulgation). While Cabinet Ministers in most other parliamentary democracies theoretically have some freedom of action (within the limits of cabinet collective responsibility), the Japanese Cabinet is effectively an extension of the Prime Minister's authority.

According to Article 75 of the Constitution, Ministers of State are not subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister during their tenure of office.

A paulownia flower pattern is routinely considered to be a symbol of the Japanese prime minister and cabinet.

Powers exercised via the Emperor

  • Promulgation of amendments to the laws, cabinet orders and treaties.
  • Convocation of the Diet.
  • Dissolution of the House of Representatives.
  • Proclamation of general elections to the Diet.
  • Receiving of foreign ambassadors and ministers.
  • Conferring of honours.

Explicit powers

  • Execution of the law.
  • Conduct of foreign affairs.
  • Conclusion of treaties (with the consent of the Diet).
  • Administration of the civil service.
  • Drafting of the budget (which must be adopted by the Diet).
  • Adoption of cabinet orders.
  • Granting of general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
  • Signing of laws or cabinet orders by the relevant Minister of State and countersigned by the Prime Minister.
  • Appointment of the associate justices of the Supreme Court of Japan (except for the Chief Justice, who is designated by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Emperor).
  • Appointment of vice-ministers (who are nominated by their respective Minister to whom they will report).

List of Former Cabinets

Under edicts

Cabinets between 1885 and 1947 were formed under the cabinet edicts of 1885 and 1889. Cabinets were individually responsible to the Emperor, and prime ministers were appointed.

Oligarchic "transcendent" (non-/anti-partisan) cabinets
  • Itō I
  • Kuroda
  • (Sanjō interim)
  • Yamagata I
  • Matsukata I
  • Itō II
  • Matsukata II
  • Itō III
  • Ōkuma I
  • Yamagata II
  • Itō IV
  • Katsura I
  • Saionji I
  • Katsura II
  • Saionji II
  • Katsura III
  • Yamamoto I
  • Ōkuma II
  • Terauchi
Interwar period / "Taishō democracy" party cabinets
  • Takahashi
  • To. Katō
  • Yamamoto II
  • Kiyoura
  • Ta. Katō
  • Wakatsuki I
  • G. Tanaka
  • Hamaguchi
  • Wakatsuki II
  • Inukai
Wartime "national unity" cabinets
  • Saitō
  • Okada
  • Hirota
  • Hayashi
  • Konoe I
  • Hiranuma
  • N. Abe
  • Yonai
  • Konoe II
  • Konoe III
  • Tōjō
  • Koiso
  • K. Suzuki
Under allied occupation
  • Higashikuni
  • Shidehara
  • Yoshida I (R)

Under constitution

Cabinets since 1947 were formed under the Constitution of Japan. Cabinets were collectively responsible to the National Diet, and prime ministers were elected.

Occupation period, multi-party system
  • Katayama
  • Ashida
  • Yoshida II
  • Yoshida III (R1) (R2) (R3)
  • Yoshida IV
  • Yoshida V
  • I. Hatoyama I
  • I. Hatoyama II
LDP dominance
  • I. Hatoyama III
  • Ishibashi
  • Kishi I (R)
  • Kishi II (R)
  • Ikeda I
  • Ikeda II (R1) (R2) (R3)
  • Ikeda III (R)
  • Satō I (R1) (R2) (R3)
  • Satō II (R1) (R2)
  • Satō III (R)
  • K. Tanaka I
  • K. Tanaka II (R1) (R2)
  • Miki (R)
  • T. Fukuda (R)
  • Ōhira I
  • Ōhira II
  • Z. Suzuki (R)
  • Nakasone I
  • Nakasone II (R1) (R2)
  • Nakasone III
  • Takeshita (R)
  • Uno
  • Kaifu I
  • Kaifu II (R)
  • Miyazawa (R)
"Lost decades" coalition cabinets

Current cabinet

The current cabinet was formed on 4 October 2021(reorganized on 10 November 2021), and is headed by Prime Minister Fumio Kishida.

  Liberal Democratic

  Komeito

R = Member of the House of Representatives

C = Member of the House of Councillors

Citation of this table: List of Kishida Cabinet Members[1]

