Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe.jpg
BornBaptised 26 February 1564
Canterbury, Kent, England
Died30 May 1593 (aged 29)
Deptford, Kent, England
Resting placeChurchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, Kent, England; unmarked; memorial plaques inside and outside church
NationalityEnglish
Alma materCorpus Christi College, Cambridge
Occupation
  • Playwright
  • poet
Years active1564–93
Era
MovementEnglish Renaissance
Parents

Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (/ˈmɑːrloʊ/; baptised 26 February 1564 – 30 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.[1] Modern scholars count Marlowe among the most famous of the Elizabethan playwrights and based upon the "many imitations" of his play Tamburlaine consider him to have been the foremost dramatist in London in the years just before his mysterious early death.[2] Some scholars also believe that he greatly influenced William Shakespeare, who was baptised in the same year as Marlowe and later became the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright.[3] Marlowe's plays are the first to use blank verse, which became the standard for the era, and are distinguished by their overreaching protagonists.[4] Themes found within Marlowe's literary works have been noted as humanistic with realistic emotions, which some scholars find difficult to reconcile with Marlowe's "anti-intellectualism" and his catering to the taste of his Elizabethan audiences for generous displays of extreme physical violence, cruelty, and bloodshed.[5]

Events in Marlowe's life were sometimes as extreme as those found in his dramas. Circumstances of Marlowe’s death in 1593 were particularly infamous in his day and are contested by scholars today due to a lack of good documentation. Traditionally, the playwright’s death has been blamed on a long list of conjectures, including a barroom fight, church libel, homosexual intrigue, betrayal by another playwright, and espionage from the highest level: Queen Elizabeth I’s Privy Council. An official coroner account of Marlowe’s death was only revealed in 1925,[6] but it did little to persuade all scholars that it told the whole story nor did it eliminate the uncertainties present in his biography.[7] For 400 years, the conflict between his dissident expression and the literary expectations of critics, made discussion and performance of his works complex and difficult to resolve. However, in spite of these obstacles, canonization of the works of Christopher Marlowe occurred in 1993, the anniversary of his death, confirming the significance of his talents as a writer, the relevance of his work to the study of English literature and his prime position within the story of Early Modern English drama and poetry.

Early life

Marlowe was christened at St George's Church, in Canterbury.

Marlowe was born in Canterbury to shoemaker John Marlowe and his wife Katherine, daughter of William Arthur of Dover. The date of birth for Marlowe is not known but he was baptised on 26 February 1564 and is likely to have been born a few days before, making him about two months older than William Shakespeare, who was baptised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon.[8][9]

Young Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury (where a house is named after him) and later Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584.[10] In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumour that he intended to go to the English college at Rheims, in northern France, presumably to prepare for ordination as a Roman Catholic priest. If true, such an action on his part would have been in direct violation of a royal edict issued by Queen Elizabeth I in 1585 criminalizing any attempt by an English citizen to be ordained in the Roman Catholic Church.[11]

Largescale violence between Protestants and Catholics on the European continent has been cited by scholars as the impetus of the Protestant English Queen's anti-Catholic laws issued from 1581 until her death in 1603.[12] Despite the dire implications for Marlowe, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen.[13] The nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation by modern scholars, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent for Privy Council member Sir Francis Walsingham.[14] The only surviving evidence of the Privy Council's correspondence is found in their minutes, the letter being lost. There is no mention of espionage in the minutes, but its summation of the lost Privy Council letter contents is ambiguous in meaning, stating that "because it was not Her Majesties pleasure that any imployed as [Marlowe] had been in matters touching the benefit of his country should be defamed by those who are ignorant in th'affaires he went about." Scholars continue to debate what the "matters touching the benefit of his country" actually were and how they affected the 23-year-old Marlowe as he launched his theatrical career in 1587.[15]

Literary career

Plays

Six dramas have been attributed to the authorship of Christopher Marlowe either alone or in collaboration with other writers, with varying degrees of evidence. The writing sequence or chronology of these plays is mostly unknown and is offered here with any dates and evidence known. Among the little available information we have, Dido is believed to be the first Marlowe play performed, while it was Tamburlaine that was first to be performed on a regular commercial stage in London in 1587. Believed by many scholars to be Marlowe's greatest success, Tamburlaine was the first English play written in blank verse, and with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy, is generally considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre.[16]

Works (The dates of composition are approximate).:

The play Lust's Dominion was attributed to Marlowe upon its initial publication in 1657, though scholars and critics have almost unanimously rejected the attribution. He may also have written or co-written Arden of Faversham.

Poetry and Translations

Publication and responses to the poetry and translations credited to Marlowe primarily occurred posthumously, including:

Collaborations

Modern scholars still look for any possible evidence of collaborations between Marlowe and other writers, in addition to those listed in the above chronology. In 2016, one publisher was the first to commit to an endorsement of a collaboration between Marlowe and the playwright William Shakespeare:

  • Henry VI by William Shakespeare is now credited as a collaboration with Marlowe in the New Oxford Shakespeare series, published in 2016. Marlowe appears as co-author of the three Henry VI plays, though some scholars doubt any actual collaboration.[17][18]

Contemporary Reception

Marlowe's plays were enormously successful, possibly due to the imposing stage presence of his lead actor, Edward Alleyn. Alleyn was unusually tall for the time and the haughty roles of Tamburlaine, Faustus and Barabas were probably written for him. Marlowe's plays were the foundation of the repertoire of Alleyn's company, the Admiral's Men, throughout the 1590s. One of Marlowe's poetry translations did not fare as well. In 1599, Marlowe's translation of Ovid was banned and copies were publicly burned as part of Archbishop Whitgift's crackdown on offensive material.

