City of Westminster


The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status in Greater London, England. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British government. It contains a large part of central London, including most of the West End, such as the major shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street, and the entertainment district of Soho. Many London landmarks are within the borough, including Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, Whitehall, Westminster Cathedral, 10 Downing Street, and Trafalgar Square.

City of Westminster
Trafalgar Square, an open plaza in the city
Trafalgar Square, an open plaza in the city
Coat of arms of City of Westminster
Official logo of City of Westminster
Westminster shown within Greater London
Westminster shown within Greater London
Coordinates: 51°30′44″N 00°09′48″W / 51.51222°N 0.16333°W / 51.51222; -0.16333
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQCity Hall, Victoria Street
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyWestminster City Council
 • London AssemblyTony Devenish (Conservative)
 • MPs
 • Total8.29 sq mi (21.48 km2)
 • Rank288th (of 296)
 • Total211,365
 • Rank92nd (of 296)
 • Density25,000/sq mi (9,800/km2)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Area code020
ISO 3166 codeGB-WSM
ONS code00BK
GSS codeE09000033
PoliceMetropolitan Police

The borough also has a number of major parks and open spaces, including Hyde Park, Green Park and most of Regent's Park. Away from central London the borough also includes various inner suburbs, including St John's Wood, Maida Vale, Bayswater, Belgravia and Pimlico. The borough had a population of 204,300 at the 2021 census.

Westminster Abbey, around which the original settlement grew.

The original settlement of Westminster was historically a separate urban area to the west of London, growing up around the minster church of Westminster Abbey. Westminster was an important centre of royal authority from Saxon times, and was declared a city in 1540. It was gradually absorbed into the urban area of London, but London's official city boundaries remained unchanged, covering just the area called the City of London, broadly corresponding to the medieval walled city. From the 19th century some metropolis-wide administrative bodies were introduced. The County of London was created in 1889, replaced in 1965 by the larger administrative area of Greater London, which since 2000 has been led by the Mayor of London. The cities of London and Westminster retain their separate city statuses despite having long been part of the same urban area.

The modern borough was created in 1965 as part of the same reforms which created Greater London, covering the area of the three former metropolitan boroughs of Westminster, Paddington and St Marylebone. The local authority is Westminster City Council. To the east, Westminster borders the City of London, with the boundary marked by Temple Bar. Other neighbouring boroughs (anti-clockwise from north-east) are Camden, Brent, Kensington and Chelsea, Wandsworth and Lambeth, the latter two being separated from Westminster by the River Thames. Charing Cross in Westminster is the notional centre of London, being the point from which distances from London are measured.

History edit

After the depopulation of Roman London in the 5th century, an Anglo Saxon agricultural and trade settlement likely developed to its west, associated with the Middle Saxons, sometimes called Lundenwic ('London village' or London port'). Over time, Lundenburh ('London fort'), the former Roman city with its still-existing Roman walls, was repopulated and Lundenwic declined, becoming pastoral and partly known as Aldwych (Aldwic—'old village'), the name of which lives on for a section of Westminster.[1]

The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.[2]

For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, and gradually creating the vast Greater London that exists today.

Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey. The church was briefly the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which also granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550.[3]

Administrative history edit

The area was historically part of the county of Middlesex. Whilst an important centre of royal authority from Saxon times, Westminster was not formally incorporated as a borough for local government purposes until 1900. However, it was declared a city in 1540 on the elevation of Westminster Abbey to being a cathedral.[4] From at least 1545 there was also a Westminster parliamentary borough (constituency).[5] The Anglican Diocese of Westminster was short-lived, being absorbed back into the Diocese of London in 1550. Despite having no borough corporation and having ceased to be the seat of a diocese, Westminster continued to be described as a city. In 1585 the Westminster Court of Burgesses was established to administer certain judicial powers in an area known as the City and Liberty of Westminster.[6]

Westminster Council House, also known as Marylebone Town Hall: Completed 1920 for the old St Marylebone Borough Council and now serves as main meeting place of Westminster City Council.

