Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 40

Summary

Space Launch Complex 40
KSC-20171215-PH AWG03 0009 (24214520767).jpg
SLC-40 during launch of SpaceX CRS-13 in December 2017, after repair and upgrade works to the pad between 2016–2017
Launch siteCape Canaveral Space Force Station
Location28°33′44″N 80°34′38″W / 28.562106°N 80.577180°W / 28.562106; -80.577180Coordinates: 28°33′44″N 80°34′38″W / 28.562106°N 80.577180°W / 28.562106; -80.577180
Short nameSLC-40
OperatorSpaceX [1]
Total launches120
Launch pad(s)1
Orbital inclination
range
28–93°
Launch history
StatusActive
First launch18 June 1965
Titan IIIC / Transtage
Last launch15 February 2021
Falcon 9 Block 5 / Starlink V1.0-L19
Associated
rockets

Space Launch Complex 40[2][3] (SLC-40), previously Launch Complex 40 (LC-40) is a launch pad for rockets located at the north end of Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, Florida.

The launch pad was used by the United States Air Force for 55 Titan III and Titan IV launches between 1965 and 2005.[4]

After 2007, the US Air Force leased the complex to SpaceX to launch the Falcon 9 rocket.[1] As of January 2021, there have been 62 launches of the Falcon 9 from the complex.[5] The site was heavily damaged following the September 2016 Amos-6 incident,[6] due to a catastrophic failure during a static fire test.[7] The complex was repaired and returned to operational status in December 2017 for the CRS-13 mission.[8]

Launch history

Rocket configurations

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020

Titan

A Titan IV rocket with the Cassini–Huygens payload at LC-40 in 1997
Launch Complex 40 with Titan rocket mobile service tower in 2007, prior to demolition to prepare for the construction of the SpaceX Falcon launch pad.

The first launch from SLC-40 (initially named LC-40) was the maiden flight of the Titan IIIC (June 18, 1965), carrying two transtage upper stages to test the functionality of the vehicle.

Two interplanetary missions were launched from the pad:

A total of 26 Titan IIICs, 8 Titan 34Ds, 4 Commercial Titan IIIs and 17 Titan IVs were launched between 1965 and 2005.[4] The final Titan launch from SLC-40 was the Lacrosse-5 reconnaissance satellite carried on a Titan IV-B on April 30, 2005.

The tower was disassembled during late 2007 and early 2008. Demolition of the Mobile Service Structure (MSS), by means of a controlled explosion, occurred on April 27, 2008, by Controlled Demolition, Inc.[9]

Falcon 9

SLC-40 in February 2010 with Falcon 9 v1.0 rocket carrying Dragon Spacecraft Qualification Unit
SLC-40 with SpaceX Falcon 9 launch infrastructure, February 2015. The four towers surrounding the rocket are lightning rods.
Falcon 9 Flight 20 flightpaths from launch on SLC-40 to landing at LZ-1 (formerly LC-13)

On April 25, 2007, the US Air Force leased the complex to SpaceX to launch the Falcon 9 rocket.[1] During April 2008, construction started on the ground facilities necessary to support the launch of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. Renovations included installation of new liquid oxygen and kerosene tanks and construction of a hangar for rocket and payload preparation. The spherical liquid oxygen (LOX) tank was acquired from NASA. This LOX tank was previously used at LC-34.

The first Falcon 9 rocket arrived at SLC-40 in late 2008, and was first erected on January 10, 2009.[10] It successfully reached orbit on its maiden launch on June 4, 2010, carrying a dummy payload qualification unit.

SLC-40 was the primary launch facility of the SpaceX Dragon, a reusable automated cargo vehicle which was used to provide two-way logistics to and from the International Space Station; a role previously filled by the Space Shuttle until its retirement in 2011.[11] SpaceX successfully launched the first test flight for the Dragon 1 from SLC-40 on December 8, 2010. Its first attempt to launch to and dock with the International Space Station successfully occurred on May 22, 2012, following an abort after engine ignition three days earlier. The SpaceX Dragon 2 launches from LC-39A to allow for late loading of supplies through the Crew Access Arm.

