Charles Proteus Steinmetz

Summary

Charles Proteus Steinmetz (born Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz, April 9, 1865 – October 26, 1923) was a German-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College. He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers. He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to design better electromagnetic apparatus equipment, especially electric motors for use in industry.[1][2][a]

Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Charlesproteussteinmetz.jpg
Born
Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz

(1865-04-09)April 9, 1865
DiedOctober 26, 1923(1923-10-26) (aged 58)
Schenectady, New York, United States
Resting placeVale Cemetery
OccupationMathematician and electrical engineer
Known for
AwardsElliott Cresson Medal (1913)
Cedergren Medal (1914)

At the time of his death, Steinmetz held over 200 patents.[3] A genius in both mathematics and electronics, he did work that earned him the nicknames "Forger of Thunderbolts"[4] and "The Wizard of Schenectady".[5] Steinmetz's equation,[b][6] Steinmetz solids, Steinmetz curves, and Steinmetz equivalent circuit[7] are all named after him, as are numerous honors and scholarships, including the IEEE Charles Proteus Steinmetz Award, one of the highest technical recognitions given by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers professional society.

Early life and educationEdit

 
Steinmetz maintained a small cabin overlooking the Mohawk River near Schenectady, New York.

Steinmetz was born Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz on April 9, 1865, in Breslau, Province of Silesia, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) the son of Caroline (Neubert) and Karl Heinrich Steinmetz.[8][9] He was baptized as a Lutheran into the Evangelical Church of Prussia.[10][11] Steinmetz, who stood only four feet tall as an adult,[5] had dwarfism,[9] hunchback,[9] and hip dysplasia, as did his father and grandfather. Steinmetz attended Johannes Gymnasium and astonished his teachers with his proficiency in mathematics and physics.

Following the Gymnasium, Steinmetz went on to the University of Breslau to begin work on his undergraduate degree in 1883. He was on the verge of finishing his doctorate in 1888 when he came under investigation by the German police for activities on behalf of a socialist university group and articles he had written for a local socialist newspaper.

Socialism and technocracyEdit

As socialist meetings and press had been banned in Germany, Steinmetz fled to Zürich in 1888 to escape possible arrest. Cornell University Professor Ronald R. Kline, author of Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist,[12] contended that other factors were more directly involved in Steinmetz's decision to leave his homeland such as being in arrears with his tuition at the university and life at home with his father, stepmother and their daughters being tension-filled.[citation needed]

Faced with an expiring visa, he emigrated to the United States in 1889. He changed his first name to "Charles" in order to sound more American, and chose the middle name "Proteus", a wise hunchbacked character from the Odyssey who knew many secrets, after a childhood epithet given by classmates Steinmetz felt suited him.[13]

Despite his earlier efforts and interest in socialism, by 1922 Steinmetz concluded that socialism would never work in the United States, because the country lacked a "powerful, centralized government of competent men, remaining continuously in office", and because "only a small percentage of Americans accept this viewpoint today".[14]

A member of the original Technical Alliance, which also included Thorstein Veblen and Leland Olds, Steinmetz had great faith in the ability of machines to eliminate human toil and create abundance for all. He put it this way: "Some day we make the good things of life for everybody".[citation needed]

Electrical engineeringEdit

 
Steinmetz circa 1915

Steinmetz is known for his contribution in three major fields of alternating current (AC) systems theory: hysteresis, steady-state analysis, and transients.[15]

AC hysteresis theoryEdit

Shortly after arriving in the United States, Steinmetz went to work for Rudolf Eickemeyer in Yonkers, New York, and published in the field of magnetic hysteresis, earning worldwide professional recognition.[16] Eickemeyer's firm developed transformers for use in the transmission of electrical power among many other mechanical and electrical devices. In 1893 Eickemeyer's company, along with all of its patents and designs, was bought by the newly formed General Electric Company, where Steinmetz quickly became known as the engineering wizard in GE's engineering community.[16]

AC steady state circuit theoryEdit

Steinmetz's work revolutionized AC circuit theory and analysis, which had been carried out using complicated, time-consuming calculus-based methods. In the groundbreaking paper, "Complex Quantities and Their Use in Electrical Engineering", presented at a July 1893 meeting published in the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), Steinmetz simplified these complicated methods to "a simple problem of algebra". He systematized the use of complex number phasor representation in electrical engineering education texts, whereby the lower-case letter "j" is used to designate the 90-degree rotation operator in AC system analysis.[2][17] His seminal books and many other AIEE papers "taught a whole generation of engineers how to deal with AC phenomena".[2][18]

