Seen from the south bank of the Thames in August 2013
Westminster shown within Greater London
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Created||1 April 1965|
|Admin HQ||City Hall, Victoria Street|
|• Type||London borough council|
|• Body||Westminster City Council|
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet (Conservative)|
|• Lord Mayor||Ruth Bush|
|• London Assembly||Tony Devenish (Con) AM for West Central|
|• MPs||Karen Buck (Lab), Nickie Aiken (Con)|
|• Total||8.29 sq mi (21.48 km2)|
|Area rank||309th (of 317)|
|• Rank||66th (of 317)|
|• Density||32,000/sq mi (12,000/km2)|
|• Ethnicity||35.2% White British|
2.3% White Irish
0% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
24.1% Other White
0.9% White & Black Caribbean
0.9% White & Black African
1.6% White & Asian
1.8% Other Mixed
4.6% Other Asian
4.2% Black African
2% Black Caribbean
1.3% Other Black
|Time zone||UTC (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.
Aside from numerous large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are in the borough, including St James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and 10 Downing Street. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster; the shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street; and the night-time entertainment district of Soho. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local government body is Westminster City Council.
A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.
Coat of arms
The current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964.
Westminster had other arms before, which had a chief identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone. The original arms had a portcullis as the main charge, which now forms the crest.
The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.
For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, and gradually creating the vast Greater London that exists today.
Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey. The church was briefly the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which also granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550. The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, previously under the Abbey's control. The City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, and the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, and the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.
The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone, Paddington, and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Strand, Westminster, Pimlico, Belgravia, and Hyde Park. This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which significantly reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations.
The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O.B.E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928.
Prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James.
The boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.
|Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population|
The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.
|White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller||76||0.03%|
|Asian or Asian British: Indian||5,665||3.12%||7,213||3.29%|
|Asian or Asian British: Pakistani||1,828||1.01%||2,328||1.06%|
|Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi||5,000||2.76%||6,299||2.87%|
|Asian or Asian British: Chinese||4,077||2.25%||5,917||2.70%|
|Asian or Asian British: Other Asian||3,614||1.99%||10,105||4.61%|
|Asian or Asian British: Total||20,184||11.13%||31,862||14.52%|
|Black or Black British: Caribbean||5,613||3.10%||4,449||2.03%|
|Black or Black British: African||6,678||3.68%||9,141||4.17%|
|Black or Black British: Other Black||1,190||0.66%||2,882||1.31%|
|Black or Black British: Total||13,481||7.44%||16,472||7.51%|
|Mixed: White and Black Caribbean||1,382||0.76%||1,869||0.85%|
|Mixed: White and Black African||1,204||0.66%||1,927||0.89%|
|Mixed: White and Asian||2,436||1.34%||3,584||1.63%|
|Mixed: Other Mixed||2,458||1.36%||4,015||1.83%|
|Other: Any other ethnic group||8,613||3.93%|
|Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total||48,571||26.79%||84,066||38.32%|
|Religion not stated||15,877||8.76%||20,519||9.35%|
A lord mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of mayors of Westminster for a list of former mayors (1900–1965) and lord mayors (1965 to date).
|Evolution of Parliamentary representation|
||Regent's Park and Kensington North
||Cities of London and Westminster
|Westminster St George's
||Cities of London and Westminster
||Cities of London and Westminster
|City of London
The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London:
- "Albertopolis" (shared with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)
- Bayswater (shared with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)
- Belgravia (shared with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)
- Covent Garden (shared with the London Borough of Camden)
- Fitzrovia (shared with the London Borough of Camden)
- Hyde Park
- Knightsbridge (shared with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)
- Lisson Grove
- Maida Vale
- St James's
- St John's Wood
- Soho, including Chinatown
- Westbourne Green (shared with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)
- West End (shared with the London Borough of Camden)
- Westminster City Centre
The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies. Oxford Street is one of the leading shopping destinations in the world. The list of companies includes
- BAE Systems has its head office in Westminster
- Anglo American PLC has its head office in Westminster
- BBC has its head office in the Broadcasting House
- BP has its global headquarters in St. James's, Westminster.
- Houlihan Lokey, the international investment bank, has its London offices at 83 Pall Mall, London, Westminster.
- Pearson PLC and subsidiary Penguin Group: headquartered in a facility in Westminster.
- Rio Tinto Group, a multinational Australian-British company, has its UK head office in Westminster.
- Economist Group, publisher of The Economist and other materials, is headquartered in Westminster.
