Chinese Academy of Sciences

Summary

Chinese Academy of Sciences
中国科学院
CAS logo 2.png
Agency overview
Formed1949; 71 years ago (1949)
HeadquartersBeijing, China
Agency executive
Parent agencyState Council of China
Websiteenglish.cas.cn
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Simplified Chinese中国科学院
Traditional Chinese中國科學院

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Chinese: 中国科学院) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the "Two Academies (两院)" along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing,[1] with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

It is the world's largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes,[2][3] and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world.[4][5][6]

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since its inception in 2016, by Nature Research.[7]

Organization

Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters

The Chinese Academy originated in the Academia Sinica founded, in 1928, by the Republic of China. After the Communist Party took control of mainland China, the residual of Academia Sinica was renamed Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), while others relocated to Taiwan.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has six academic divisions:

The CAS has thirteen regional branches, in Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. It has over one hundred institutes and two universities (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui, and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing). Backed by the institutes of CAS, UCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, [Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries, including eight companies listed on stock exchanges.

Being granted a Fellowship of the Academy represents the highest level of national honor for Chinese scientists. The CAS membership system includes Academicians (院士), Emeritus Academicians (荣誉院士) and Foreign Academicians (外籍院士).

Research reputation and ranking

The Chinese Academy of Sciences was ranked #1 in the 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.[8][9][10][11]

List of presidents

Academy members

Membership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known by the title Academician (CAS), Chinese: 中国科学院院士) is a lifelong honor given to Chinese scientists who have made significant achievements in various fields. According to Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences adopted in 1992 and recently amended in 2014, it is the highest academic title in China. A formal CAS member must hold Chinese citizenship, although foreigners can be elected as foreign CAS members. Members older than 80 are designated as "senior members" and may no longer hold leading positions in the organization.[12] Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carry an obligation to advance science and technology, to advocate and uphold scientific spirit, to develop a scientific and technological workforce, to attend member meetings and receive consultation and evaluation tasks, and to promote international exchanges and cooperation. Academicians can give suggestions and influence Chinese state policy related to science and technology.[13]

Research institutes

Main entrance to Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, CAS, in Ningbo, Zhejiang
Institute of Computing Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing

Scientific integrity

On 26 February 2007, CAS published a Declaration of Scientific Ideology and set up a commission for scientific integrity to promote transparency, autonomy and accountability of scientific research in the country. The Ministry of Science and Technology had at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs.[17]

Publications

Science China  
LanguageEnglish
Standard abbreviations
ISO 4Sci. China

Together with the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the academy publishes the peer-reviewed academic journal, Science China (also known as Science in China). Science China comprises seven series:[18]

  • A: Mathematics
  • B: Chemistry
  • C: Life Sciences
  • D: Earth Sciences
  • E: Technological Sciences
  • F: Information Sciences
  • G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy

CAS also promotes the China Open Access Journals (COAJ) platform,[19] a national variant of the international Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

Awards

Since 1999 the CAS has issued the annual State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, presented by the President of China to the recipient.[20]

International cooperation

The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth is a branch of CAS. The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth was a customer of Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which provides data transmission services from satellites for a wide range of societal functions. [21]> It was reported by Reuters on 21 September 2020 that SSC decided not to renew the contracts with China to help operate Chinese satellites from SSC's ground stations, or seek new business with China.[22]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Contact." Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on May 31, 2018. "Add 52 Sanlihe Rd., Xicheng District, Beijing, China Postcode: 100864" - Address in Chinese: "地址:北京市三里河路52号 邮政编码:100864"
  2. ^ "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015".
  3. ^ Cao, Cong (2015). UNESCO Science Report (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 621–641. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.
  4. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2013–2014". Nature. 522 (7556): S34–S44. 2015. doi:10.1038/522S34a. ISSN 0028-0836.
  5. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2016 tables".
  6. ^ "Nature Index". natureindex.com.
  7. ^ "Nature Index". Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Nature Index Annual Tables 2017". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  10. ^ "10 institutions that dominated science in 2017". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Introduction to the Nature Index". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  12. ^ "中国科学院院士章程 [Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences]". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  13. ^ "Obligations and Rights of a CAS Member". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  14. ^ "中国科学院上海巴斯德研究所", 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese), 7 March 2020, retrieved 28 June 2020
  15. ^ Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). "First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep". Nature. 553 (7689): 387–388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29368720. “This paper really marks the beginning of a new era for biomedical research,” says Xiong Zhi-Qi, a neuroscientist who studies brain disease at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience (ION) in Shanghai.
  16. ^ "Director's Introduction". Institute of Neuroscience. Retrieved 25 January 2018. As part of a major drive for excellence in basic research in the new millennium, the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the Institute of Neuroscience (ION) on November 27, 1999.
  17. ^ The Lancet (17 March 2007). "Reforming research in China". The Lancet. 369 (9565): 880. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60419-X. PMID 17368128. S2CID 205948464.
  18. ^ "Science in China Press".
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ "China in Brief – Science and Technology – Awards". China Internet Information Center (State Council Information Office and the China International Publishing Group). Retrieved 21 November 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ SSC. "Appendix of SSC's Chinese customers" (PDF). SSC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  22. ^ Ahlander, Johan; Barrett, Jonathan. "Swedish space agency halts new business helping China operate satellites". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.

Sources

  • Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0. Text taken from UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, 621–641, UNESCO Publishing. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

External links

  • Media related to Chinese Academy of Sciences at Wikimedia Commons