Second Kishida Cabinet
Portfolio Minister Term Note
Prime Minister Fumio Kishida 20211004.jpg Fumio Kishida R October 4, 2021 – Present [2][3]
Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications Kaneko Yasushi (2020).jpg Yasushi Kaneko R October 4, 2021 – Present [4]
Minister of Justice Furukawayoshihisa.jpg Yoshihisa Furukawa R October 4, 2021 – Present [5]
Minister for Foreign Affairs Hayashi Yoshimasa a Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology at Opening Ceremony of the Tokyo International Film Festival 2017 (39305981865).jpg Yoshimasa Hayashi R November 10, 2021 – Present
Minister of Finance
Minister of State for Financial Services
Minister in charge of Overcoming Deflation
Shunichi Suzuki cropped 2 Shunichi Suzuki and Yukiya Amano 20130701.jpg Shun'ichi Suzuki R October 4, 2021 – Present [6]
Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Minister in charge of Education Rebuilding
Shinsuke Suematsu in Takarazuka (04) IMG 2150 20130407.JPG Shinsuke Suematsu C October 4, 2021 – Present [7]
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 金子原二郎.jpg Genjiro Kaneko C October 4, 2021 – Present
Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare 24gotou.jpg Shigeyuki Goto R October 4, 2021 – Present [8]
Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry
Minister in charge of Industrial Competitiveness
Minister for Economic Cooperation with Russia
Minister in charge of the Response to the Economic Impact caused by the Nuclear Accident
Minister of State for the Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation
Kōichi Hagiuda 20200916.jpg Koichi Hagiuda R October 4, 2021 – Present [9]
Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Minister in charge of Water Cycle Policy
Tetsuo Saitō.jpg Tetsuo Saito R October 4, 2021 – Present [10]
Minister of the Environment
Minister of State for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi cropped.jpg Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi R October 4, 2021 – Present [11]
Minister of Defense Nobuo Kishi 20200916.jpg Nobuo Kishi R September 16, 2020 – Present [12]
Chief Cabinet Secretary
Minister in charge of Mitigating the Impact of U.S. Forces in Okinawa
Minister in charge of the Abductions Issue
Hirokazu Matsuno.jpg Hirokazu Matsuno R October 4, 2021 – Present [13][14]
Minister for Digital Transformation
Minister in charge of Administrative Reform
Minister of State for Regulatory Reform
Karen Makishima 20211008.png Karen Makishima R October 4, 2021 – Present
Minister of Reconstruction
Minister in charge of Comprehensive Policy Coordination for Revival from the Nuclear Accident at Fukushima
Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs
98 nishime kousaburou.jpg Kosaburo Nishime R October 4, 2021 – Present [15]
Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission
Minister in charge of Building National Resilience
Minister in charge of Territorial Issues
Minister in charge of Civil Service Reform
Minister of State for Disaster Management and Ocean Policy
06ninoyu.jpg Satoshi Ninoyu R October 4, 2021 – Present
Minister of State for Regional Revitalization
Minister of State for Measures for Declining Birthrate
Minister of State for Gender Equality
Minister in charge of Women's Empowerment
Minister in charge of Policies Related to Children
Minister in charge of Measures for Loneliness and Isolation
Seiko Noda 20171101.jpg Seiko Noda R October 4, 2021 – Present [16][17]
Minister in charge of Economic Revitalization
Minister in charge of New Capitalism
Minister in charge of Measures for Novel Coronavirus Disease and Health Crisis Management
Minister in charge of Social Security Reform
Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy
211005yamagiwa.png Daishiro Yamagiwa R October 4, 2021 – Present [18]
Minister in charge of Economic Security
Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy
Minister of State for Space Policy
Takayuki Kobayashi.jpg Takayuki Kobayashi C October 4, 2021 – Present
Minister for the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games
Minister in charge of Promoting Vaccinations
Noriko Horiuchi.jpg Noriko Horiuchi R October 4, 2021 – Present
Minister for the World Expo 2025
Minister in charge of Digital Garden City Nation Vision
Minister in charge of Cohesive Society
Minister in charge of Overcoming Population Decline and Vitalizing Local Economy
Minister of State for Consumer Affairs and Food Safety
Minister of State for "Cool Japan" Strategy
Minister of State for the Intellectual Property Strategy
Kenji Wakamiya.jpg Kenji Wakamiya R October 4, 2021 – Present [19]

See also

References

  • The Japan Times. "Cabinet Profiles" [since 2008]. The Japan Times Online. Accessed 13 October 2012 from: https://web.archive.org/web/20040623111921/http://www.japantimes.com/cabinets.htm
  • Cabinet Secretariat, Office of Cabinet Public Relations, Japan (2003) Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. Retrieved 28 Oct. 2003
  • Hunter, Janet (1984). Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 266–324, Appendix 5: Japanese Cabinets Since the Introduction of the Cabinet System in 1885 [to 1980].

External links

  • Official Website of the Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet
  • List of successive Japanese cabinets (in Japanese)
  • Previous Cabinets (Since 1996) & List of Previous Prime Ministers (Since 1885) (in English)
  • Cabinet Office
  • Cabinet Secretariat (in Japanese only)
  • Cabinet Legislation Bureau

Notes

  1. ^ "List of Ministers". The Cabinet of Japan Prime Minister. 2021-11-10. Archived from the original on 2021-11-11. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
  2. ^ "Fumio Kishida wins race to become Japan's next prime minister". BBC News. September 29, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  3. ^ "Kishida takes office as Japan PM, eyes Oct. 31 general election". Kyodo News. October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  4. ^ "【速報】総務相に金子恭之氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  5. ^ "【速報】法相に古川禎久氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  6. ^ NEWS, KYODO. "Next Japan PM Kishida to name Suzuki finance chief, retain foreign minister". Kyodo News+. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  7. ^ "【速報】文科相に末松信介氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  8. ^ "【速報】厚労相に後藤茂之氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  9. ^ "【速報】経済産業相に萩生田光一氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  10. ^ "国交相に公明党・斉藤副代表起用へ". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  11. ^ "【速報】環境相に山口壮氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  12. ^ "Kishida prepares Cabinet selections | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". NHK WORLD. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  13. ^ "【速報】自民・岸田新総裁 官房長官に松野元文科相を起用へ". TBS NEWS. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  14. ^ "New LDP leader reveals key executives | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". NHK WORLD. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  15. ^ "【速報】復興相に西銘恒三郎氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  16. ^ "【速報】少子化相に野田聖子氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  17. ^ NEWS, KYODO. "Kishida to take office as Japan prime minister, form Cabinet on Oct. 4". Kyodo News+. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  18. ^ "【速報】経済再生相に山際大志郎氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  19. ^ "【速報】万博相に若宮健嗣氏を起用する意向固める". TBS NEWS. Retrieved October 3, 2021.