- Kingfisher plc has its head office in Paddington, Westminster
- SABMiller has its head office in Westminster.
- British American Tobacco has its head office in the Globe House in the City of Westminster.
- Marks & Spencer has its head office in the Waterside House.
- Swire Group has its head office in the Swire House
- Pret a Manger has its head office in Westminster.
- Rolls-Royce Group has its head office in Westminster.
- Global Infrastructure Partners has an office in Westminster.
- Google has an office in Westminster near Victoria Station.
- EasyGroup has its head office in Mayfair, City of Westminster.
- Gulf Oil International has its head office in the city.
- AstraZeneca has its head office in Westminster.
- Informa has its London office, including its Investor Relations and Media Centre departments, in the Informa House
- Petrofac possesses an office on Jermyn Street, near Oxford Circus.
- Northrop Grumman has its UK offices in Clareville House.
- Korean Air has its European head office in the City of Westminster.
- Iraqi Airways has its London sales office in the IKB House in City of Westminster.
Companies that previously had their head offices in the City of Westminster include Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), British Aircraft Corporation, British Midland (Portland House), British United Airways, British Mediterranean Airways, Cadbury, Diageo, BAA Limited, Lloyd International Airways, and P&O Princess Cruises. In addition, Iran Air previously had its Piccadilly main sales office in the city.
Parks and open spaces
These include Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park and St. James's Park. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains East Finchley Cemetery and crematorium in the London Borough of Barnet.
National Rail stations
Four National Rail stations serve the City of Westminster:
|London Charing Cross||South Eastern Main Line||South East London and Kent including London Bridge, Lewisham, Dartford, Orpington, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells. Services operated by Southeastern.|
|London Marylebone||Chiltern Main Line||North West London, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Midlands including Wembley Stadium, Harrow, Aylesbury, Oxford and Birmingham Moor Street. Services operated by Chiltern Railways.|
|London Paddington||Great Western Main Line||West London, South West England and South Wales including Ealing Broadway, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Oxford, Plymouth and Worcester. Services operated by Great Western Railway and TfL Rail ().|
|London Victoria||Brighton and Chatham Main Lines||South East London and Kent including Peckham Rye, Dartford, Gravesend, Dover Priory and Ashford International. Services operated by Southeastern.|
The City of Westminster is served by 27 London Underground stations and 10 lines.
Electric charging points
By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points. By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.
Travel to work
In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.
Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily Church of England (CE), and Roman Catholic (RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough, and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior independent schools.
Universities and colleges
- The University of Westminster has its three campuses in the borough; 309 Regent Street (with 4–12 / 16 Little Titchfield Street and 32 / 38 Wells Street buildings uniting under the same campus), 115 New Cavendish Street, and 25 Marylebone Road.
- The Strand campus of King's College London is located within the district.
- The London Business School, in Regent's Park.
- The London School of Economics, at Clare Market, near Aldwych.
- The Royal Academy of Music, on Marylebone Road.
- University of the Arts London has constituent colleges in Millbank (Chelsea College of Art and Design) and Oxford Street (London College of Fashion).
- The Courtauld Institute of Art, in Somerset House, Strand.
- Brigham Young University London Centre, on Palace Court.
- The northern half of Imperial College London's main South Kensington campus lies within the borough.
- City of Westminster College is a further education college with campuses on Paddington Green and at Queens Park. It also owns the Cockpit Theatre, which is used as a training and performance venue.
- Regent's College, whose campus is within the grounds of Regent's Park, which houses: European Business School London; Regent's American College London; Regent's Business School; School of Psychotherapy and Counselling; Webster Graduate School; Internexus, a provider of English language courses.
- Westminster Kingsway College is a further education college with centres in Soho and Victoria in Westminster. It also has centres in Camden.
The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service. Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive. In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library.
Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include:
- Charing Cross Library
- Church Street Library
- The Maida Vale Library
- Marylebone Library
- Mayfair Library
- Paddington Library
- Pimlico Library
- Queen's Park Library
- St. John's Wood Library
- Victoria Library
In terms of tenure, the borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing housing supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England. This is indicative of a high density of development and higher investment demand relative to other districts in England and most of the 15 highest-ranking local authorities are boroughs of Greater London. Tourism also increases the proportion of willing third-party landlords, as the two authorities which are outside London in the list are England's largest south coast holiday resorts.