SpaceX modified the launch pad in 2013 in order to support launches of the Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle, a 60 % heavier rocket with 60 % more thrust on realigned engines[12] and 60 % longer fuel tank than the v1.0 version of the Falcon 9, requiring a modified transporter/erector.[13][needs update]

Accidents and incidents

On September 1, 2016 a Falcon 9 rocket was destroyed by an explosion that originated around the rocket's second stage while preparing for a routine static fire test on the SLC-40 launch pad. The explosion occurred during loading of liquid oxygen eight minutes prior to igniting the first stage engine as part of the test.[14]

A static fire is a test performed prior to launch to verify that both the launch vehicle and the ground systems are ready for flight. The test is identical to a launch until the moment of liftoff but instead of releasing the vehicle shortly after first stage engine ignition, the engines fire for a few seconds and then shut down. The second stage is fueled to test the interaction with the first stage and ground systems but remains otherwise inactive. After completion of a static fire test, the propellant and oxidizer are unloaded, the launch vehicle is lowered and the launch vehicle is returned to the hangar pending review and analysis of the data from the static fire test. SpaceX performs static fire tests to ensure that ground systems, as well as the launch vehicle, will perform nominally.

The static fire explosion resulted in the total loss of the rocket. The rocket's payload, the Amos-6 satellite, was on-board and was also destroyed.[citation needed] In addition, the explosion resulted in extensive damage to the launch pad. It was reported to have cracked nearby windows and to have been felt up to 40 miles away. There were no personnel on the pad and no injuries from the explosion were reported.[15]

Repairs to and modernization of the launch pad began in early 2017 following completion of accident investigation and environmental cleanup.[16] SLC-40 returned to service with the launch of CRS-13 on 15 December 2017.[17] The pad was reportedly in good condition after the launch.[18] The initial launch of a Falcon Heavy from pad 39A was contingent upon the successful reactivation of pad 40.[19][20] Resumed launches from pad 40 freed up pad 39A for needed final modifications without affecting the SpaceX launch tempo.

