Chialoup

Summary

A chialoup (or chaloup) was a type of sloop used in the East Indies, a combination of western (Dutch) and Nusantaran (Indonesian) technologies and techniques. Many of these "boat-ships" were produced by VOC shipwrights in Rembang and Juwana, where the majority of the workers were local Javanese. Chialoups were used by the Dutch East India Company and private merchant-sailors of western and Nusantaran origin.

A chialoup in Cirebon, 1775.

DescriptionEdit

 
Javanese prahu with two rudders.

The chialoup sail plan mimics that used in sloops, with a combination of square-rigged and fore-and-aft sails. The boats are usually single-decked with one mast, sometimes with an added mizzen mast.[1]: 34  While most such chialoups use a European-style central rudder, some are equipped with two side (quarter) rudders, a characteristic of Nusantaran boats. The length is between 15 and 25 meters, with a cargo bay almost 6 meters long. Depending on the size of the boat, crews run 20 to 40 people, with a typical load capacity of 72 to 144 metric tons.[2] In the syahbandar's (harbourmaster) record of Malacca a chialoup is listed carrying up to 200 tons of cargo and a crew of 75 people.[3] Chialoups on average were armed with 4 cannons, 1 swivel gun, and 7 snaphaunces.[4]

In the era after 1820, chialoups gradually disappeared from the "List of Ships and Sea Vehicles from the East Indies", a periodical published by the colonial government of the Dutch East Indies, and the term chialoup appeared more rarely in newspapers, replaced with kotter, a Dutch word for a type of sloop.[5]: 37 [6]: 434, 444 [7]: 42 

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Knaap, Gerrit (1996). Shallow Waters, Rising Tide. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-67-18102-0.
  2. ^ Groenewegen, G. (1789). Verzameling van vier en tachtig stuks Hollandsche schepen : geteekend en in koper gebragt. Rotterdam: J. van den Brink.
  3. ^ Lee, Kam Hing (1986): 'The Shipping Lists of Dutch Melaka: A Source for the Study of Coastal Trade and Shipping in the Malay Peninsula During the 17th and 18th Centuries', in Mohd. Y. Hashim (ed.), Ships and Sunken Treasure (Kuala Lumpur: Persatuan Muzium Malaysia), p. 53-76.
  4. ^ Knaap, Gerrit (1999). "Shipping and Trade in Java, c. 1775: A Quantitative Analysis". Modern Asian Studies. 33: 405–420.
  5. ^ Bruijn Kops, G.F. de (1854): 'Iets over de Zeevaart in den Indischen Archipel', Tijdschrift voor Nijverheid en Landbouw in Nederlandsch-Indië, 1, 21-69.
  6. ^ Bruyn Kops, G.F. de (1921): 'Vaartuigen', in D.G. Stibbe and C. Spat (eds.), Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië (5; ‘sGravenhage: Nijhoff), 422-446
  7. ^ Liebner, Horst H. (2016). Beberapa Catatan Akan Sejarah Pembuatan Perahu Dan Pelayaran Nusantara. Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture.

Further readingEdit

  • Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. "Layar dan Perahu Tipe Barat". Pinisi.org. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  • Ship types of VOC