AC transient theoryEdit

Steinmetz also greatly advanced the understanding of lightning. His systematic experiments resulted in the first laboratory created "man-made lightning", earning him the nickname the "Forger of Thunderbolts".[4] These were conducted in a football field-sized laboratory at General Electric, using 120,000 volt generators. He also erected a lightning tower to attract natural lightning to study its patterns and effects, which resulted in several theories.[19]

Professional lifeEdit

Steinmetz acted in the following professional capacities:

He was granted an honorary degree from Harvard University in 1901[20] and a doctorate from Union College in 1903.[20]

Steinmetz wrote 13 books and 60 articles, not exclusively about engineering.[further explanation needed] He was a member and adviser to the fraternity Phi Gamma Delta at Union College, whose chapter house was one of the first electrified residences.[22]

While serving as president of the Schenectady Board of Education, Steinmetz introduced numerous progressive reforms, including extended school hours, school meals, school nurses, special classes for the children of immigrants, and the distribution of free textbooks.[13]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Steinmetz posed inside his 1914 Detroit Electric automobile behind some members of his adopted family. From left to right are grandchildren Midge, Billy, and Joe Hayden, and adopted son Joseph LeRoy Hayden.[23]

Steinmetz was affected by kyphosis, as was his father and grandfather. In spite of his love for children and family life, Steinmetz remained unmarried, to prevent his spinal deformity from being passed to any offspring.[13]

When Joseph LeRoy Hayden, a loyal and hardworking lab assistant, announced that he would marry and look for his own living quarters, Steinmetz made the unusual proposal of opening his large home, complete with research lab, greenhouse, and office to the Haydens and their prospective family. Hayden favored the idea, but his future wife was wary of the unorthodox arrangement. She agreed after Steinmetz's assurance that she could run the house as she saw fit.[13]

After an uneasy start, the arrangement worked well for all parties, especially after three Hayden children were born. Steinmetz legally adopted Joseph Hayden as his son, becoming grandfather to the youngsters, entertaining them with fantastic stories and spectacular scientific demonstrations. The unusual, harmonious living arrangement lasted for the rest of Steinmetz's life.[13]

Steinmetz founded America's first glider club, but none of its prototypes "could be dignified with the term 'flight'".[24][25][c]

Steinmetz was a lifelong agnostic.[26][d] He died on October 26, 1923, and was buried in Vale Cemetery in Schenectady.

LegacyEdit

 
Group tour of the Marconi Wireless Station in Somerset, New Jersey in 1921, including Steinmetz (center) and Albert Einstein (to his right)
 
Life-size bronze statue of Charles Steinmetz meeting Thomas Edison

Steinmetz earned wide recognition among the scientific community and numerous awards and honors both during his life and posthumously.

Steinmetz's equation, derived from his experiments, defines the approximate heat energy due to magnetic hysteresis released, per cycle per unit volume of magnetic material. A Steinmetz solid is the solid body generated by the intersection of two or three cylinders of equal radius at right angles. Steinmetz' equivalent circuit is still widely used for the design and testing of induction machines.[27]

One of the highest technical recognitions given by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the "IEEE Charles Proteus Steinmetz Award", is given for major contributions to standardization within the field of electrical and electronics engineering. Other awards include the Certificate of Merit of Franklin Institute, 1908; the Elliott Cresson Medal, 1913; and the Cedergren Medal, 1914.[28]

The Charles P. Steinmetz Memorial Lecture series was begun in his honor in 1925,[29] sponsored by the Schenectady branch of the IEEE.[30] Through 2017 seventy-three gatherings have taken place, held almost exclusively at Union College, featuring notable figures such as Nobel laureate experimental physicist Robert A. Millikan, helicopter inventor Igor Sikorsky, nuclear submarine pioneer Admiral Hyman G. Rickover (1963), Nobel-winning semiconductor inventor William Shockley, and Internet "founding father" Leonard Kleinrock.[31]

Steinmetz's connection to Union is further celebrated with the annual Steinmetz Symposium,[32] a day-long event in which Union undergraduates give presentations on research they have done. Steinmetz Hall, which houses the Union College computer center, is named after him.