List of launches

As of February 16th 2021

Past Launches

Date Time (UTC) Rocket Type Serial Number Mission / Payload
June 18th 1965 14:00 Titan III 3C-7 Transtage 5
October 15th 1965 17:24 Titan III 3C-4 OV-2
November 3rd 1966 13:50 Titan III 3C-9 OV-4 / Gemini B
April 8th 1970 10:50 Titan III 3C-18 Vela 6A / Vela 6B
November 6th 1970 10:35 Titan III 3C-19 IMEWS 1
May 5th 1971 07:43 Titan III 3C-20 IMEWS 2
November 3rd 1971 03:09 Titan III 3C-21 DSCS II F-1 / DSCS II F-2
March 1st 1972 09:39 Titan III 3C-22 IMEWS 3
June 13th 1973 07:14 Titan III 3C-24 IMEWS 4
December 13th 1973 23:57 Titan III 3C-26 DSCS II F-3 / DSCS II F-4
May 30th 1974 13:00 Titan III 3C-27 ATS 6
May 20th 1975 14:03 Titan III 3C-25 DSCS II F-5 / DSCS II F-6
December 14th 1975 05:15 Titan III 3C-29 IMEWS 5
March 15th 1975 01:25 Titan III 3C-30 LES 8 / LES 9 / Solrad 11A / Solrad 11B
June 26th 1976 03:00 Titan III 3C-28 IMEWS 6
February 6th 1977 06:00 Titan III 3C-23 IMEWS 7
May 12th 1977 14:26 Titan III 3C-32 DSCS II F-7 / DSCS II F-8
March 25th 1978 18:09 Titan III 3C-35 DSCS II F-9 / DSCS II F-10
June 10th 1978 19:12 Titan III 3C-33 Chalet 1
December 14th 1978 00:43 Titan III 3C-36 DSCS II F-11 / DSCS II F-12
June 10th 1979 13:39 Titan III 3C-31 IMEWS 10
October 1st 1979 11:22 Titan III 3C-34 Chalet 2
November 21st 1979 21:36 Titan III 3C-37 DSCS II F-13 / DSCS II F-14
March 16th 1981 19:24 Titan III 3C-40 IMEWS 11
October 31st 1981 09:22 Titan III 3C-39 Chalet 3
March 6th 1982 19:25 Titan III 3C-38 IMEWS 13
October 30th 1982 03:05 Titan 34D 34D-1 IUS DSCS II F-15 / DSCS III F-1
January 31st 1984 03:08 Titan 34D 34D-10 Transtage Chalet 4
April 14th 1984 16:52 Titan 34D 34D-11 Transtage DSP MOS/PIM
December 22nd 1984 00:02 Titan 34D 34D-13 Transtage DSP Phase 2
November 29th 1987 03:28 Titan 34D 34D-8 Transtage DSP Phase 2
September 2nd 1988 12:05 Titan 34D 34D-3 Transtage Chalet 5
May 10th 1989 19:47 Titan 34D 34D-16 Transtage Chalet 6
September 4th 1989 05:54 Titan 34D 34D-2 Transtage DSCS II F-16 / DSCS III F-4
January 1st 1990 00:07 Commercial Titan CT-1 Skynet 4A / JCSAT 2
March 14th 1990 11:52 Commercial Titan CT-2 Intelsat 6 F-3
June 23rd 1990 11:19 Commercial Titan CT-3 Intelsat 6 F-4
September 25th 1992 17:05 Commercial Titan CT-4 Mars Observer
February 7th 1994 21:47 Titan IV 401A K-10 Centaur TC-12 Milstar 1-01
December 22nd 1994 22:19 Titan IV 402A K-14 IUS DSP-1 Block 14 F17
May 14th 1995 13:45 Titan IV 401A K-23 Centaur TC-17 Orion 1
November 6th 1995 05:15 Titan IV 401A K-21 Centaur TC-13 Milstar 2
July 3rd 1996 00:31 Titan IV 405A K-2 SDS-B4
February 23rd 1997 20:20 Titan IV 402B K-24 IUS DSP-1 Block 18 F18
October 15th 1997 08:43 Titan IV 401B K-33 Centaur Cassini-Huygens
May 9th 1998 01:38 Titan IV 401B K-25 Centaur TC-18 Orion 2
April 30th 1999 16:30 Titan IV 401B K-26 Centaur TC-14 Milstar 2 DFS-3
May 8th 2000 16:01 Titan IV 402B K-29 IUS DSP-1 Block 18 F20
February 27th 2001 21:20 Titan IV 401B K-30 Centaur TC-22 Milstar 2 DFS-4
August 6th 2001 07:28 Titan IV 402B IUS DSP-1 Block 18 F21
January 16th 2002 00:30 Titan IV 401B Centaur TC-19 Milstar 2 DFS-5
April 8th 2003 13:43 Titan IV 401B Centaur TC-23 Milstar 6
September 9th 2003 04:29 Titan IV 401B Centaur TC-20 NROL-19
February 24th 2004 18:50 Titan IV 402B IUS DSP-1 Block 18 F22
April 30th 2005 00:50 Titan IV 405B IUS USA 182
June 4th 2010 18:45 Falcon 9 v1.0 F9-1 Dragon Mockup
December 8th 2010 05:43 Falcon 9 v1.0 F9-2 Dragon COTS-1
May 22nd 2012 07:44 Falcon 9 v1.0 F9-3 Dragon COTS-2
October 8th 2012 00:35 Falcon 9 v1.0 F9-4 Dragon CRS-1
March 1st 2013 15:10 Falcon 9 v1.0 F9-5 Dragon CRS-2
December 3rd 2013 22:41 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-7 SES 8
January 6th 2014 22:06 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-8 Thaicom 6
April 18th 2014 19:25 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-9 Dragon CRS-3