Modern Compendiums

There are at least three major modern scholarly editions of the collected works of Christopher Marlowe:

  • The Complete Works of Christopher Marlowe, (edited by Roma Gill in 1986; Clarendon Press published in partnership with Oxford University Press)
  • The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe, (edited by Patrick Cheney in 2004; Cambridge University Press)
  • The Complete Plays of Christopher Marlowe, (edited by J. B. Steane in 1969; edited by Frank Romany and Robert Lindsey, Revised Edition, 2004.; Penguin)

Chronology of Dramatic Works

This is a possible chronology of composition of the dramatic works of Christopher Marlowe based upon dates provided by various scholars as cited below. The dates of composition are approximate. There are other chronologies for Marlowe, including one based upon dates of printing, as was used in the 2004 Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe, edited by Patrick Cheney.

Title page of the 1594 first edition of Dido, Queen of Carthage

Dido, Queen of Carthage (c. 1587)

First official record: 1594.
First published: 1594; posthumously.
First recorded performance: between 1587 and 1593 by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors in London.[19]
Additional information (significance): This play is believed by many scholars to be the first play by Christopher Marlowe to be performed.
Additional information (attribution): The title page attributes the play to Marlowe and Thomas Nashe, yet some scholars question how much of a contribution Nashe made to the play.
Title page of the 1633 quarto

Tamburlaine, Part I (c. 1587); Part II (c. 1587-88)

First official record: 1587.
First published: 1590.
First recorded performance: London, 1587.
Additional information (title and synopsis): Tamburlaine the Great, about the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), who rises from shepherd to warlord.
Evidence: xxx.[20]
Frontispiece to a 1620 printing of Doctor Faustus showing Faustus conjuring Mephistophilis.
Title page of the earliest published text of Edward II (1594)

The Jew of Malta (c. 1589-1590)

First official record: 1592.
First published: 1592; earliest extant edition, 1633.
First recorded performance: 26 January 1592, by Lord Strange's acting company.[21]
Additional information (title and synopsis): The play was first published as The Famous Tragedy of the Rich Jew of Malta and concerned the Jewish biblical character Barabas and his barbarous revenge against the city authorities of Malta, Spain. The prologue is delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.
Additional information (significance): The performances of the play were a success and it remained popular for the next fifty years.
Evidence: The play was entered in the Stationers' Register on 17 May 1594 but the earliest surviving printed edition is from 1633.

Doctor Faustus (early 1590s)

First official record: 1604.
First published: 1604 (A text); 1616 (B text). Doctor Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto, also known as the 'A text', and the 1616 quarto or 'B text'. Both were published after Marlowe's death. Scholars have disagreed which text is more representative of Marlowe's original and some editions are based on a combination of the two. The scholarly consensus of the late 20th century holds the 'A text' is more representative because it contains irregular character names and idiosyncratic spelling, which are believed to reflect a text based on the author's handwritten manuscript or "foul papers". The 'B text' in comparison, was highly edited and has several additional scenes possibly written by other playwrights.
First recorded performance: unknown.
Additional information (title and synopsis): (or The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus), based on the German Faustbuch, was the first dramatised version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil.[22] Versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates significantly by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or repent to a merciful God to have his contract aned at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead carried off by demons and in the 1616 quarto his mangled corpse is found by several scholars.
Additional information (attribution): The 'B text' was highly edited and censored because of shifting theater laws regarding religious words onstage and contains several additional scenes which scholars believe to be the additions of other playwrights, particularly Samuel Rowley and William Bird (alias Borne).

Edward the Second (c. 1592)

First official record: 1594.
First published: 1590; earliest extant edition 1594.
First recorded performance: unknown.
Additional information (attribution): is an English history play about the deposition of King Edward II by his barons and the Queen, who resent the undue influence the king's favourites have in court and state affairs. The full title of the earliest extant edition of 1594, is The troublesome reigne and lamentable death of Edward the second, King of England, with the tragicall fall of proud Mortimer.
Evidence: The play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 6 July 1593, five weeks after Marlowe's death.

The Massacre at Paris (c. 1593)

A foul sheet from Marlowe's writing of The Massacre at Paris (1593). Reproduced from Folger Shakespeare Library Ms.J.b.8
First official record: early 1590s.
First published: unknown; only surviving text probably a reconstruction.
First recorded performance: unknown.
Additional information (title and synopsis): The full title was The Massacre at Paris: With the Death of the Duke of Guise and it is a short and luridly written work. The play portrays the events of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, which English Protestants invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery.[23] It features the silent "English Agent", whom tradition has identified with Marlowe and his connexions to the secret service.[24]
Additional information (significance): The Massacre at Paris is considered his most dangerous play, as agitators in London seized on its theme to advocate the murders of refugees from the low countries, and it warns Elizabeth I of this possibility in its last scene.[25][26]
Additional information (attribution): The only surviving text of this play is probably a reconstruction from memory of Marlowe's original performance text.

Adult Life and Legend

As with other Elizabethan writers, little is known about Marlowe's adult life. All available evidence, other than published literary works, is found in legal records and other official documents. This has not stopped writers of fiction and non-fiction from speculating about his professional activities, private life and character. Marlowe has often been described as a spy, a brawler and a heretic, as well as a "magician", "duellist", "tobacco-user", "counterfeiter" and "rakehell". While J. A. Downie and Constance Kuriyama have argued against the more lurid speculation, it is the usually circumspect J. B. Steane who remarked, "it seems absurd to dismiss all of these Elizabethan rumours and accusations as 'the Marlowe myth'".[27][28]His mature years were so brief, from 1587 to 1593, that much has been written in an attempt to understand Marlowe's adult life, including speculation of: his involvement in royally-sanctioned espionage; his vocal declaration as an atheist; his private same-gender sexual interests; and the puzzling circumstances surrounding his death.