The Charles P. Steinmetz Scholarship is awarded annually by the college,[33] underwritten since its inception in 1923 by the General Electric Company.[30] An additional Charles P. Steinmetz Memorial Scholarship was later established at Union by Marjorie Hayden, daughter of Joseph and Corrine Hayden, and is awarded to students majoring in engineering or physics.[34]

A 1914 "Duplex Drive Brougham" Detroit Electric automobile that once belonged to Steinmetz was purchased by Union College in 1971, and restored for use in campus ceremonies. The Steinmetz car is permanent displayed in the first-floor corridor between the Wold Center and F.W. Olin building.[35][36]

A Chicago public high school, Steinmetz College Prep, is named for him,[37] as well as a Schenectady public school, the Steinmetz Career and Leadership Academy.

A public park in north Schenectady, New York was named for him in 1931.[38]

In 1983, the US Post Office included Steinmetz in a series of postage stamps commemorating American inventors.[39]

In May 2015, a life-size bronze statue of Charles Steinmetz meeting Thomas Edison by sculptor and caster Dexter Benedict was unveiled on a plaza on the corner of Erie Boulevards and South Ferry Street in Schenectady.[40]

In popular cultureEdit

Steinmetz is featured in John Dos Passos' U.S.A. trilogy in one of the biographies.[41] He also serves as a major character in Starling Lawrence's The Lightning Keeper.[42]

Steinmetz is a major character in the novel Electric City by Elizabeth Rosner.

Moe sarcastically refers to Curly as a "Steinmetz" in the 1944 Three Stooges short Busy Buddies.[43]

Steinmetz was portrayed in 1959 by the actor Rod Steiger in the CBS television anthology series, The Joseph Cotten Show. The episode focused on his socialist activities in Germany.[44]

A famous anecdote about Steinmetz concerns a troubleshooting consultation at Henry Ford's River Rouge Plant. A humorous aspect of the story is the "itemized bill" he submitted for the work performed.[13]

BibliographyEdit

PatentsEdit

At the time of his death, Steinmetz held over 200 patents:[3]

  • U.S. Patent 533,244, "System of distribution by alternating current" (January 29, 1895)
  • U.S. Patent 559,419, "Inductor dynamo"
  • U.S. Patent 583,950, "Three phase induction meter"
  • U.S. Patent 594,145, "Inductor dynamo"
  • U.S. Patent 714,412, "Induction motor"
  • U.S. Patent 717,464, "System of electrical distribution"
  • U.S. Patent 865,617, "Induction motor"
  • U.S. Patent 1,025,932, "Means for producing light" (May 7, 1912)
  • U.S. Patent 1,042,986, "Induction furnace"
  • U.S. Patent 1,230,615, "Protective device"
  • U.S. Patent RE11576, "Inductor dynamo"