From 1856 the area was also governed by the Metropolitan Board of Works, which was established to provide services across the metropolis of London. In 1889 the Metropolitan Board of Works' area was made the County of London. From 1856 until 1900 the lower tier of local government within the metropolis comprised various parish vestries and district boards. Within the City and Liberty of Westminster, the three parishes of St George Hanover Square, St James Piccadilly and St Martin-in-the-Fields were governed by their vestries, whilst the parishes covering the central part of Westminster formed the Westminster District and the parishes and territories adjoining the border with the City of London formed the Strand District. Beyond the liberty to the north, the two parishes of Paddington and St Marylebone were also governed by their vestries.[7] The Westminster District was renamed the St Margaret and St John Combined Vestry in 1887, and unsuccessfully petitioned to be incorporated as a borough in 1897.[8]

In 1900 the lower tier of local government within the County of London was reorganised into metropolitan boroughs. The parish of Paddington became the Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, and the parish of the St Marylebone became the Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone. The various territories within the old City and Liberty of Westminster became the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.[9] The new boroughs came into being on 1 November 1900; a few days ahead of that a royal charter was issued conferring city status on the new borough of Westminster from its creation.[10] The Court of Burgesses, which had ceded most practical powers to the newer authorities, was finally abolished in 1901.[11]

The modern borough was created in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963. It was a merger of the old Paddington, St Marylebone and Westminster metropolitan boroughs, and Westminster's city status was transferred to the enlarged borough.[12][13] In 1966 the city was granted the right to appoint a lord mayor.[14]

Governance edit

Westminster City Hall, completed in 1965, serves as council's main offices.

The local authority is Westminster City Council, which meets at Westminster Council House (also known as Marylebone Town Hall) and has its main offices at Westminster City Hall on Victoria Street.

Greater London representation edit

Since 2000, for elections to the London Assembly, the borough forms part of the West Central constituency.

UK Parliament edit

Evolution of Parliamentary representation
1918 1950 1974 1983 1997 2010
St Marylebone Westminster North Regent's Park and Kensington North Westminster North
Paddington North Paddington
Paddington South Cities of London and Westminster
Westminster St George's Cities of London and Westminster Cities of London and Westminster
Westminster Abbey
City of London

Demographics edit

Population pyramid of the City of Westminster in 2021
1801 220,188—    
1811 245,254+11.4%
1821 288,851+17.8%
1831 344,200+19.2%
1841 368,910+7.2%
1851 422,850+14.6%
1861 446,263+5.5%
1871 469,677+5.2%
1881 493,090+5.0%
1891 462,837−6.1%
1901 441,857−4.5%
1911 421,865−4.5%
1921 396,406−6.0%
1931 372,566−6.0%
1941 334,448−10.2%
1951 300,461−10.2%
1961 267,126−11.1%
1971 237,614−11.0%
1981 163,893−31.0%
1991 187,526+14.4%
2001 181,279−3.3%
2011 219,396+21.0%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population

Ethnicity edit

Ethnic makeup of the Westminster including the City of London in 2021

The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 1991 to 2021 censuses in Westminster.

Ethnic group 1981 estimations[15] 1991[16] 2001[17] 2011[18] 2021[19]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 132,613 87.5% 137,375 78.5% 132,715 73.12% 135,330 61.68% 112,732 55.1%
White: British 87,938 48.51% 77,334 35.25% 57,162 28.0%
White: Irish 6,574 3.63% 4,960 2.26% 3,742 1.8%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 76 0.03% 49 0.0%
White: Roma 1,503 0.7%
White: Other 38,203 21.07% 52,960 24.14% 50,276 24.6%
Asian or Asian British: Total 16,421 9.4% 20,184 11.13% 31,862 14.52% 34,242 16.7%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 3,410 1.9% 5,665 3.12% 7,213 3.29% 7,965 3.9%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1,173 0.7% 1,828 1.01% 2,328 1.06% 2,461 1.2%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 3,997 2.3% 5,000 2.76% 6,299 2.87% 7,533 3.7%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 2,831 1.6% 4,077 2.25% 5,917 2.70% 6,625 3.2%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 5,010 2.9% 3,614 1.99% 10,105 4.61% 9,658 4.7%
Black or Black British: Total 13,475 7.7% 13,481 7.44% 16,472 7.51% 16,456 8%
Black or Black British: African 4,963 2.8% 5,613 3.10% 4,449 2.03% 10,451 5.1%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 6,535 3.7% 6,678 3.68% 9,141 4.17% 4,307 2.1%
Black or Black British: Other Black 1,977 1.1% 1,190 0.66% 2,882 1.31% 1,698 0.8%
Mixed or British Mixed: Total 7,480 4.13% 11,395 5.19% 13,335 6.5%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 1,382 0.76% 1,869 0.85% 2,061 1.0%
Mixed: White and Black African 1,204 0.66% 1,927 0.89% 2,089 1.0%
Mixed: White and Asian 2,436 1.34% 3,584 1.63% 3,718 1.8%
Mixed: Other Mixed 2,458 1.36% 4,015 1.83% 5,467 2.7%
Other: Total 7,543 4.3% 7,426 4.10% 24,337 11.09% 27,471 13.5%
Other: Arab 15,724 7.17% 15439 7.6%
Other: Any other ethnic group 7,543 4.3% 7,426 4.1% 8,613 3.93% 12032 5.9%
Ethnic minority: Total 18,891 12.5% 37,439 21.4% 48,571 26.79% 84,066 38.32% 91,504 44.9%
Total 151,504 100% 174,814 100% 181,286 100.00% 219,396 100.00% 204,236 100%