|Highest-ranked local authorities by proportion of Social Housing (2011 Census)|
|Local Authority||Privately rented||Socially rented||Shared ownership|
|City of Westminster London Borough||37.6||11.9||0.8|
|Kensington and Chelsea London Borough||34||9.2||0.9|
|City of London London Borough||33.1||10.4||0.3|
|Newham London Borough||32.6||18.3||1.8|
|Tower Hamlets London Borough||30.8||17.3||2.4|
|Camden London Borough||30.5||23||0.7|
|Haringey London Borough||30.3||17||1.5|
|Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough||30||15.7||1.6|
|Wandsworth London Borough||30||12.8||1.5|
|Brent London Borough||28.8||9.7||1.5|
|Bournemouth Unitary Authority||28.2||5.9||0.7|
|Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority||28||9.8||0.9|
|Lambeth London Borough||27.7||19.6||1.5|
|Hackney London Borough||27.6||23.8||2.3|
- Antigua and Barbuda
- The Bahamas
- New Zealand
- Papua New Guinea
- South Africa
- Trinidad and Tobago
Freedom of the City
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Westminster.
- Rt Hon Sir Winston Churchill : 1946.
- Sir Robert Mark : 22 June 1977.
- Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher : 12 December 1990.
- Gray, Robert, A History of London, Hutchinson & Co, London, 1978, ISBN 0-09-133140-4
- 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
- "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Westminster (London)". Heraldry of the world. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Gray, p. 68
- Coke, Edward; Hale, Matthew; Nottingham, Heneage Finch, Earl of; Francis Hargrave, Charles Butler (1853). "109b, Note (3) ". A commentary upon Littleton. The Institutes of the laws of England. 1 (1st American, from 19th London ed.). Philadelphia: R. H. Small. Vol. 1 p.164. Retrieved 17 May 2010.; "December 1540; Grants, No.30". Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII. British History Online. Volume 16: 1540–1541. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1898. pp. 174–175. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- Description of the City and Liberties of Westminster in 1819
- Lewis, Samuel, Topgraphical Dictionary of England, Vol. III, London, 1831
- "KS006 - Ethnic group". NOMIS. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "KS007 - Religion". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "2011 census – theme tables". Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Councillors by political party at westminster.gov.uk
- "Company Info." BAE Systems. Retrieved on 31 August 2011. "Registered office 6 Carlton Gardens, London, SW1Y 5AD, United Kingdom"
- " London > BAE Systems plc." BAE Systems. Retrieved on 31 August 2011. "BAE Systems plc Address London – Stirling Square Carlton Gardens London SW1Y 5AD United Kingdom "
- "Head Office." BAE Systems. Retrieved on 31 August 2011. "As you might expect, our London Head Office is the base for our Executive Board and for other senior group managers in strategic roles." and "Head Office is located in Central London but also has a number of support functions and functional specialists based in Farnborough, Hampshire."
- "."Anglo American Plc. Retrieved on 1 January 2017. "Registered office 20 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y 5AN."
- "Terms and Conditions." BBC. Retrieved on 6 January 2010. "British Broadcasting Corporation Broadcasting House, Portland Place, London, W1A 1AA."
- "Contact BP in the United Kingdom Archived 25 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine." BP. Retrieved on 18 August 2009.
- "Maps." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 March 2016.
- " Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine." BP. Retrieved on 22 December 2011.
- "Investor Contacts Archived 16 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine." Pearson PLC. Retrieved on 28 August 2009.
- "26. What is Penguin Books Limited's company registration number? Archived 11 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine." Penguin Books. Retrieved on 28 August 2009.
- "Contact Us Archived 28 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine." Rio Tinto Group. Retrieved on 9 April 2010. "Rio Tinto plc head office 2 Eastbourne Terrace London W2 6LG UK"
- "Locations." Economist Group. Retrieved on 12 September 2009. "The Economist Group 25 St James's Street London, SW1A 1HG United Kingdom"
- "Kingfisher Group Archived 7 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Kingfisher plc. Retrieved on 2 February 2011. "Corporate Responsibility Kingfisher plc 3 Sheldon Square Paddington London W2 6PX."
- "United Kingdom Archived 7 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine." SABMiller. Retrieved on 20 October 2009. "SABMiller plc Head office One Stanhope Gate London W1K 1AF England"
- "Contact us." British American Tobacco. Retrieved on 15 December 2009.
- "Company > Contacts." Marks & Spencer. Retrieved on 21 June 2010.
- "Contact Information JOHN SWIRE & SONS OFFICES." Swire Group. Retrieved on 12 September 2011. "John Swire & Sons Ltd. Swire House 59 Buckingham Gate London SW1E 6AJ England"
- "Welcome to Pret." Pret a Manger. Retrieved on 27 February 2010.
