Commission on Appointments

Summary

The Commission on Appointments (Filipino: Komisyon sa Paghirang, abbreviated as CA) is a constitutional body which confirms or rejects certain political appointments made by the President of the Philippines. The current commission was created by the 1987 Constitution.[1]

Commission on Appointments
18th Congress
Seal of the Commission on Appointments
History
Founded1935 (1935)
1987 (1987) (reestablishment)
New session started
July 22, 2019 (2019-07-22)
Leadership
Chairman
Tito Sotto (NPC)
since July 22, 2019
Vice Chairman
Majority Leader
Joel Mayo Almario (PDP–Laban)
Minority Leader
Structure
Seats24 members
1 ex officio presiding officer
Political groups
Majority (21)
  •   PDP–Laban (5)
  •   Nacionalista (4)
  •   NUP (2)
  •   PCFI (2)
  •   CIBAC (1)
  •   Lakas (1)
  •   Liberal (1)
  •   NPC (1)
  •   Independent (3)

Minority (3)

Meeting place
GSIS Building, Pasay, Metro Manila
Website
www.comappt.gov.ph

While often associated with the Congress of the Philippines, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and mistakenly referred to as a congressional committee,[2] the Commission on Appointments is an independent body from the legislature, though its membership is confined to members of Congress.[1]

BackgroundEdit

The Commission on Appointments confirms certain appointments made by the President of the Philippines. Article VII, Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution reads:

"The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards.[3]

The only government official that is exempted is the Vice President should he or she be appointed to any cabinet position. The nomination of a person to the vice presidency due to a vacancy is handled by both houses of Congress, voting separately.

During the operation of the Jones Law, the Senate confirmed the Governor-General's appointments. During the operation of the 1935 Constitution, the commission was composed of 21 members of the National Assembly of the Philippines. With the restoration of the bicameral Congress in 1940, the commission was composed of 12 senators and 12 representatives with the Senate President as the ex officio chairman. During the operation of the 1973 Constitution, the president appointed at will and without "checks and balances" from the then-parliament. The current constitution, which was ratified in 1987, brought back the 25-member commission.[4]

Officials confirmedEdit

  1. Heads of Executive Departments
  2. Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Consuls
  3. Officers of the Armed Forces from the rank of Colonel or Naval Captain
  4. Regular Members of the Judicial and Bar Council
  5. Chairman and Commissioners of the Civil Service Commission
  6. Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Elections
  7. Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Audit
  8. Members of the Regional and Consultative Commissions

The appointments of all judges and the Ombudsman need not be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. Instead, they are recommended by the Judicial and Bar Council in a short list, from which the President shall then choose from.

Prior to the institutionalization of the party-list system, the president appointed the sectoral representatives. Congress then decided to have these confirmed via the commission, as well.

Under the 1935 ConstitutionEdit

  1. Heads of the executive departments and bureaus
  2. Officers of the Army from the rank of colonel, of the Navy and air forces from the rank of captain or commander
  3. All other officers of the Government whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint
  4. Ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls
  5. Members of the Supreme Court and all judges of inferior courts
  6. The Resident Commissioner of the Philippines (until 1946)

CompositionEdit

The commission is composed of the Senate President, the ex officio chairman, twelve senators, and twelve members of the House of Representatives. Members from each house of Congress are elected based on proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented. The Chairman of the Commission shall vote only in case of a tie. It shall act on all appointments submitted within thirty session days of Congress. It shall be governed by a majority vote of all members.[5]

ProcedureEdit

A president can either make a nomination or an appointment. Either action involves the commission.

Most presidential actions are ad interim appointments, done when Congress is not in session. In these cases, the appointment allows the official to discharge the duties related to the office immediately. The ad interim appointment ceases to be valid if the commission explicitly rejects the appointment, or if the commission "bypasses" the appointment. If the commission rejects the appointment, the official is no longer allowed to discharge the duties related to his or her office, and the president has to appoint someone else. If the commission bypasses the official, the president can re-appoint that person.

The president can also nominate an official if Congress is in session. In a "regular" nomination, the official can only discharge the duties once the commission consents to the appointment.

Just as other legislative bodies, the commission is divided into different committees. Each appointment is coursed through the committee concerned. After hearings are held, the committee decides to confirm or reject the appointment; the commission en banc then deliberates on whether to accept the committee's decision.

Meeting placeEdit

The commission meets at the GSIS Complex in Pasay, the seat of the Senate.