Spying

The corner of Old Court of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where Marlowe stayed during his studies

Marlowe is alleged to have been a government spy (Park Honan's 2005 biography of Marlowe was even subtitled "Poet and Spy"[29]). The author Charles Nicholl speculates this was the case and suggests that Marlowe's recruitment took place when he was at Cambridge. As noted above, in 1587 the Privy Council ordered the University of Cambridge to award Marlowe his degree of Master of Arts, denying rumours that he intended to go to the English Catholic college in Rheims, saying instead that he had been engaged in unspecified "affaires" on "matters touching the benefit of his country".[30] Surviving college records from the period also indicate that Marlowe had had a series of unusually lengthy absences from the university (much longer than permitted by university regulations) that began in the academic year 1584–1585. Surviving college buttery (provisions store) accounts indicate he began spending lavishly on food and drink during the periods he was in attendance, more than he could have afforded on his known scholarship income.[31][nb 1]

It has been speculated that Marlowe was the "Morley" who was tutor to Arbella Stuart in 1589.[33] This possibility was first raised in a Times Literary Supplement letter by E. St John Brooks in 1937; in a letter to Notes and Queries, John Baker has added that only Marlowe could have been Arbella's tutor due to the absence of any other known "Morley" from the period with an MA and not otherwise occupied.[34] If Marlowe was Arbella's tutor (and some biographers think that the "Morley" in question may have been a brother of the musician Thomas Morley), it might indicate that he was there as a spy, since Arbella, niece of Mary, Queen of Scots, and cousin of James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, was at the time a strong candidate for the succession to Elizabeth's throne.[35][36] Frederick S. Boas dismisses the possibility of this identification, based on surviving legal records which document his "residence in London between September and December 1589". Marlowe had been party to a fatal quarrel involving his neighbours and the poet Thomas Watson in Norton Folgate and was held in Newgate Prison for a fortnight.[37] In fact, the quarrel and his arrest was on 18 September, he was released on bail on 1 October and he had to attend court, where he was acquitted on 3 December but there is no record of where he was for the intervening two months.[38]

In 1592 Marlowe was arrested in the town of Flushing (Vlissingen) (then an English garrison town) in the Netherlands, for his alleged involvement in the counterfeiting of coins, presumably related to the activities of seditious Catholics. He was sent to be dealt with by the Lord Treasurer (Burghley) but no charge or imprisonment resulted.[39] This arrest may have disrupted another of Marlowe's spying missions, perhaps by giving the resulting coinage to the Catholic cause. He was to infiltrate the followers of the active Catholic plotter William Stanley and report back to Burghley.[40]

Philosophy

Portrait often claimed to be Thomas Harriot (1602), which hangs in Trinity College, Oxford

Marlowe was reputed to be an atheist, which held the dangerous implication of being an enemy of God and the state, by association.[41] With the rise of public fears concerning The School of Night, or "School of Atheism" in the late 16th century, accusations of atheism were closely associated with disloyalty to the Protestant monarchy of England.[42]

Some modern historians consider that Marlowe's professed atheism, as with his supposed Catholicism, may have been no more than a sham to further his work as a government spy.[43] Contemporary evidence comes from Marlowe's accuser in Flushing, an informer called Richard Baines. The governor of Flushing had reported that each of the men had "of malice" accused the other of instigating the counterfeiting and of intending to go over to the Catholic "enemy"; such an action was considered atheistic by the Church of England. Following Marlowe's arrest in 1593, Baines submitted to the authorities a "note containing the opinion of one Christopher Marly concerning his damnable judgment of religion, and scorn of God's word".[44] Baines attributes to Marlowe a total of eighteen items which "scoff at the pretensions of the Old and New Testament" such as, "Christ was a bastard and his mother dishonest [unchaste]", "the woman of Samaria and her sister were whores and that Christ knew them dishonestly", "St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom" (cf. John 13:23–25) and "that he used him as the sinners of Sodom".[28] He also implied that Marlowe had Catholic sympathies. Other passages are merely sceptical in tone: "he persuades men to atheism, willing them not to be afraid of bugbears and hobgoblins". The final paragraph of Baines's document reads:

These thinges, with many other shall by good & honest witnes be approved to be his opinions and Comon Speeches, and that this Marlowe doth not only hould them himself, but almost into every Company he Cometh he persuades men to Atheism willing them not to be afeard of bugbeares and hobgoblins, and vtterly scorning both god and his ministers as I Richard Baines will Justify & approue both by mine oth and the testimony of many honest men, and almost al men with whome he hath Conversed any time will testify the same, and as I think all men in Cristianity ought to indevor that the mouth of so dangerous a member may be stopped, he saith likewise that he hath quoted a number of Contrarieties oute of the Scripture which he hath giuen to some great men who in Convenient time shalbe named. When these thinges shalbe Called in question the witnes shalbe produced.[45]

Similar examples of Marlowe's statements were given by Thomas Kyd after his imprisonment and possible torture (see above); Kyd and Baines connect Marlowe with the mathematician Thomas Harriot's and Sir Walter Raleigh's circle.[46] Another document claimed about that time that "one Marlowe is able to show more sound reasons for Atheism than any divine in England is able to give to prove divinity, and that ... he hath read the Atheist lecture to Sir Walter Raleigh and others".[47][28]

Some critics believe that Marlowe sought to disseminate these views in his work and that he identified with his rebellious and iconoclastic protagonists.[48] Plays had to be approved by the Master of the Revels before they could be performed and the censorship of publications was under the control of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Presumably these authorities did not consider any of Marlowe's works to be unacceptable other than the Amores.