- "Rolls-Royce headquarters". Rolls-Royce Group plc. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "Contact Us Archived 18 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine." Global Infrastructure Partners. Retrieved on 27 February 2010.
- "Inside Google's London Belgrave House office". 4 February 2015. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- "About Us." EasyGroup. Retrieved on 10 March 2010.
- "Legal Notice." AstraZeneca. Retrieved on 12 March 2010.
- "United Kingdom." AstraZeneca. Retrieved on 12 March 2010.
- "Global Contacts." Informa. Retrieved on 4 February 2011. "Head Office Gubelstrasse 11 CH-6300 Zug Switzerland"
- "Company Locations." Northrop Grumman. Retrieved on 6 September 2011. "Northrop Grumman Corporation United Kingdom Headquarters Clareville House Oxendon Street London SW1Y 4EL UK"
- "Company Info / Contact Info." Korean Air. Retrieved on 30 August 2011. "Europe Headquarters 66/68 Piccadilly, London, W1J 0HJ, U.K"
- "London Office." Iraqi Airways. Retrieved on 30 August 2011. "Sales Office in London Address: IKB House 230 Edgware Road London , W2 1DW"
- "Contact Us." Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office, London. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- Gardner, Charles. British Aircraft Corporation: A History. Batsford, 1981. 40. Retrieved from Google Books on 1 September 2011. "The London headquarters chosen for bac were at 100 Pall Mall – on the top floors of a new concrete box which had sprung up on the site of the old, historic (and bombed) Carlton Club. It was the view of bac that small London headquarters[...]"
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 28 September 1967. 530. "Head Office: 78 Buckingham Gate, London SW1"
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 28 September 1967. 530. "Head Office: Portland House, Stag Place, London SW1"
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 29 March-4 April 1995. 62. "53 Mount Street, London W1Y 5RE, UK"
- Muspratt, Caroline. "Cadbury swaps Mayfair for Uxbridge." The Daily Telegraph. 1 June 2007. Retrieved on 27 April 2010.
- "Contact us." Diageo. Retrieved on 15 December 2009. "main content Diageo plc 8 Henrietta Place LONDON W1G ONB"
- "BAA plc Head Office, Victoria, London." BAA Limited. Retrieved on 2 October 2010. "BAA plc 130 Wilton Road London SW1V 1LQ:"
- "BAA Offices – Location Maps." BAA Limited. 17 March 2006. Retrieved on 2 October 2010. "BAA plc Head Office, Victoria, London (121KB)."
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 12 April 1962. 548. "Head Office: Princes House, 190/195 Piccadilly, London Wl."
- "Contact." P&O Princess Cruises. 5 June 2002. Retrieved on 19 September 2011. "P&O Princess Cruises plc Registered office: 77 New Oxford Street London WC1A 1PP UK"
- "IranAir moves to new offices Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine." Iran Air. Retrieved on 29 February 2012. "177–179 Hammersmith Road, London, W6 8BS"
- "Ticket Payment Information Archived 1 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Iran Air. Retrieved on 29 February 2012. "Iran Air Sales Office, 73 Piccadilly, London W1J 8QX"
- "London's Rail and Tube Services" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2019.
- "Explore our Network". Southeastern. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019.
- "Route Map". Chiltern Railways. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019.
- "Network Map" (PDF). Great Western Railway. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019.
- "TfL Rail Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2018.
- "Route Map" (PDF). Southern. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019.
- "City of Westminster: Additional on street charging points for electric vehicles". Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Electric Vehicles". Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16–74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey's longest part by distance.
- Westminster Education service accessed 17 May 2007
- "Libraries Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Visit Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine." The London Library. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Westminster Find a Library." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 25 September 2015.
- "Westminster Reference Library." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 25 September 2015.
- ";Westminster Music Library Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Westminster Chinese Library Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Charing Cross Library Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Church Street Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Maida Vale Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Marylebone Library Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Mayfair Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Paddington Library Archived 29 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Pimlico Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Queen's Park Library Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "St. John's Wood Library Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- "Victoria Library Archived 17 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
- Office for National Statistics 2011 Census Key Statistics: Tenure.
- "Speech receiving Freedom of City of Westminster". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 12 December 1990. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Ship is granted freedom of city". 11 December 2005 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- City of Westminster
- Westminster, by Sir Walter Besant and Geraldine Edith Mitton and A. Murray Smith, 1902, from Project Gutenberg
- Westminster City Council YouTube channel
- West End Extra A local newspaper covering the City of Westminster