July 14th 2014 15:15 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-10 Six Telecommunication satellites for Orbcomm
August 5th 2014 08:00 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-11 AsiaSat 8
September 7th 2014 05:00 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-12 AsiaSat 6
September 21st 2014 05:52 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-13 Dragon CRS-4
January 10th 2015 09:47 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-14 Dragon CRS-5
February 11th 2015 23:03 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-15 DSCOVR
March 2nd 2015 03:50 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-16 Eutelsat 115 West B, ABS 3A
April 14th 2015 20:10 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-17 Dragon CRS-6
April 27th 2015 23:03 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-18 TurkmenAlem52E / MonacoSat 1
June 28th 2015 14:21 Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-19 Dragon CRS-7 with IDA-1
December 22nd 2015 01:29 Falcon 9 FT F9-20 Eleven Telecommunication satellites for Orbcomm
March 4th 2016 23:35 Falcon 9 FT F9-22 Communication satellite SES-9
April 8th 2016 20:43 Falcon 9 FT F9-23 Dragon CRS-8 with the inflatable ISS-Module BEAM in its unpressurized cargo section in the trunk
May 6th 2016 05:21 Falcon 9 FT F9-24 Japanese Communication satellite JCSAT-14
May 27th 2016 21:39 Falcon 9 FT F9-25 Communication satellite Thaicom 8
June 15th 2016 14:29 Falcon 9 FT F9-26 Communication satellites Eutelsat 117 West B and ABS 2A
July 18th 2016 04:45 Falcon 9 FT F9-27 Dragon CRS-9 with IDA-2
August 14th 2016 05:26 Falcon 9 FT F9-28 Japanese Communication satellite JCSAT-16
December 15th 2017 15:36 Falcon 9 FT F9-45 Dragon CRS-13
January 8th 2018 01:00 Falcon 9 B4 F9-47 Zuma
January 31st 2018 21:25 Falcon 9 FT F9-48 GovSat-1
March 6th 2018 05:33 Falcon 9 B4 F9-50 Hispasat 30W-6
April 2nd 2018 20:30 Falcon 9 B4 F9-52 Dragon CRS-14
April 18th 2018 22:51 Falcon 9 B4 F9-53 TESS
June 4th 2018 04:45 Falcon 9 B4 F9-56 SES-12
June 29th 2018 09:42 Falcon 9 B4 F9-57 Dragon CRS-15
July 22nd 2018 05:50 Falcon 9 B5 F9-58 Telstar 19V
August 7th 2018 05:18 Falcon 9 B5 F9-60 Telkom-4 (Merah Putih)
September 10th 2018 04:45 Falcon 9 B5 F9-61 Telstar 18V
December 5th 2018 18:16 Falcon 9 B5 F9-65 Dragon CRS-16
December 23rd 2018 13:51 Falcon 9 B5 F9-66 GPS III SV01
February 22nd 2019 01:45 Falcon 9 B5 F9-68 Nusantara Satu / S5 (Smallsat) / Beresheet
May 4th 2019 06:48 Falcon 9 B5 F9-70 Dragon CRS-17
May 24th 2019 02:30 Falcon 9 B5 F9-71 Starlink 1
July 25th 2019 22:02 Falcon 9 B5 F9-73 Dragon CRS-18
August 6th 2019 23:23 Falcon 9 B5 F9-74 Amos 17
November 11th 2019 14:56 Falcon 9 B5 F9-75 Starlink 1 (v1.0)
December 5th 2019 17:29 Falcon 9 B5 F9-76 Dragon CRS-19
December 17th 2019 00:10 Falcon 9 B5 F9-77 JCSAT-18 / Kacific 1
January 7th 2020 02:19 Falcon 9 B5 F9-78 Starlink 2 (v1.0)
January 29th 2020 14:06 Falcon 9 B5 F9-80 Starlink 3 (v1.0)
February 17th 2020 15:05 Falcon 9 B5 F9-81 Starlink 4 (v1.0)
March 7th 2020 04:50 Falcon 9 B5 F9-82 Dragon CRS-20
June 4th 2020 01:25 Falcon 9 B5 F9-86 Starlink 7 (v1.0)
June 13th 2020 09:21 Falcon 9 B5 F9-87 Starlink 8 (v1.0) / SkySat 16–18
June 30th 2020 20:10 Falcon 9 B5 F9-88 GPS IIIA-3
July 20th 2020 21:30 Falcon 9 B5 F9-89 Anasis-II
August 18th 2020 14:31 Falcon 9 B5 F9-91 Starlink 10 (v1.0) / SkySat 19–21
August 30th 2020 23:19 Falcon 9 B5 F9-92 SAOCOM 1B / GNOMES 1 / Tyvak 0172
October 24th 2020 15:31 Falcon 9 B5 F9-96 Starlink 14 (v1.0)
November 5th 2020 23:24 Falcon 9 B5 F9-97 GPS IIIA-4
November 25th 2020 02:13 Falcon 9 B5 F9-100 Starlink 15 (v1.0)
December 13th 2020 17:30 Falcon 9 B5 F9-102 SXM-7
January 8th 2021 02:15 Falcon 9 B5 F9-104 Türksat 5A
January 24th 2021 15:00 Falcon 9 B5 F9-106 Transporter-1
February 4th 2021 06:19 Falcon 9 B5 F9-107 Starlink V1.0-L18
February 15th 2021 03:59 Falcon 9 B5 F9-108 Starlink V1.0-L19

