Comparative navy officer ranks of the Americas

Summary

Rank comparison chart of navies of North and South American states.

Officers

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Antigua and Barbuda Navy[1]
British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1c.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg British Royal Navy OF-1a.svg
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant (junior grade) Sub-lieutenant Midshipman


 Argentina Navy[2]
Argentina-Navy-OF-9.svg Argentina-Navy-OF-8.svg Argentina-Navy-OF-7.svg Argentina-Navy-OF-6.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg A VNN-OF-1A.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contralmirante Comodoro de marina Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta Guardiamarina


 Bahamas Navy[3]
British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-6.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1c.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1a.svg British Royal Navy OF-1a.svg
Commodore Captain Senior commander Commander Lieutenant commander Senior lieutenant Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Acting Sub-lieutenant Midshipman


 Barbados Navy
Generic-Navy-O8.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg Barbados Coast Guard OFD.png
Commodore Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Midshipman


Belize Coast Guard
US-O8 insignia.svg US-O7 insignia.svg Blank.svg US-O5 insignia.svg US-O4 insignia.svg US-O3 insignia.svg US-O2 insignia.svg US-O1 insignia.svg Blank.svg
Belize Coast Guard OF-7.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-6.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-5.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-4.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-3.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-2.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-1b.svg Belize Coast Guard OF-1a.svg Blank.svg
Rear admiral Rear admiral (lower half) Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant (junior grade) Ensign Officer cadet


 Bolivia Navy[4]
Almt AB PNG.png V Almt AB PNG.png C Almt AB PNG.png Generic-Navy-(star)-O7.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O5.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O4.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O3.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O2.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O1.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O0.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navio Teniente de fragata Alférez Cadete


Brazilian Navy[5]
US Navy O11 shoulderboard.svgGeneric-Navy-O12.svg US Navy O10 shoulderboard.svgGeneric-Navy-O11.svg US Navy O9 shoulderboard.svgGeneric-Navy-O10.svg US Navy O8 shoulderboard.svgGeneric-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg PLANF-Sleeve-0710-CDT.png
Almirante Almirante de esquadra Vice-almirante Contra-almirante Capitão de mar e guerra Capitão de fragata Capitão de corveta Capitão-tenente Primeiro-tenente Segundo-tenente Guarda-marinha Aspirante


 Canada Navy[6]
Canada-Navy-OF-9-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-8-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-7-collected.svg Canada-Navy-OF-6-collected.svg Canadian RCN OF-5.svg Canadian RCN OF-4.svg Canadian RCN OF-3.svg Canadian RCN OF-2.svg Canadian RCN OF-1b.svg Canadian RCN OF-1a.svg Canadian RCN OF (D).svg
Admiral Vice-admiral Rear-admiral Commodore Captain (N) Commander Lieutenant-commander Lieutenant (N) Sub-lieutenant Acting sub-lieutenant Naval cadet
Amiral Vice-amiral Contre-amiral Commodore Capitaine de vaisseau Capitaine de frégate Capitaine de corvette Lieutenant de vaisseau Enseigne de vaisseau de 1re classe Enseigne de vaisseau de 2e classe Aspirant de marine


 Chilean Navy[7]
Generic-Navy-(star)-O11.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O10.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O9.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O8.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O7.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O5.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O4.svg Chile-Navy-OF-2.svg Chile-Navy-OF-1b.svg Chile-Navy-OF-1a.svg Chile-Navy-OF-(D).svg Blank.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Comodoro Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente 1° Teniente 2° Subteniente Guardiamarina Cadete


 Colombian National Navy[8]
Generic-Navy-O11.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta


Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Costa Rica Costa Rica No navy


 Cuba Navy[9]
Cuba-Navy-OF-8.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-7.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-6.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-5b.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-5.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-4.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-3.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-2.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-1c.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-1b.svg Cuba-Navy-OF-1a.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de flotilla Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta Alférez


Dominica Dominica No navy


 Dominican Republic Navy[10]
Almirante Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Vicealmirante Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Contralmirante Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Capitán de Navío Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Capitán de Fragata Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Capitán de Corbeta Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Teniente de Navío Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Alferez de Navío Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Alferez de Fragata Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg Guardiamarina Marina de Guerra Dominicana (Mango y Pala).svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navio Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta Guardiamarina


 Ecuador Navy[11]
23.Ecuadorian Navy-ADM.svg23.Ecuadorian Navy-ADM-(Sleeve).svg 22.Ecuadorian Navy-VADM.svg22.Ecuadorian Navy-VADM-(Sleeve).svg 21.Ecuadorian Navy-RADM.svg21.Ecuadorian Navy-RADM-(Sleeve).svg 20.Ecuadorian Navy-CPT.svg 19.Ecuadorian Navy-CDR.svg 18.Ecuadorian Navy-LCDR.svg 17.Ecuadorian Navy-LT.svg 16.Ecuadorian Navy-LTJG.svg 15.Ecuadorian Navy-ENS.svg 14.Ecuadorian Navy-SO4.svg 13.Ecuadorian Navy-SO3.svg 12.Ecuadorian Navy-SO2.svg 11.Ecuadorian Navy-SO1.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Alferez de fragata Guardiamarina 4to año Guardiamarina 3er año Guardiamarina 2do año Guardiamarina 1er año