WorksEdit

  • Steinmetz (1892). "On the Law of Hysteresis". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. IX (2): 3–64. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1892.5570437. S2CID 41139163.
  • Steinmetz & Berg (1894). "Complex Quantities and Their Use in Electrical Engineering". Proceedings of the International Electrical Congress Held in the City of Chicago, August 21st to 25th, 1893. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. pp. 33–74.
  • Steinmetz (1895). "Theory of the General Alternating Current Transformer". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XIIth General Meeting: 245–256. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1895.4763861. S2CID 51631303.
  • Steinmetz; Berg (1897). Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena (1st ed.). New York: Electrical World and Engineer. OL 7218906M. This book's first edition was expanded and updated in many subsequent editions.
  • Steinmetz (1897). "The Alternating Current Induction Motor". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XIV (1): 183–217. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1897.5570186. S2CID 51652760.
  • Steinmetz (1898). "The Natural Period of a Transmission Line and the Frequency of Lightning Discharge Therefrom" (PDF): 203–205. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Steinmetz (1901). "Speed Regulation of Prime Movers and Parallel Operation of Alternators". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 157th Meeting: 741–744. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1901.4764200. S2CID 51630424.
  • Steinmetz (1902). Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering (2nd ed.). New York: Electrical World and Engineer.
  • Steinmetz (1904). "The Alternating-Current Railway Motor". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 183rd: 9–25. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1904.4764436. S2CID 51639034.
  • Steinmetz (1907). "Lightning Phenomena in Electric Circuits". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVI (1): 401–423. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1907.6742407. S2CID 51661312.
  • Steinmetz (1908a). "Electrical Engineering Education". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVII (1): 79–85. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1908.4768047. S2CID 51639619.
  • Steinmetz (1908b). "Future of Electricity". New York: Lecture delivered to the students of the New York Electrical Trade School: 75–89. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1908.4768047. S2CID 51639619. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Steinmetz (1908c). "Primary Standard of Light". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVII (2): 1319–1324. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1908.6741999. S2CID 51661636.
  • Steinmetz (1908d). "The General Equations of the Electric Circuit". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVII (2): 1231–1305. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1908.6742132. S2CID 51630604.
  • Steinmetz (1908e). Hayden (ed.). General Lectures on Electrical Engineering. Schenectady, NY: Robson & Adee.
  • Steinmetz (1909a). "Prime Movers". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVIII (2): 63–84. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1909.6659726.
  • Steinmetz (1909b). "The Value of the Classics in Engineering Education". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXVIII (2): 1103–1106. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1909.4768232. S2CID 51655383.
  • Steinmetz (1909c). Hayden (ed.). Radiation, Light and Illumination : A Series of Engineering Lectures Delivered at Union College. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Hayden; Steinmetz (1910). "Disruptive Strength with Transient Voltages". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXIX (5): 1125–1158. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1910.6659996. S2CID 51658987.
  • Steinmetz (1910). "Mechanical Forces in Magnetic Fields". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXIX (12): 367–385. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1910.6660496. S2CID 51674164.
  • Steinmetz (1911a). Engineering Mathematics; A Series of Lectures Delivered at Union College. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Steinmetz (1911b). Elementary Lectures on Electric Discharges, Waves and Impulses, and Other Transients. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Steinmetz (1911c). Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric Phenomena and Oscillations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Steinmetz (1912a). "Some Problems of High-Voltage Transmissions". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXI (1): 167–173. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1912.6659629. S2CID 51646565.
  • Steinmetz (1912b). "The death of energy and the second law of thermodynamics, with particular reference to the thermodynamics of the atmosphere". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXI (8): 419–424. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1912.6660272.
  • Steinmetz (1914a). "Instability of Electric Circuits". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXIII (1): 2005–2021. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1914.6661036. S2CID 51673393.
  • Steinmetz (1914b). "Recording Devices". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXIII (1): 283–292. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1914.4765133. S2CID 51663159.
  • Steinmetz (1916a). "Outline of Theory of Impulse Currents". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXV (1): 1–31. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1916.6590573. S2CID 51643938.
  • Steinmetz (1916b). America and the New Epoch. New York & London: Harper & Brothers.
  • Steinmetz (1917). Theory and Calculation of Electric Apparatus. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Steinmetz (1918a). "America's Energy Supply". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXVII (2): 985–1014. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1918.6594102.
  • Steinmetz (1918b). "The Oxide Film Lightning Arrester". Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXVII (2): 871–880. doi:10.1109/PAIEE.1918.6594099. S2CID 51654897.
  • Steinmetz (1919). "The General Equations of the Electric Circuit-III". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXVIII (1): 191–260. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1919.4765606. S2CID 51640012.
  • Steinmetz (1920). "Power Control and Stability of Electric Generating Stations". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XXXIX (2): 1215–1287. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1920.4765322. S2CID 51646533.
  • Steinmetz (1922). "Condenser Discharges Through a General Gas Circuit". Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XLI (8): 63–76. doi:10.1109/JoAIEE.1922.6591026. S2CID 51668690.
  • Hayden; Steinmetz (1923). "High-Voltage Insulation". Journal of the A.I.E.E. XLII (3): 1029–1042. doi:10.1109/JAIEE.1924.6534047. S2CID 51630818.
  • Steinmetz (1923a). "Frequency Conversion by Third Class Conductor and Mechanism of the Arcing Ground and Other Cumulative Surges". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. XLII: 470–477. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1923.5060887. S2CID 51630796.
  • Steinmetz (1923b). Four Lectures on Relativity and Space. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Steinmetz (1923c). "Cable Charge and Discharge". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (XLII): 577–592. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1923.5060899. S2CID 51649225.
  • Steinmetz (1924). "Overdamped Condenser Oscillations". Journal of the A.I.E.E. XLIII (5): 126–130. doi:10.1109/JAIEE.1924.6534780. S2CID 51668440.