Sexuality

Marlowe is believed to have been homosexual. Some scholars argue that the identification of an Elizabethan as gay or homosexual in a modern sense is "anachronistic," claiming that for the Elizabethans the terms were more likely to have been applied to sexual acts rather than to what we understand to be exclusive sexual orientations and identities.[49] Other scholars argue that the evidence is inconclusive and that the reports of Marlowe's homosexuality may be rumours produced after his death. Richard Baines reported Marlowe as saying: "all they that love not Tobacco & Boies were fools". David Bevington and Eric Rasmussen describe Baines's evidence as "unreliable testimony" and "These and other testimonials need to be discounted for their exaggeration and for their having been produced under legal circumstances we would regard as a witch-hunt".[50]

J. B. Steane remarked that he considered there to be "no evidence for Marlowe's homosexuality at all".[28] Other scholars point to homosexual themes in Marlowe's writing: in Hero and Leander, Marlowe writes of the male youth Leander: "in his looks were all that men desire..."[51][52][53][54] Edward the Second contains the following passage enumerating homosexual relationships:

The mightiest kings have had their minions;
Great Alexander loved Hephaestion,
The conquering Hercules for Hylas wept;
And for Patroclus, stern Achilles drooped.
And not kings only, but the wisest men:
The Roman Tully loved Octavius,
Grave Socrates, wild Alcibiades.[55]

Marlowe wrote the only play about the life of Edward II up to his time, taking the humanist literary discussion of male sexuality much further than his contemporaries. The play was extremely bold, dealing with a star-crossed love story between Edward II and Piers Gaveston. Though it was a common practice at the time to reveal characters as gay to give audiences reason to suspect them as culprits in a crime, Christopher Marlowe's Edward II is portrayed as a sympathetic character.[56]

Arrest and death

Marlowe was buried in an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St Nicholas, Deptford. This modern plaque is on the east wall of the churchyard.

In early May 1593, several bills were posted about London threatening Protestant refugees from France and the Netherlands who had settled in the city. One of these, the "Dutch church libel", written in rhymed iambic pentameter, contained allusions to several of Marlowe's plays and was signed, "Tamburlaine".[57] On 11 May the Privy Council ordered the arrest of those responsible for the libels. The next day, Marlowe's colleague Thomas Kyd was arrested, his lodgings were searched and a three-page fragment of a heretical tract was found. In a letter to Sir John Puckering, Kyd asserted that it had belonged to Marlowe, with whom he had been writing "in one chamber" some two years earlier.[58][46] In a second letter, Kyd described Marlowe as blasphemous, disorderly, holding treasonous opinions, being an irreligious reprobate and "intemperate & of a cruel hart".[59] They had both been working for an aristocratic patron, probably Ferdinando Stanley, Lord Strange.[59] A warrant for Marlowe's arrest was issued on 18 May, when the Privy Council apparently knew that he might be found staying with Thomas Walsingham, whose father was a first cousin of the late Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth's principal secretary in the 1580s and a man more deeply involved in state espionage than any other member of the Privy Council.[60] Marlowe duly presented himself on 20 May but there apparently being no Privy Council meeting on that day, was instructed to "give his daily attendance on their Lordships, until he shall be licensed to the contrary".[61] On Wednesday, 30 May, Marlowe was killed.

Various accounts of Marlowe's death were current over the next few years. In his Palladis Tamia, published in 1598, Francis Meres says Marlowe was "stabbed to death by a bawdy serving-man, a rival of his in his lewd love" as punishment for his "epicurism and atheism".[62] In 1917, in the Dictionary of National Biography, Sir Sidney Lee wrote that Marlowe was killed in a drunken fight and this is still often stated as fact today. The official account came to light only in 1925, when the scholar Leslie Hotson discovered the coroner's report of the inquest on Marlowe's death, held two days later on Friday 1 June 1593, by the Coroner of the Queen's Household, William Danby.[63] Marlowe had spent all day in a house in Deptford, owned by the widow Eleanor Bull and together with three men: Ingram Frizer, Nicholas Skeres and Robert Poley. All three had been employed by one or other of the Walsinghams. Skeres and Poley had helped snare the conspirators in the Babington plot and Frizer would later describe Thomas Walsingham as his "master" at that time, although his role was probably more that of a financial or business agent, as he was for Walsingham's wife Audrey a few years later.[64][65] These witnesses testified that Frizer and Marlowe had argued over payment of the bill (now famously known as the 'Reckoning') exchanging "divers malicious words" while Frizer was sitting at a table between the other two and Marlowe was lying behind him on a couch. Marlowe snatched Frizer's dagger and wounded him on the head. In the ensuing struggle, according to the coroner's report, Marlowe was stabbed above the right eye, killing him instantly. The jury concluded that Frizer acted in self-defence and within a month he was pardoned. Marlowe was buried in an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford immediately after the inquest, on 1 June 1593.[66]

The complete text of the inquest report was published by Leslie Hotson in his book, The Death of Christopher Marlowe, in the introduction to which Prof. George Kittredge said "The mystery of Marlowe's death, heretofore involved in a cloud of contradictory gossip and irresponsible guess-work, is now cleared up for good and all on the authority of public records of complete authenticity and gratifying fullness" but this confidence proved fairly short-lived. Hotson had considered the possibility that the witnesses had "concocted a lying account of Marlowe's behaviour, to which they swore at the inquest, and with which they deceived the jury" but came down against that scenario.[67] Others began to suspect that this was indeed the case. Writing to the TLS shortly after the book's publication, Eugénie de Kalb disputed that the struggle and outcome as described were even possible and Samuel A. Tannenbaum insisted the following year that such a wound could not have possibly resulted in instant death, as had been claimed.[68][69] Even Marlowe's biographer John Bakeless acknowledged that "some scholars have been inclined to question the truthfulness of the coroner's report. There is something queer about the whole episode" and said that Hotson's discovery "raises almost as many questions as it answers".[70] It has also been discovered more recently that the apparent absence of a local county coroner to accompany the Coroner of the Queen's Household would, if noticed, have made the inquest and void.[71]

One of the main reasons for doubting the truth of the inquest concerns the reliability of Marlowe's companions as witnesses.[72] As an agent provocateur for the late Sir Francis Walsingham, Robert Poley was a consummate liar, the "very genius of the Elizabethan underworld" and is on record as saying "I will swear and forswear myself, rather than I will accuse myself to do me any harm".[73][74] The other witness, Nicholas Skeres, had for many years acted as a confidence trickster, drawing young men into the clutches of people in the money-lending racket, including Marlowe's apparent killer, Ingram Frizer, with whom he was engaged in such a swindle.[75] Despite their being referred to as "generosi" (gentlemen) in the inquest report, the witnesses were professional liars. Some biographers, such as Kuriyama and Downie, take the inquest to be a true account of what occurred but in trying to explain what really happened if the account was not true, others have come up with a variety of murder theories.[76][77]