Current membershipEdit

Members for the 18th Congress as of December 7, 2020.[6] The original composition was released on August 6, 2019:[7]

OfficersEdit

  • Chairman: Senator Tito Sotto (in an ex officio role as Senate President)
  • Vice Chairman: Representative Ronaldo Zamora
  • Majority Floor Leader: Representative Joel Mayo Almario
    • Assistant Majority Floor Leaders:
  • Minority Floor Leader: Senator Franklin Drilon
    • Assistant Minority Floor Leaders:
      • Representative Alex Advincula
      • Representative Rico Geron

MembersEdit

Members Chamber Party District Bloc
Alex Advincula House of Representatives NUP Cavite–3rd Minority
Joel Mayo Almario House of Representatives PDP–Laban Davao Oriental–2nd Majority
Genaro Alvarez House of Representatives NPC Negros Occidental–6th Majority
Abdulmunir Mundoc Arbison House of Representatives Nacionalista Sulu–2nd Majority
Mercedes Cagas House of Representatives Nacionalista Davao del Sur Majority
Jun Chipeco Jr. House of Representatives Nacionalista Calamba Majority
Luis Ferrer IV House of Representatives NUP Cavite–6th Majority
Rico Geron House of Representatives AGAP Party-list Majority
Bong Go Senate PDP–Laban Nationwide at-large Majority
Risa Hontiveros Senate Akbayan Nationwide at-large Minority
Panfilo Lacson Senate Reporma Nationwide at-large Majority
Imee Marcos Senate Nacionalista Nationwide at-large Majority
Florencio Noel House of Representatives An Waray Party-list Majority
Gavini Pancho House of Representatives NUP Bulacan–2nd Majority
Kiko Pangilinan Senate Liberal Nationwide at-large Minority
Koko Pimentel Senate PDP–Laban Nationwide at-large Majority
Grace Poe Senate Independent Nationwide at-large Majority
Bong Revilla Senate Lakas Nationwide at-large Majority
Josephine Sato House of Representatives Liberal Occidental Mindoro Majority
Tito Sotto[a][8] Senate NPC Nationwide at-large Majority
Francis Tolentino Senate PDP–Laban Nationwide at-large Majority
Joel Villanueva Senate CIBAC Nationwide at-large Majority
Cynthia Villar Senate Nacionalista Nationwide at-large Majority
Ronaldo Zamora House of Representatives PDP–Laban San Juan Majority
Juan Miguel Zubiri Senate Independent Nationwide at-large Majority
  1. ^ The Senate President only votes to break ties.

Party compositionEdit

Party Senate House Total %
PDP–Laban 3 3 6 25%
Nacionalista 2 2 4 17%
NUP 0 3 3 13%
Liberal 1 1 2 8%
CIBAC 1 0 1 4%
Lakas 1 0 1 4%
NPC 0+1 1 1+1 4%+1
AGAP 0 1 1 4%
Akbayan 1 0 1 4%
An Waray 0 1 1 4%
Reporma 1 0 1 4%
Independent 2 0 2 8%
Total 12+1 12 24+1 100%+1

Bloc compositionEdit

Bloc Senate House Total
Majority 10+1 11 21+1
Minority 2 1 3
Total 12+1 12 24+1

Rejection of appointmentEdit

Rejection by the commission of the president's appointment is very rare. Usually, due to the padrino system of patronage politics, the president's party controls a supermajority of votes in the House of Representatives, thus mirroring its composition of the commission. This means appointments are almost always are approved, although some are not without difficulty.

During the ongoing presidency of Rodrigo Duterte, six of his appointments were rejected. These are:

Other administrations also had a few of its appointments rejected. These were:[15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The Commission on Appointments". Commission on Appointments. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  2. ^ Macaraig, Ayee (June 21, 2014). "Confirmation limbo: Long but futile process?". Rappler. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  3. ^ The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Chan Robles law library.
  4. ^ "Historical Notes". Archived from the original on April 20, 2021.
  5. ^ Commission on Appointments Official Website
  6. ^ Gonzales, Cathrine (December 7, 2020). "9 more Velasco allies become deputy speakers". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  7. ^ "17th Congress Officers and Members". Commission on Appointments. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  8. ^ Elemia, Camille (May 21, 2018). "Tito Sotto elected as Senate president". Rappler. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  9. ^ "Commission on Appointments rejects Yasay". ABS-CBN News. March 8, 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  10. ^ Santos, Elmor P. (May 4, 2017). "CA rejects Gina Lopez appointment as DENR chief". CNN Philippines. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  11. ^ Alvarez, Kathrina Charmaine (August 16, 2017). "CA rejects Taguiwalo as DSWD secretary". GMA News Online. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  12. ^ Geronimo, Jee Y. (September 6, 2017). "CA rejects Rafael Mariano as agrarian reform secretary". Rappler. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  13. ^ Placido, Dharel (October 10, 2017). "Ubial rejected as health secretary". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  14. ^ Medenilla, Samuel P. (November 12, 2021). "Duterte picks Manila chief prosecutor Rey Bulay as new Comelec commissioner | Samuel P. Medenilla". BusinessMirror. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  15. ^ "Is Yasay the first appointee to be rejected by the CA?". Rappler. March 8, 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  16. ^ Legaspi, Amita (September 30, 2009). "Saludo appointment as CSC chair nixed by CA". GMA News. Retrieved February 15, 2019.

External linksEdit

  • Official website