 El Salvador Navy[12]
US Navy O9 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O8 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O6 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O5 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O4 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O3 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O2 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O1 shoulderboard.svg
Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navio Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta


Grenada Grenada No navy


Guyana Coast Guard
Guyana Rear Admiral Insignia.svg 11-Indian Navy-CDRE.svg 10-Indian Navy-CAPT.svg 09-Indian Navy-CDR.svg 08-Indian Navy-LCDR.svg 07-Indian Navy-LT.svg 08-Namibia Navy-LTJG.svg 06-Indian Navy-SLT.svg 07.RNO-MIDN.svg
Rear admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant Junior Grade Sub
lieutenant
Midshipman


Haitian Navy
Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg


 Honduras Navy[13]
US Navy O8 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O7 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O6 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O5 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O4 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O3 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O2 shoulderboard.svg US Navy O1 shoulderboard.svg
Vicealmirante Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navio Teniente de fragata Alferez de fragata


 Jamaican Coast Guard[14]
British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-8.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-6.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1c.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg British Royal Navy OF-1a.svg
Vice admiral Rear admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant (junior grade) Sub-Lieutenant Midshipman


 Mexican Navy[15][16]
Sec de Marina SEMAR.gif Almirante hombrera SEMAR.png Vicealmirante hombrera SEMAR.gif Contralmirante Mexico.png Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg A VNN-OF-1A.svg
Secretario de marina Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navio Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta Guardiamarina


Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Nicaragua Navy[17]
12-Nicaragua Navy-CDRE.svg 11-Nicaragua Navy-CAPT.svg 10-Nicaragua Navy-CDR.svg 09-Nicaragua Navy-LCDR.svg 08-Nicaragua Navy-LT.svg 07-Nicaragua Navy-LTJG.svg 06-Nicaragua Navy-ENS.svg 05-Nicaragua Navy-WO.svg
Contralmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Teniente de corbeta Alférez


Panama Panama No navy


 Paraguay Navy[18]
Generic-Navy-(star)-O12.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O11.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O10.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O7.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O5.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O4.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O3.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O2.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O1.svg Generic-Navy-(star)-O0.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de Navío Capitán de Fragata Capitán de Corbeta Teniente de Navio Teniente de Fragata Teniente de Corbeta Guardiamarina


 Peruvian Navy[19]
Blank.svg Peru-Navy-OF-9.svg Peru-Navy-OF-8.svg Peru-Navy-OF-7.svg Peru-Navy-OF-5.svg Peru-Navy-OF-4.svg Peru-Navy-OF-3.svg Peru-Navy-OF-2.svg Peru-Navy-OF-1b.svg Peru-Navy-OF-1a.svg
Gran Almirante del Perú Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente primero Teniente segundo Alférez de fragata


 Saint Kitts and Nevis Navy
British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1c.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg
Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub-Lieutenant Midshipman Officer Cadet


Saint Lucia Saint Lucia No navy


Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No navy


 Trinidad and Tobago Navy[20]
Trinidad-&-Tobago-Navy-OF-7.svgBritish Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg Trinidad-&-Tobago-Navy-OF-6.svgBritish Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-6.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg 07.RNO-MIDN.svg
Rear admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Acting sub-lieutenant Midshipman Officer cadet


 United States Navy[21]
US Navy O11 insignia.svg US Navy O10 insignia.svg US Navy O9 insignia.svg US Navy O8 insignia.svg US Navy O7 insignia.svg US Navy O6 insignia.svg US Navy O5 insignia.svg U.S. Navy O-4 insignia.svg US Navy O3 insignia.svg US Navy O2 insignia.svg US Navy O1 insignia.svg US Navy OC shoulderboard.svg
Fleet admiral Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign Midshipman / officer candidate
(Various insignia)


 United States Coast Guard[21]
USCG O-10 insignia.svg US CG O9 insignia.svg US CG O8 insignia.svg US CG O7 insignia.svg US CG O6 insignia.svg US CG O5 insignia.svg USCG O-4 insignia.svg USCG O-3 insignia.svg USCG O-2 insignia.svg USCG O-1 insignia.svg Various
Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign Cadet / officer candidate


 United States Marine Corps[22]
US Marine 10 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O9 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O8 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O7 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O6 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O5 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O4 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O3 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O2 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Marine O1 shoulderboard vertical.svg US Navy OC shoulderboard.svg
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Midshipman / officer candidate
(Various insignia)


 Uruguay Navy[23]
Generic-Navy-O11.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg Blank.svg
Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Alfarez de navio Alfarez de fragata Guardiamarina


 Venezuela Navy[24][25][26]
Almiranteenjefe.png Almirante - 2.png Vicealmirante.gif Contralmirante.png Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg
Almirante en jefe Almirante Vicealmirante Contraalmirante Capitán de navío Capitán de fragata Capitán de corbeta Teniente de navío Teniente de fragata Alferez de navío


Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

Warrant officers (WO1–CW5)

Warrant Officers (WO) and Chief Warrant Officers (CWO) in the US Military rank below officers but above officer candidates and enlisted servicemen. The first warrant officer rank, WO1 does not have a "commission" associated with it, instead having a "Warrant" from the Secretary of the Navy. Warrant officers are allowed the same courtesies as a commissioned officer, but may have some restrictions on their duties that are reserved for commissioned officers. Warrant officers usually receive a commission once they are promoted to Chief Warrant Officer 2 (CW2), but are usually not referred to as "commissioned officers". WO1s may be and sometimes are appointed by commission as stated in title 10USC.