  • Jealous of her husband Thomas's relationship with Marlowe, Audrey Walsingham arranged for the playwright to be murdered.[78]
  • Sir Walter Raleigh arranged the murder, fearing that under torture Marlowe might incriminate him.[79]
  • With Skeres the main player, the murder resulted from attempts by the Earl of Essex to use Marlowe to incriminate Sir Walter Raleigh.[80]
  • He was killed on the orders of father and son Lord Burghley and Sir Robert Cecil, who thought that his plays contained Catholic propaganda.[81]
  • He was accidentally killed while Frizer and Skeres were pressuring him to pay back money he owed them.[82]
  • Marlowe was murdered at the behest of several members of the Privy Council who feared that he might reveal them to be atheists.[83]
  • The Queen ordered his assassination because of his subversive atheistic behaviour.[84]
  • Frizer murdered him because he envied Marlowe's close relationship with his master Thomas Walsingham and feared the effect that Marlowe's behaviour might have on Walsingham's reputation.[85]
  • Marlowe's death was faked to save him from trial and execution for subversive atheism.[86]

Since there are only written documents on which to base any conclusions and since it is probable that the most crucial information about his death was never committed to paper, it is unlikely that the full circumstances of Marlowe's death will ever be known.

Reputation among contemporary writers

Michael Drayton in 1599

For his contemporaries in the literary world, Marlowe was above all an admired and influential artist. Within weeks of his death, George Peele remembered him as "Marley, the Muses' darling"; Michael Drayton noted that he "Had in him those brave translunary things / That the first poets had" and Ben Jonson wrote of "Marlowe's mighty line". Thomas Nashe wrote warmly of his friend, "poor deceased Kit Marlowe". So too did the publisher Edward Blount, in the dedication of Hero and Leander to Sir Thomas Walsingham. Among the few contemporary dramatists to say anything negative about Marlowe was the anonymous author of the Cambridge University play The Return From Parnassus (1598) who wrote, "Pity it is that wit so ill should dwell, / Wit lent from heaven, but vices sent from hell".

The most famous tribute to Marlowe was paid by Shakespeare in As You Like It, where he not only quotes a line from Hero and Leander ("Dead Shepherd, now I find thy saw of might, 'Who ever lov'd that lov'd not at first sight?'") but also gives to the clown Touchstone the words "When a man's verses cannot be understood, nor a man's good wit seconded with the forward child, understanding, it strikes a man more dead than a great reckoning in a little room".[87] This appears to be a reference to Marlowe's murder which involved a fight over the "reckoning", the bill, as well as to a line in Marlowe's Jew of Malta; "Infinite riches in a little room".

Shakespeare was much influenced by Marlowe in his work, as can be seen in the use of Marlovian themes in Antony and Cleopatra, The Merchant of Venice, Richard II and Macbeth (Dido, Jew of Malta, Edward II and Doctor Faustus, respectively). In Hamlet, after meeting with the travelling actors, Hamlet requests the Player perform a speech about the Trojan War, which at 2.2.429–32 has an echo of Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. In Love's Labour's Lost Shakespeare brings on a character "Marcade" (three syllables) in conscious acknowledgement of Marlowe's character "Mercury", also attending the King of Navarre, in Massacre at Paris. The significance, to those of Shakespeare's audience who were familiar with Hero and Leander, was Marlowe's identification of himself with the god Mercury.[88]

As Shakespeare

An argument has arisen about the notion that Marlowe may have faked his death and then continued to write under the assumed name of William Shakespeare. Orthodox academic consensus rejects alternative candidates for authorship of Shakespeare's plays and sonnets, including Marlowe.[89]

Memorials

The Muse of Poetry, part of the Marlowe Memorial in Canterbury

A Marlowe Memorial in the form of a bronze sculpture of The Muse of Poetry by Edward Onslow Ford was erected by subscription in Buttermarket, Canterbury in 1891.[90] In July 2002, a memorial window to Marlowe, a gift of the Marlowe Society, was unveiled in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.[91] Controversially, a question mark was added to the generally accepted date of death.[92] On 25 October 2011 a letter from Paul Edmondson and Stanley Wells was published by The Times newspaper, in which they called on the Dean and Chapter to remove the question mark on the grounds that it "flew in the face of a mass of unimpugnable evidence". In 2012, they renewed this call in their e-book Shakespeare Bites Back, adding that it "denies history" and again the following year in their book Shakespeare Beyond Doubt.[93][94]

The Marlowe Theatre in Canterbury, Kent, UK[95]

Marlowe in fiction

  • Marlowe as a character in film:
Shakespeare in Love, directed by John Madden, with Rupert Everett as Marlowe, 1998[96]

Works of Marlowe in performance

Poster for the WPA Federal Theatre Project production of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, New York City (1937)

Modern productions of the plays of Christopher Marlowe have increased in frequency throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, including the following notable productions:

Broadcast of all six Marlowe plays, May to October, 1993.[97]
Dido, Queen of Carthage, directed by Kimberly Sykes, with Chipo Chung as Dido, 2017.[98]
Tamburlaine the Great, directed by Terry Hands, with Anthony Sher as Tamburlaine, 1993;
directed by Michael Boyd, 2018.[99]
The Jew of Malta, directed by Barry Kyle, 1987;
directed by Justin Audibert, 2015.[100][101]
Edward II, directed by Gerard Murphy, with Simon Russell Beale as Edward, 1990.
Doctor Faustus, directed by John Barton, with Ian McKellan as Faustus, 1974[102];
directed by Barry Kyle, 1989;[103]
directed by Maria Aberg, 2016.[104]
Tamburlaine, directed by Peter Hall, with Albert Finney as Tamburlaine, premier production in the new Olivier Theatre, London, 1976.[105]
Edward II, directed by Joe Hill-Gibbins, with John Heffernan as Edward, London, 2013.[106]
Dido, Queen of Carthage, Cottesloe Theater, London, 2009.[107]
Dido, Queen of Carthage, directed by Tim Carroll, London, 2003.
Edward II, directed by Timothy Walker, London, 2003.
  • Other noteworthy productions
Tamburlaine, performed at Yale University, US, 1919;[108]
directed by Tyrone Guthrie, with Donald Wolfit as Tamburlaine, 1959.[109]
Doctor Faustus, co-directed by Orson Welles and John Houseman, with Welles as Faustus and Jack Carter as Mephistopheles, New York, 1937;[110]
directed by Adrian Noble, Royal Exchange, Manchester, 1981.[111]
Edward II directed by Toby Robertson, with John Barton as Edward, Cambridge, 1951;[112]
directed by Toby Robertson, with Derek Jacobi as Edward, Cambridge, 1958;[113]
directed by Toby Robertson, with Ian McKellan as Edward, 1969;[114]
directed by Jim Stone, Washington Stage Company, U.S., 1993;[115]
directed by Jozsef Ruszt, Budapest, 1998;[116]
directed by Michael Grandage, with Joseph Fiennes as Edward, Sheffield Crucible Theatre, UK, 2001.[117]
The Massacre in Paris, directed by Patrice Chéreau, France, 1972.[118]
  • Adaptations
Edward II, Phoenix Society, London, 1923.[119]
Leben Eduards des Zweiten von England, by Bertolt Brecht, (the first play he directed), Munich Chamber Theatre, Germany, 1924.[120]
The Life of Edward II of England, by Marlowe and Brecht, directed by Frank Dunlop, National Theatre, UK, 1968. [121]
Faustus, That Damned Woman by Chris Bush, directed by Caroline Byrne, at Lyric Theatre (Hammersmith), London, 2020.[122]
Doctor Faustus, additional text by Colin Teevan, directed by Jamie Lloyd, with Kit Harington as Faustus, Duke of York's Theatre London, 2016.[123]
Edward II, adapted as a ballet, choreographed by David Bintley, Stuttgart Ballet, Germany, 1995.[124]
  • Film
Doctor Faustus, based on Nevill Coghill’s 1965 production, adapted for Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor, 1967.[125]
Edward II, directed by Derek Jarman, 1991.[126]
Faust, with some Marlowe dialogue, directed by Jan Švankmajer, 1994.[127]

Notes

  1. ^ It is known that some poorer students worked as labourers on the Corpus Christi College chapel, then under construction and were paid by the college with extra food. It has been suggested this may be the reason for the sums noted in Marlowe's entry in the buttery accounts.[32]