See alsoEdit

Explanatory notesEdit

  1. ^ Quoting from Alger, "Steinmetz was truly the patron saint of the GE motor business."[2]
  2. ^  , where η is hysteresis coefficient, βmax is maximum flux density and k is an empirical exponent.
  3. ^ He founded the Mohawk Aerial Navigation Company, Ltd.[24] Steinmetz also partnered with others to establish the Mohawk River Aerial Navigation, Transportation, and Exploration Company, Unlimited.[25]
  4. ^ Quoting from Hammond, "This has placed him before the public as an atheist.* The title he did not deny. The writer put him down as a confirmed agnostic, for an atheist is a person who knows there is no God, and Steinmetz was not of that..."[26]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Charles Proteus Steinmetz. Invent Now, Inc. Hall of Fame profile. Invent Now, Inc. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Alger & Arnold 1976, pp. 1380–1383
  3. ^ a b "C. P. Steinmetz". Becklaser.
  4. ^ a b "Steinmetz, Forger of Thunderbolts; Charles Proteus Steinmetz: A Biography by John Winthrop Hammond". The New York Times. November 2, 1924.
  5. ^ a b King, Gilbert. "Charles Proteus Steinmetz, the Wizard of Schenectady".
  6. ^ Knowlton 1949, p. 49, §2-67, eq. 2-66; p. 323, §4-280, eq. 4-47
  7. ^ Knowlton 1949, p. 711, §7-207, fig. 7-84
  8. ^ Clemens, Nora; Greenberger, Robert (August 15, 2011). Discovering the Nature of Energy (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 78. ISBN 978-1448847020.
  9. ^ a b c Kline 2014.
  10. ^ Garlin 1977
  11. ^ Credo: Unitarians and Universalists of Yesteryear Talk about Their Lives and Motivations. Eric Cherry. September 25, 2018. ISBN 9780970549907 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Ronald R. Klein, Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology), 1992 ISBN 978-0801842986,
  13. ^ a b c d e f King, Gilbert. "Charles Proteus Steinmetz, the Wizard of Schenectady". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  14. ^ "Charles Steinmetz: Union's Electrical Wizard". Union College Magazine. November 1, 1998. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
  15. ^ See also IEC Electropedia's: hysteresis, steady state of a system, complex number and transient behaviour.
  16. ^ a b "The Magnetic Force of Charles Proteus Steinmetz". IEEE Power Engineering Review. 16 (9): 7. February 1996. doi:10.1109/MPER.1996.535476. S2CID 44921529.
  17. ^ Bedell, Frederick (1942). "History of A-C Wave Form, Its Determination and Standardization". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 61 (12): 865. doi:10.1109/T-AIEE.1942.5058456. S2CID 51658522.
  18. ^ "Steinmetz, Putting it in Perspective - R, L, and C Elements and the Impedance Concept" (PDF). Zabreb School of Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  19. ^ "Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923)". Open Tesla Research. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Lemelson-MIT Program,"Charles Steinmetz: Improvements to Alternating Current Motor"
  21. ^ "Charles Proteus Steinmetz". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  22. ^ "Union Magazine Winter 2019". Issuu. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  23. ^ "Steinmetz electric car 1914 - Steinmetz, Charles". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  24. ^ a b Crouch, Tom D. (February 7, 2002). A Dream of Wings: Americans and the Airplane, 1875–1905, pp. 171–172.
  25. ^ a b Froehlich, Fritz; Kent, Allen (editors, 1990). 'The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 15, p. 467
  26. ^ a b Hammond 1924, p. 447
  27. ^ Steinmetz & Berg 1897
  28. ^ "Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Pioneer of Alternating Current" (PDF).
  29. ^ "Technology innovator to headline Steinmetz Memorial Lecture - Union College". Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  30. ^ a b "IEEE Schenectady Section". IEEE Schenectady Section History. Schenectady: IEEE. December 13, 2021. Section History founded January 26, 1903.
  31. ^ "Dr. Charles Proteus Steinmetz memorial lecture series".
  32. ^ "Steinmetz Symposium: Celebrating 25 years of student research". Union College. May 9, 2015.
  33. ^ "Charles P. Steinmetz Scholarship (Union College-NY) – Scholarship Library". www.scholarshiplibrary.com. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  34. ^ "Union College, Endowed Scholarships" (PDF).
  35. ^ "Steinmetz car gets prominent spot at Union College". Union College. April 10, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  36. ^ "Steinmetz Car drives into the spotlight". Union College. April 1, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  37. ^ "Who was Charles Steinmetz?". Steinmetz College Prep. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  38. ^ Steinmetz Park Association (2006). "Steinmetz Park Master Plan" (PDF). Schenectady, N.Y. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 20, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  39. ^ "American Inventors, September 21, 1983, Smithsonian Postal Museum".
  40. ^ Bump, Bethany (April 10, 2015). "Edison, Steinmetz statues slated for park near Schenectady GE". The Daily Gazette. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  41. ^ The 42nd Parallel, p. 335.
  42. ^ Smith, Dinitia (May 13, 2006). "Starling Lawrence Writes a Novel About the Early Days of G.E". The New York Times.
  43. ^ "Charles Proteus Steinmetz, The Man Who Either Tamed Lightning, Created Lightning, Neither, or Both". CooperToons website. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  44. ^ On Trial (The Joseph Cotten Show) at IMDb