Upcoming Launches

Date Time (UTC) Rocket Type Serial Number Mission / Payload

References

  1. ^ a b c Kelly, John (April 25, 2007). "SpaceX cleared for Cape launches". Florida Today. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan (1998-02-22). "Issue 350". Jonathan's Space Report. Jonathan's Space Page. Archived from the original on 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
  3. ^ "Table 3". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Launch Complex 40". Afspacemuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
  5. ^ "Launch Manifest". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 2020-04-06. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
  6. ^ "Falcon Heavy build up begins; SLC-40 pad rebuild progressing well". NasaSpaceFlight. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  7. ^ "January 2 Anomaly Updates". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  8. ^ "SpaceX launches and lands its first used rocket for NASA". The Verge. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  9. ^ Hidalgo Whitesides, Loretta (May 1, 2008). "Launch Pad Demolition Clears Way for SpaceX Rockets". Wired. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  10. ^ Shanklin, Emily (January 12, 2009). "SpaceX's Falcon 9 on Launch Pad at Cape Canaveral". SpaceX.com. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  11. ^ "NASA Selects SpaceX's Falcon 9 Booster and Dragon Spacecraft for Cargo Resupply Services to the International Space Station". SpaceX.com. December 23, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  12. ^ "Falcon 9's commercial promise to be tested in 2013". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  13. ^ Klotz, Irene (2013-09-06). "Musk Says SpaceX Being "Extremely Paranoid" as It Readies for Falcon 9's California Debut". Space News. Archived from the original on 2013-09-22. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  14. ^ "SpaceX Anomaly Update". SpaceX.com. September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  15. ^ "SpaceX Anomaly Update". SpaceX.com. September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
  16. ^ Klotz, Irene (2013-08-02). "SpaceX Appetite for U.S. Launch Sites Grows". Space News. Retrieved 2013-09-05.
  17. ^ "SpaceX Will Launch Another Used Dragon Capsule to Space Station Soon". Space.com. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  18. ^ NASA Video (2017-12-15), SpaceX/Dragon CRS-13 Post Launch Briefing, retrieved 2017-12-16
  19. ^ Bergin, Chris (March 7, 2017). "SpaceX prepares Falcon 9 for EchoStar 23 launch as SLC-40 targets return". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved March 11, 2017. On the West Coast, three missions have set placeholders for launch from Vandenberg, namely Iridium 2 on June 17, the Formosat-5 mission on July 22 and Iridium-3 on August 24.
  20. ^ https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2017/04/falcon-heavy-build-up-slc-40-pad-rebuild-progressing/