References

  1. ^ "Christopher Marlowe was baptised as 'Marlow,' but he spelled his name 'Marley' in his one known surviving signature." David Kathman. "The Spelling and Pronunciation of Shakespeare's Name: Pronunciation."
  2. ^ Robert A. Logan, Shakespeare's Marlowe (2007) pp. 4-5. "During Marlowe's lifetime, the popularity of his plays, Robert Greene's ... remarks ... including the designation "famous", and the many imitations of Tamburlaine suggest that he was for a brief time considered England's foremost dramatist."
  3. ^ Shakespeare's Marlowe, pp. 3, 231-235. No birth records, only baptismal records, have been found for Marlowe and Shakespeare, therefore any reference to a birthdate for either man probably refers to the date of their baptism.
  4. ^ Shakespeare's Marlowe, pp. 3, 8.
  5. ^ Christopher Marlowe, Richard Wilson, editor. (London & New York: Routledge) 1999, p3.
  6. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 215).
  7. ^ Erne, Lukas, (2005) "Biography, Mythography, and Criticism: The Life and Works of Christopher Marlowe," Modern Philology, Vol. 103, No. 1, University of Chicago Press (August 2005), pp. 28-50.
  8. ^ Nicholl, Charles (2004). "Marlowe [Marley], Christopher", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. online edn, January 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  9. ^ Holland, Peter (2004). "Shakespeare, William", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. online edn, January 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Marlowe, Christopher (MRLW580C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  11. ^ "Act Against Jesuits and Seminarists (1585), 27 Elizabeth, Cap. 2, Documents Illustrative of English Church History". Macmillan (1896). Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  12. ^ Collinson, Patrick (2004). "Elizabeth I", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. online edn, January 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  13. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 2015).
  14. ^ Hutchinson, Robert (2006). Elizabeth's Spy Master: Francis Walsingham and the Secret War that Saved England. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-297-84613-0.
  15. ^ Nicholl, Charles (2004). "Marlowe [Marley], Christopher", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. online edn, January 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  16. ^ "See especially the middle section in which the author shows how another Cambridge graduate, Thomas Preston makes his title character express his love in a popular play written around 1560 and compares that "clumsy" line with Doctor Faustus addressing Helen of Troy". Wwnorton.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  17. ^ Shea, Christopher D. (24 October 2016). "New Oxford Shakespeare Edition Credits Christopher Marlowe as a Co-author". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  18. ^ "Christopher Marlowe credited as Shakespeare's co-writer". BBC. 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  19. ^ Logan, Terence P., and Denzell S. Smith, eds. The Predecessors of Shakespeare: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
  20. ^ "See especially the middle section in which the author shows how another Cambridge graduate, Thomas Preston makes his title character express his love in a popular play written around 1560 and compares that "clumsy" line with Doctor Faustus addressing Helen of Troy". Wwnorton.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  21. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe, Patrick Cheney, editor. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) 2004, p33. ISBN 0521820340
  22. ^ This was the title of the (B text) edition published in 1616. The earlier (A text) edition of 1604 simply had The Tragicall History of D. Faustus.
  23. ^ Deats, Sarah Munson (2004). "'Dido Queen of Carthage' and 'The Massacre at Paris'". In Cheney, Patrick (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-521-82034-9.
  24. ^ Wilson, Richard (2004). "Tragedy, Patronage and Power" in Cheney, Patrick, 2007, p. 207
  25. ^ Nicholl, Charles (1992). "Libels and Heresies". The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-224-03100-4.
  26. ^ Hoenselaars, A. J. (1992). "Englishmen abroad 1558–1603". Images of Englishmen and Foreigners in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-8386-3431-8.
  27. ^ J. A. Downie in his and J. T. Parnell's Constructing Christopher Marlowe (2000) and Constance Kuriyama in her Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life (2002).
  28. ^ a b c d Steane, J. B. (1969). Introduction to Christopher Marlowe: The Complete Plays. Aylesbury, UK: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-043037-0.
  29. ^ Park Honan, Christopher Marlowe: Poet and Spy, 2005.
  30. ^ This is from a document dated 29 June 1587, from the National Archives – Acts of Privy Council.
  31. ^ Nicholl, Charles (1992). "12". The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-03100-4.
  32. ^ David Riggs (2004). The World of Christopher Marlowe. Faber. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-571-22159-2.
  33. ^ He was described by Arbella's guardian, the Countess of Shrewsbury, as having hoped for an annuity of some £40 from Arbella, his being "so much damnified (i.e. having lost this much) by leaving the University.": BL Lansdowne MS. 71, f.3.and Charles Nicholl, The Reckoning (1992), pp. 340–2.
  34. ^ John Baker, letter to Notes and Queries 44.3 (1997), pp. 367–8
  35. ^ Constance Kuriyama, Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life (2002), p. 89. Also in Handover's biography of Arbella, and Nicholl, The Reckoning, p. 342.
  36. ^ Elizabeth I and James VI and I, History in Focus.
  37. ^ Frederick S. Boas, Christopher Marlowe: A biographical and critical study (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953), pp. 101ff.
  38. ^ Constance Kuriyama, Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life (2002), p. xvi.
  39. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 2015).
  40. ^ Nicholl (1992: 246–248)
  41. ^ Stanley, Thomas (1687). The History of Philosophy 1655–61. quoted in Oxford English Dictionary.
  42. ^ Riggs, David (5 January 2005). The World of Christopher Marlowe (1 ed.). Henry Holt and Co. p. 294. ISBN 978-0805077551. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  43. ^ Riggs, David (2004). Cheney, Patrick (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-521-52734-7.
  44. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 2012).
  45. ^ "The 'Baines Note'". Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  46. ^ a b For a full transcript of Kyd's letter, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 2015).
  47. ^ The so-called 'Remembrances' against Richard Cholmeley. For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page. (Retrieved 30 April 2015)
  48. ^ Waith, Eugene. The Herculean Hero in Marlowe, Chapman, Shakespeare, and Dryden. Chatto and Windus, London, 1962. The idea is commonplace, though by no means universally accepted.
  49. ^ Smith, Bruce R. (March 1995). Homosexual desire in Shakespeare's England. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-226-76366-8.
  50. ^ Doctor Faustus and Other Plays, pp. viii–ix
  51. ^ White, Paul Whitfield, ed. (1998). Marlowe, History and Sexuality: New Critical Essays on Christopher Marlowe. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 978-0-404-62335-7.
  52. ^ Hero and Leander, 88 (see Project Gutenberg).
  53. ^ Hero and Leander, 157–192.
  54. ^ Hero and Leander, 192–193.
  55. ^ Simon Barker, Hilary Hinds (2003). The Routledge Anthology of Renaissance Drama. Routledge. ISBN 9780415187343. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  56. ^ Marlowe, Christopher; Forker, Charles R. (15 October 1995). Edward the Second. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719030895.
  57. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 31 March 2012).
  58. ^ J. R. Mulryne states in his ODNB article that the document was identified in the 20th century as transcripts from John Proctour's The Fall of the Late Arian (1549).
  59. ^ a b Mulryne, J. R. "Thomas Kyd." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  60. ^ Haynes, Alan. The Elizabethan Secret Service. London: Sutton, 2005.
  61. ^ National Archives, Acts of the Privy Council. Meetings of the Privy Council, including details of those attending, are recorded and minuted for 16, 23, 25, 29 and the morning of 31 May, all of them taking place in the Star Chamber at Westminster. There is no record of any meeting on either 18 or 20 May, however, just a note of the warrant being issued on 18 May and the fact that Marlowe "entered his appearance for his indemnity therein" on the 20th.
  62. ^ Palladis Tamia. London, 1598: 286v-287r.
  63. ^ For a full transcript, see Peter Farey's Marlowe page (Retrieved 30 April 215).
  64. ^ Leslie Hotson, The Death of Christopher Marlowe (1925) p.65
  65. ^ Park Honan, Christopher Marlowe: Poet and Spy (2005) p.325
  66. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 30125). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
  67. ^ Hotson (1925) pp.39–40
  68. ^ de Kalb, Eugénie (May 1925). "The Death of Marlowe", in The Times Literary Supplement
  69. ^ Tannenbaum, Samuel (1926). The Assassination of Christopher Marlowe, New York, pp.41–42
  70. ^ Bakeless, John (1942). The Tragicall History of Christopher Marlowe, p.182
  71. ^ Honan (2005), p.354
  72. ^ Nicholl, Charles (2004). "Marlowe [Marley], Christopher", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. online edn, January 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2013. "The authenticity of the inquest is not in doubt, but whether it tells the full truth is another matter. The nature of Marlowe's companions raises questions about their reliability as witnesses."
  73. ^ Boas (1953), p.293
  74. ^ Nicholl (2002), p.38
  75. ^ Nicholl (2002), pp.29–30
  76. ^ Kuriyama (2002), p.136
  77. ^ Downie, J. A. "Marlowe, facts and fictions", in Downie, J. A. & Parnell, J. T. (2000). Constructing Christopher Marlowe, pp.26–27
  78. ^ de Kalb (1925)
  79. ^ Tannenbaum (1926)
  80. ^ Nicholl (2002), p.415
  81. ^ Breight, Curtis C. (1996). Surveillance, Militarism and Drama in the Elizabethan Era, p.114
  82. ^ Hammer, Paul E. J. (1996) "A Reckoning Reframed: the 'Murder' of Christopher Marlowe Revisited", in English Literary Renaissance, pp.225–242
  83. ^ Trow, M. J. (2001). Who Killed Kit Marlowe? A contract to murder in Elizabethan England, p.250
  84. ^ Riggs, David (2004). The World of Christopher Marlowe, pp.334–7
  85. ^ Honan (2005), p.348
  86. ^ Honan (2005), p.355. "Useful research has been stimulated by the infinitesimally thin possibility that Marlowe did not die when we think he did. ... History holds its doors open."
  87. ^ Peter Alexander ed., William Shakespeare: The Complete Works (London 1962) p. 273
  88. ^ Wilson, Richard (2008). "Worthies away: the scene begins to cloud in Shakespeare's Navarre". In Mayer, Jean-Christophe (ed.). Representing France and the French in early modern English drama. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. pp. 95–97. ISBN 978-0-87413-000-3.
  89. ^ Kathman, David (2003), "The Question of Authorship", in Wells, Stanley; Orlin, Lena C., Shakespeare: an Oxford Guide, Oxford University Press, pp. 620–32, ISBN 978-0-19-924522-2
  90. ^ Rogers, Frederick (1913). Labour, Life and Literature. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 160–167.
  91. ^ Christopher Marlowe – Westminster Abbey
  92. ^ Nigel Reynolds (11 July 2002). "Marlowe tribute puts question mark over Shakespeare". The Telegraph.
  93. ^ Shakespeare Bites Back – free book pp. 21, 22 & 38.
  94. ^ Edmondson 2013, pp. 278, 234.
  95. ^ https://marlowetheatre.com/your-visit/our-theatre/
  96. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, pp262-281.
  97. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p277.
  98. ^ https://www.rsc.org.uk/dido-queen-of-carthage
  99. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2018/sep/02/tamburlaine-swan-stratford-upon-avon-pericles-olivier-national-reviews
  100. ^ https://www.rsc.org.uk/dido-queen-of-carthage/past-productions
  101. ^ https://www.shepherdmanagement.co.uk/agents/justin-audibert/
  102. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p265.
  103. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p273.
  104. ^ http://www.mariaaberg.com/
  105. ^ https://www.londonboxoffice.no/olivier-theatre-national-theatre
  106. ^ https://www.ft.com/content/48fc8bd6-19fa-11e3-93e8-00144feab7de
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  113. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p273
  114. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p273
  115. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p275
  116. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p275
  117. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, pp262-281.
  118. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p276
  119. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p272
  120. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p272
  121. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, p272
  122. ^ http://www.touchstone.bham.ac.uk/performance/renaissance%20productions.html
  123. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/theatre/doctor-faustus-6 http://www.thisistheatre.com/londonshows/doctorfaustus.html
  124. ^ p276
  125. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, pp262-281.
  126. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, pp262-281.
  127. ^ ’’Cambridge Companion’’, 1999, pp262-281.