Equivalent
NATO rank
WO-5 WO-4 WO-3 WO-2 WO-1
 Peruvian Navy
Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg
Técnico Supervisor Primero Técnico Supervisor Segundo Técnico Primero Técnico Segundo Técnico Tercero


 United States Navy
US Navy CW5 insignia.svg US Navy CW4 insignia.svg US Navy CW3 insignia.svg US Navy CW2 insignia.svg US Navy WO1 insignia.svg
Chief warrant officer 5 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2 Warrant officer 1


 U.S. Coast Guard
USCG CW4 insignia.svg US CG CW3 insignia.svg US CG CW2 insignia.svg
Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2


 United States Marine Corps
USMC CWO5.svg USMC CWO4.svg USMC CWO3.svg USMC CWO2.svg USMC WO1.svg
Chief warrant officer 5 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2 Warrant Officer 1


 Venezuela Navy
Maestresupervisor.gif Maestremayor.gif Maestreprincipal.gif Maestreauxiliar.gif Maestretecnico.gif
Maestro Técnico Supervisor Maestro Técnico Mayor Maestre Técnico Principal Maestre Auxiliar Maestre Técnico
Equivalent
NATO rank
WO-5 WO-4 WO-3 WO-2 WO-1

See also

References

  1. ^ Antigua & Barbuda Defence Force. "Paratus" (PDF). Regional Publications Ltd. pp. 12–13. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  2. ^ "Grados Militares". fuerzas-armadas.mil.ar (in Spanish). Joint Chiefs of Staff (Argentina). Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  3. ^ "OFFICER RANKS". rbdf.gov.bs. Royal Bahamas Defence Force. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  4. ^ Ministry of Defense (Bolivia) [@mindefbolivia] (9 January 2020). "Conoce la jerarquía de los grados de la #ArmadaBoliviana" (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 May 2021 – via Twitter.
  5. ^ "Postos e Graduações". marinha.mil.br (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Ranks and appointment". canada.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Los grados jerárquicos de la Armada". armada.cl/ (in Spanish). Chilean Navy. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  8. ^ Congreso de la República de Colombia (28 July 2010). "Ley 1405 de 2010 Nuevos Grados Militares" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  9. ^ "Grados militares". minfar.gob.cu (in Spanish). Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (Cuba). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Insignias". mide.gob.do (in Spanish). Ministry of Defense (Dominican Republic). Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Officerer". armada.mil.ec (in Spanish). Ecuadorian Navy. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  12. ^ "Grados Militares". fuerzaarmada.mil.sv (in Spanish). Ministry of National Defense of El Salvador. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  13. ^ Flores, Edmundo (1995). "National Security". In Merrill, Tim (ed.). Honduras: a country study. Area Handbook (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 232–233. LCCN 94043036. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  14. ^ "BADGES OF RANK". Official Jamaica Defence Force Website. 2019. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  15. ^ Secretary of the Navy (21 July 2018). "Ley Orgánica De La Armada De México" [Organic Law of the Mexican Navy] (PDF) (in Spanish). pp. 16–17. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Grados y Equivalencias". 2006-2012.semar.gob.mx/ (in Spanish). 5 November 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  17. ^ "Insignias de Grados Militares". ejercito.mil.ni (in Spanish). Nicaraguan Armed Forces. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  18. ^ Cooke, Melinda W. (1990). "Chapter 5: National Security". In Hanratty, Dennis M.; Meditz, Sandra W. (eds.). Paraguay: A Country Study. Area Handbook Series (2nd ed.). Library of Congress. pp. 216–217. LCCN 89600299. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  19. ^ "Grados Militares". ccffaa.mil.pe (in Spanish). Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  20. ^ "Rank Chart (Commissioned Officers)". 69.0.195.188. Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  21. ^ a b "U.S. Military Rank Insignia". defense.gov. Department of Defense. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  22. ^ "Ranks". marines.mil. U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  23. ^ Hudson, Rex A.; Meditz, Sandra W., eds. (1992). "Chapter 5. National Security". Uruguay: A Country Study (PDF) (2nd ed.). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 222–223. ISBN 0-8444-0737-2. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  24. ^ "Grados de Generales y Almirantes". ejercito.mil.ve. Government of Venezuela. 28 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019.
  25. ^ "Grados de Oficiales Superiores". ejercito.mil.ve. Government of Venezuela. 28 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019.
  26. ^ "Grados de Oficiales Subalternos". ejercito.mil.ve. Government of Venezuela. 28 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019.