Religion edit

Religion 2001[20] 2011[21] 2021[22]
Number Of total Number Of total Number Of total
Christian 99,797 55.05% 97,877 44.61% 76,245 37.3%
No religion 29,300 16.16% 44,542 20.30% 52,936 25.9%
Muslim 21,346 11.77% 40,073 18.27% 40,873 20.0%
Religion not stated 15,877 8.76% 20,519 9.35% 19,179 9.4%
Jewish 7,732 4.27% 7,237 3.30% 5,628 2.8%
Hindu 3,497 1.93% 4,178 1.90% 4,457 2.2%
Buddhist 2,392 1.32% 3,194 1.46% 2,603 1.3%
Other religion 945 0.52% 1,280 0.58% 1,741 0.9%
Sikh 400 0.22% 496 0.23% 573 0.3%
Total 181,286 100.00% 219,396 100.00% 204,300 100.0%

Housing edit

The borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing housing supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England.[23]

Income inequality edit

A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea.

Education edit

In education, 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.[24]

Districts edit

The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London:

Economy edit

Many global corporations have their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St James's within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies. Oxford Street is a busy shopping destination.

Landmarks edit

Piccadilly Circus (September 2012)
Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster and usually refers to both the clock and the clock tower (Elizabeth Tower).

The City of Westminster contains some of the most famous sites in London, including Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and Big Ben.

Centre of London edit

Charing Cross is the notional centre of London and the location where distinances from London are measured. This custom appears to have begun with the set distances of the 12 Eleanor crosses to Lincoln, England in the north, and expanded even after destruction of most the crosses.[25]

Parks and open spaces edit

These include Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park and St James's Park. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains East Finchley Cemetery and crematorium in the London Borough of Barnet.

Transport edit

Marylebone station

National Rail stations edit

Four National Rail stations serve the City of Westminster:

Railway stations in the City of Westminster[26]
Station Image Line Destinations
London Charing Cross


  South Eastern Main Line South East London and Kent including London Bridge, Lewisham, Dartford, Orpington, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells. Services operated by Southeastern.[27]
London Marylebone


  Chiltern Main Line North West London, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Midlands including Wembley Stadium, Harrow, Aylesbury, Oxford and Birmingham Moor Street. Services operated by Chiltern Railways.[28]
London Paddington


  Great Western Main Line West London, South West England and South Wales including Ealing Broadway, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Oxford, Plymouth and Worcester. Services operated by Great Western Railway and Elizabeth line ( ).

Heathrow Airport  

Services operated by Heathrow Express and Elizabeth line ( ).[29][30]

London Victoria


  Brighton and Chatham Main Lines South East London and Kent including Peckham Rye, Dartford, Gravesend, Dover Priory and Ashford International. Services operated by Southeastern.[27]

South London, Sussex and the South Coast including Clapham Junction, Sutton, Brighton, Eastbourne, Gatwick Airport ( ), Guildford, Portsmouth, and Southampton. Services operated by Southern.

Gatwick Airport  

Services operated by Gatwick Express.[31]

London Underground edit

The City of Westminster is served by 27 London Underground stations and 10 of the 11 lines.

Electric charging points edit

By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points.[32] By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.[33]

Travel to work edit

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.[34]

Education edit

The main entrance to the London School of Economics

Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily Church of England (CE), and Roman Catholic (RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough,[35] and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior independent schools.

Universities and colleges edit

Public libraries edit

Charing Cross Library

The London Library, an independent lending library, is at 14 St James's Square.[36][37]

The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service.[38] Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive.[39] In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK[40] and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library.[41]

Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include:

  • Charing Cross Library[42]
  • Church Street Library[43]
  • The Maida Vale Library[44]
  • Marylebone Library[45]
  • Mayfair Library[46]
  • Paddington Library[47]
  • Pimlico Library[48]
  • Queen's Park Library[49]
  • St. John's Wood Library[50]
  • Victoria Library[51]

Embassies and High Commissions edit

Many countries' embassies or High Commissions are in Westminster.

Notable people edit

Coat of arms edit

Coat of arms of Westminster City Council at Westminster City Hall

The current Westminster coat of arms was given by an official grant on 2 September 1964.[52]

Westminster had other arms before, which had a chief identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St Marylebone. The original arms had a portcullis as the main charge, which now forms the crest.[52]

Freedom of the City edit

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Westminster.

Individuals edit

Military units edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Cowie, Robert; Whitehead, Robert (1989). "Lundenwic: The archaeological evidence for middle Saxon London". Antiquity. 63 (241): 706–18. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00076845.
  2. ^ Gray, p. 68
  3. ^ Coke, Edward; Hale, Matthew; Nottingham, Heneage Finch, Earl of; Francis Hargrave, Charles Butler (1853). "109b, Note (3) [124]". A commentary upon Littleton. The Institutes of the laws of England. Vol. 1 (1st American, from 19th London ed.). Philadelphia: R. H. Small. Vol. 1 p.164. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2010.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link); "December 1540; Grants, No.30". Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII. Vol. 16: 1540–1541. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1898. pp. 174–175. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018 – via British History Online.
  4. ^ Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: Volume 7. London: Institute of Historical Research. 1992. pp. 65–67. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  5. ^ "Westminster". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  6. ^ Leigh, Samuel (1827). Leigh's New Picture of London. pp. 82–85. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  7. ^ Metropolis Management Act 1855 (18 & 19 Vict. c. 120)
  8. ^ "No. 26815". The London Gazette. 19 January 1897. p. 337.
  9. ^ London Government Act 1899 (62 & 63 Vict. c. 14)
  10. ^ "No. 27242". The London Gazette. 30 October 1900. p. 6613.
  11. ^ Webb, Beatrice (1963). The Manor and the Borough. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  12. ^ Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Vol. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.
  13. ^ "Grant of title of city: London Borough of Westminster, 1964". The National Archives. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  14. ^ "No. 43921". The London Gazette. 11 March 1966. p. 2704.
  15. ^ Equality, Commission for Racial (1985). "Ethnic minorities in Britain: statistical information on the pattern of settlement". Commission for Racial Equality: Table 2.2.
  16. ^ Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for England, Scotland and Wales (Table 6)
  17. ^ "Office of National Statistics; 2001 Census Key Statistics". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  18. ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic Group, local authorities in England and Wales". Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  19. ^ "Ethnic group - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  20. ^ "KS007 - Religion". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  21. ^ "2011 census – theme tables". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  22. ^ "Religion - Office for National Statistics".
  23. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 Census Key Statistics: Tenure Archived 11 February 2003 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  25. ^ BBC (15 August 2005). "Where Is The Centre Of London?". Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  26. ^ "London's Rail and Tube Services" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2019.
  27. ^ a b "Explore our Network". Southeastern. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019.
  28. ^ "Route Map". Chiltern Railways. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Network Map" (PDF). Great Western Railway. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Elizabeth line Map". Transport for London.
  31. ^ "Route Map" (PDF). Southern. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019.
  32. ^ "City of Westminster: Additional on street charging points for electric vehicles". Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  33. ^ "Electric Vehicles". Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  34. ^ "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16–74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey's longest part by distance.
  35. ^ Westminster Education service accessed 17 May 2007
  36. ^ "Libraries Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  37. ^ "Visit Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine." The London Library. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  38. ^ "Westminster Find a Library Archived 24 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 25 September 2015.
  39. ^ "Westminster Reference Library Archived 13 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 25 September 2015.
  40. ^ ";Westminster Music Library Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  41. ^ "Westminster Chinese Library Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  42. ^ "Charing Cross Library Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  43. ^ "Church Street Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  44. ^ "Maida Vale Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  45. ^ "Marylebone Library Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  46. ^ "Mayfair Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  47. ^ "Paddington Library Archived 29 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  48. ^ "Pimlico Library Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  49. ^ "Queen's Park Library Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  50. ^ "St. John's Wood Library Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  51. ^ "Victoria Library Archived 17 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
  52. ^ a b "Westminster (London)". Heraldry of the world. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  53. ^ "Churchill Receives Freedom of Westminster". Archived from the original on 2 November 2021 – via YouTube.
  54. ^ "Recognition & Awards". Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  55. ^ "Speech receiving Freedom of City of Westminster". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 12 December 1990. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  56. ^ "Ship is granted freedom of city". 11 December 2005. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019 – via

References edit

  • Gray, Robert, A History of London, Hutchinson & Co, London, 1978, ISBN 0-09-133140-4

External links edit

  • City of Westminster
  • Westminster, by Sir Walter Besant and Geraldine Edith Mitton and A. Murray Smith, 1902, from Project Gutenberg
  • Westminster City Council YouTube channel
  • West End Extra: A local newspaper covering the City of Westminster