Further reading

  • Bevington, David and Eric Rasmussen, Doctor Faustus and Other Plays, OUP, 1998; ISBN 0-19-283445-2
  • Brooke, Tucker; Charles, Frederick. The Life of Marlowe and "The Tragedy of Dido, Queen of Carthage." London: Methuen, 1930. (pp. 107, 114, 99, 98)
  • Cornelius R. M. Christopher Marlowe's Use of the Bible. New York : P. Lang, 1984.
  • Downie J. A.; Parnell J. T., eds., Constructing Christopher Marlowe, Cambridge 2000. ISBN 0-521-57255-X
  • Honan, Park. Christopher Marlowe Poet and Spy. Oxford University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-19-818695-9
  • Kuriyama, Constance. Christopher Marlowe: A Renaissance Life. Cornell University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8014-3978-7
  • Logan, Robert A. Shakespeare's Marlowe: The Influence of Christopher Marlowe on Shakespeare's Artistry. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 2007. ISBN 9780754657637
  • Logan, Terence P., and Denzell S. Smith, eds. The Predecessors of Shakespeare: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
  • Marlowe, Christopher. Complete Works. Vol. 3: Edward II., ed. R. Rowland. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. (pp. xxii–xxiii)
  • Nicholl, Charles. The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe, Vintage, 2002 (revised edition) ISBN 0-09-943747-3
  • Oz, Avraham, ed. "Marlowe: New Casebook", Houndmills, Basingstoke and London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003 ISBN 9780333624982
  • Parker, John. The Aesthetics of Antichrist: From Christian Drama to Christopher Marlowe. Cornell University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8014-4519-4
  • Riggs, David. "The World of Christopher Marlowe", Henry Holt and Co., 2005 ISBN 0-8050-8036-8
  • Shepard, Alan. "Marlowe's Soldiers: Rhetorics of Masculinity in the Age of the Armada", Ashgate, 2002. ISBN 0-7546-0229-X
  • Sim, James H. Dramatic Uses of Biblical Allusions in Marlowe and Shakespeare, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1966.
  • Trow M. J. Who Killed Kit Marlowe?, Sutton, 2002; ISBN 0-7509-2963-4
  • Wraight A. D.; Stern, Virginia F. In Search of Christopher Marlowe: A Pictorial Biography, Macdonald, London 1965

External links

  • The Marlowe Society
  • The works of Marlowe at Perseus Project
  • The complete works, with modernised spelling, on Peter Farey's Marlowe page.
  • BBC audio file. In Our Time Radio 4 discussion programme on Marlowe and his work
  • Works by Christopher Marlowe at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Christopher Marlowe at Internet Archive
  • Works by Christopher Marlowe at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • The Marlowe Studies an online library of books claiming that Marlowe was Shakespeare
  • The Marlowe Bibliography Online is an initiative of the Marlowe Society of America and the University of Melbourne. Its purpose is to facilitate scholarship on the works of Christopher Marlowe by providing a searchable annotated bibliography of relevant scholarship.
  • "Marlowe, Christopher (bap. 1564, d. 1593)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  • "Archival material relating to Christopher Marlowe". UK National Archives.