In modern usage, civil time refers to statutory time scales designated by civilian authorities, or to local time indicated by clocks. Modern civil time is generally standard time in a time zone at a fixed offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), possibly adjusted by daylight saving time during part of the year. UTC is calculated by reference to atomic clocks, and was adopted in 1972. Older systems use telescope observations.
In traditional astronomical usage, civil time was mean solar time reckoned from midnight. Before 1925, the astronomical time 00:00:00 meant noon, twelve hours after the civil time 00:00:00 which meant midnight. HM Nautical Almanac Office in the United Kingdom used Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) for both conventions, leading to ambiguity[clarification needed], whereas the Nautical Almanac Office at the United States Naval Observatory used GMT for the pre-1925 convention and Greenwich Civil Time (GCT) for the post-1924 convention until 1952. In 1928, the International Astronomical Union introduced the term Universal Time for GMT beginning at midnight, but the two Nautical Almanac Offices did not accept it until 1952.
In modern usage, GMT is no longer a formal standard reference time: it is now a name for the time zone UTC+00:00. Universal Time is now determined by reference to distant celestial objects: UTC is UT1 adjusted by leap seconds to compensate for variations in the rotational velocity of the Earth. Civil Times around the world are all defined by reference to UTC. [In many jurisdictions, legislation has not been updated and still refers to GMT: this is taken to mean UTC+0.]