General sourcesEdit

  • Alger, P.L.; Arnold, R.E. (1976). "The History of Induction Motors in America". Proceedings of the IEEE. 64 (9): 1380–1383. doi:10.1109/PROC.1976.10329. S2CID 42191157.
  • Broderick, John Thomas (1924). Steinmetz and His Discoveries. Robson & Adee.
  • Caldecott, Ernest; Alger, Philip Langdon (1965). Steinmetz the Philosopher. Schenectady, NY: Mohawk Development Service.
  • "Charles Proteus Steinmetz". IEEE Engineering Management Review. IEEE. 44 (2): 7–9. 2016. doi:10.1109/EMR.2016.2568678.
  • Garlin, Sender (1977). "Charles Steinmetz: Scientist and Socialist (1865–1923): Including the Complete Steinmetz-Lenin Correspondence". Three Radicals. New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies.
  • Gilbert, James B. (Winter 1974). "Collectivism and Charles Steinmetz". Business History Review. 48 (4): 520–540. doi:10.2307/3113539. JSTOR 3113539. S2CID 145106936.
  • Goodrich, Arthur (June 1904). "Charles P. Steinmetz, Electrician". The World's Work. Vol. issue 8. pp. 4867–4869.
  • Hammond, John Winthrop (1924). Charles Proteus Steinmetz: A Biography. New York: The Century & Co.
  • Hart, Larry (1978). Steinmetz in Schenectady: A Picture History of Three Memorable Decades. Old Dorp Books.
  • Kline, Ronald R. (1992). Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Kline, Ronald (2014). "Steinmetz, Charles". In Slotten, Hugh Richard (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199766666.
  • Knowlton, A. E. (1949). Standard Electrical of Electrical Engineers. McGraw-Hill. ch. 2-Electric & Magnetic Circuits, ch. 4- Properties of Materials, ch. 7 - AC Generators & Motors
  • Lavine, Sigmund A. (1955). Steinmetz, Maker of Lightning. Dodd, Mead & Co.
  • Leonard, Jonathan Norton (1929). Loki: The Life of Charles Proteus Steinmetz. New York: Doubleday.
  • Miller, Floyd (1962). The Electrical Genius of Liberty Hall: Charles Proteus Steinmetz. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Miller, John Anderson; Steinmetz, Charles Proteus (1958). Modern Jupiter: The Story of Charles Proteus Steinmetz. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  • Remscheid, Emil J.; Charves, Virginia Remscheid (1977). Recollections of Steinmetz: A Visit to the Workshops of Dr. Charles Proteus Steinmetz. General Electric Company, Research and Development.
  • Whitehead, John B., Jr. (1901). "Book Review: Alternating Current Phenomena" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 7 (9): 399–408. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1901-00825-7.

External linksEdit

  • "Charles Steinmetz: Union's Electrical Wizard", Union College Magazine, November 1, 1998.
  • Finding Aid to Charles Steinmetz Papers, Schenectady County Historical Society.
  • Charles Proteus Steinmetz, the Wizard of Schenectady Archived November 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Smithsonian Institution
  • Charles Proteus Steinmetz: Accomplishments and Life, Edison Tech Center, Hall of Fame
  • United States Supreme Court, Steinmetz v. Allen, 192 U.S. 543 (1904). Steinmetz v. Allen, Commissioner of Patents. No. 383. Argued January 12, 13, 1904. Decided February 23, 1904.
  • Divine Discontent, a documentary on Steinmetz
  • Newspaper clippings about Charles Proteus Steinmetz in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW