Comparison of orbital launcher families

Summary

This list contains a comparison of orbital launcher families. To see the lists of all launch systems separated by current operational status, see Comparison of orbital launch systems.

Description

  • Family: Name of the family/model of launcher
  • Country: Origin country of launcher
  • Manufac.: Main manufacturer
  • Payload: Maximum mass of payload, for 3 altitudes
  • Cost: Price for a launch at this time, in millions of US$
  • Launches reaching...
    • Total: flights which lift-off, or where the vehicle is destroyed during the terminal count
      note: only includes orbital launches (flights launched with the intention of reaching orbit). Suborbital tests launches are not included in this listing.
    • Space (regardless of outcome)
    • Any orbit (regardless of outcome)
    • Target orbit (without damage to the payload)
  • Status: Actual status of launcher (retired, development, active)
  • Date of flight
    • First: Year of first flight of first family's member
    • Last: Year of Last flight (for vehicles retired from service)
  • Refs: citations

Same cores are grouped together (like Ariane 1, 2 & 3, but not V).

List of launcher families

Legend
  Active
  In development
  Retired
  Active, and being updated and revised

Family Country Manufac. Payload (kg) Cost (US$,
millions)
Launches reaching... Status Date of flight Notes Refs
LEO GTO TLI Total Space Any orbit Target orbit First Last
Alpha  USA
 UKR
Firefly Aerospace 1,000 N/A N/A -- 0 Devel. 2020 [1]
Angara 1.2  RUS Khrunichev 3,800 -- -- 25 0 0 0 N/A Active 2014 As of May 2020, only launch was a suborbital test in 2014.[2] [3][4][5]
Angara A5  RUS Khrunichev 14,600–​35,000 3,600–​12,500 -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2014 [3][6]
Antares  USA Orbital ATK 6,500 -- -- 80[citation needed] 13[a] 12 12 12 Active 2013 Cygnus launcher.
Var.: 110, 120, 130, 230, 230+
[7][8][9]
Ariane 1-2-3  EU Aérospatiale N/A 2,650 N/A -- 28 Retired 1979 1989 [10][11]
Ariane 4  EU Aérospatiale 7,000 4,720 N/A -- 116 Retired 1988 2003 Var.: 40, 42P, 42L, 44P, 44L, 44LP [11]
Ariane 5  EU Airbus 21,000 10,735[12] N/A 165–​220 109[b] 107 107 104 Active 1996 Var.: G, G+, GS, ECA, ES. [13][14][15]
Ariane 6  EU Airbus Safran 21,650
(A64 var.)
11,500+
(A64 var.)
8,500
(A64 var.)
115 0 Devel. 2021 [16] Var.: Ariane 62, Ariane 64. [17]
ASLV  IND ISRO 150 -- -- -- 4 Retired 1987 1994 [18]
Astra Rocket  USA Astra 50-​150
(to SSO)
N/A N/A -- 1[c] 0 0 0 Active 2020 2 suborbital test launches in 2018. [19]
Athena I & II  USA Lockheed ATK 2,065 -- 295 -- 7 Retired 1995 2001 Launch Lunar Prospector.[20] [21]
Atlas A-B-C-D-E-F-G
Atlas I
 USA Lockheed 5,900 2,340 -- -- 514 Retired 1957 1997 Launch Mercury.
Atlas or Centaur upper stage.
[22][23][24][25]
Atlas II  USA Lockheed 8,618 3,833 -- -- 63 63 63 Retired 1991 2004 [26][27][28]
Atlas III  USA Lockheed 10,759 4,609 -- -- 6 6 6 Retired 2003 2005 Var.: IIIA, IIIB [29][30]
Atlas V  USA ULA 18,850 8,900 2,807 109–​153 85[d] 85 85 84 Active 2002 Launched Juno & New Horizons [31][32]
Beta  USA
 UKR
Firefly Aerospace 4,000 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 [33]
Black Arrow  UK RAE Westland 132 -- -- -- 4 3 Retired 1969 1971 [34]
Bloostar  ESP Zero 2 Infinity 140 -- -- -- 0 Devel. [35]
Blue Whale 1  ROK Perigee Aerospace 50 (to SSO) -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 [36]
Ceres-1  CHN Galactic Energy 350 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 [37]
Cyclone-4M  UKR Yuzhnoye
Yuzhmash
5,000 1,000 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 [38]
Delta  USA Douglas 3,848 1,312 -- -- 186 Retired 1960 1989 Launched Pioneer & Explorer probes.
Var. A, B, C, D, E, G, J, L, M, N, 300, 900, 1X00, 4X00, 2X00, 3X00, 5X00
[39][39]
Delta II  USA ULA 6,000 2,171 1,508 51 153 152 152 151 Retired 1989 2018 Launched Mars probes MGS to Phoenix
Var.: 6000, 7000, and Heavy.
[39][40][41]
Delta III  USA Boeing 8,290 3,810 -- -- 3 2 2 Retired 1998 2000 [42][43]
Delta IV  USA ULA 23,040 13,130 9,000 -- 40[e] 40 39 39 Active 2002 Var.: M, M+, and Heavy. [44]
Diamant  FRA SEREB -- -- -- 12 9 Retired 1965 1975 [citation needed]
R-36M
Dnepr
 UKR
 RUS
Yuzhmash 3,600 -- 750 14 17 Retired 1999 2015 [45][46]
[full citation needed][47]
Electron  NZ
 USA
Rocket Lab 225 6 14[f] 14 12 12 Active 2017 [48]
Energia Soviet Union USSR NPO Energia 100,000 20,000 32,000 240 (Energia−Buran) 2 2 1 1 Retired 1987 1988 1 partial failure with Polyus spacecraft, 1 successful flight with Buran shuttle. [49][citation needed]
Epsilon  JPN IHI Corporation 1,200 -- -- -- 4[g] 4 4 4 Active 2013 [50][51]
Eris  AUS Gilmour Space Technologies 305 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2022 [52]
Falcon 1  USA SpaceX 420[53] -- -- 7.9[53] 5[54] 4[53] 2[53] 2[54] Retired[53] 2006 2009
Falcon 9
v1.0, v1.1, FT, Block 5
 USA SpaceX 22,800 8,300 -- 61.2 95[h] 94 94 93 Active 2010 Upgrade to version 1.1 in 2013; upgrade to version FT in 2015
Launcher of Dragon capsule.

One flight put primary but not secondary payload into correct orbit,[55] one rocket and payload were destroyed before launch in preparation for static fire[56] and thus is not counted.

[57][58]
Falcon Heavy  USA SpaceX 63,800 26,700 -- 90–​150 3[i] 3 3 3 Active 2018 First test launch 2018-02-06 [59][60][61]
GSLV Mark I  IND ISRO 5,000 2,500 -- -- 6 4 2 2 Retired 2001 2010 [62][63][64]
GSLV Mark II  IND ISRO 5,000 2,700 -- -- 7[j] 6 6 6 Active 2010 [62][63][64]
GSLV Mk.III (LVM3)  IND ISRO 10,000 4,000 4,000 -- 3[k] [l] 3 3 3 Active 2014 [65][66]
H-I  JPN Mitsubishi 3,200 -- -- 9 9 Retired 1986 1992 License-built version of the Thor-ELT [67]
H-II, IIA & IIB  JPN Mitsubishi 19,000 8,000 -- (190), 90, 112 58[m] 57 56 55 Active 1994 Var.: A202, A2022, A2024, A204, B [68]
H3  JPN Mitsubishi 4,000-28,300 (base-heavy) 7,900-14,800 (base-heavy) 11,900 (heavy) 0 Devel. 2021 Var.: 30S, 22S, 32L, 24L, heavy[69][70] [70]
Hyperbola-1  CHN i-Space 300 -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2019 [71]
Hyperbola-2  CHN i-Space 2,000 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 [72]
Haas  ROM ARCA 400 -- -- 0 Devel. TBD Launch from balloon [73][74]
J-I  JPN IHI Corporation Nissan Motors 880 -- -- -- 1 Retired 1996 1996 Partial demonstration flight only [citation needed]
Jielong 1  CHN CALT 200 (SSO) -- -- 1 1 1 1 Active 2019 [75]
R-12 & R-14
Kosmos
Soviet Union USSR Yuzhnoye Polyot 1,500 -- -- 12 610 559 Retired 1967 2010 Var.: 1, 2, 3, 3M [14][76][77]
DF-31 Kaituozhe  CHN CALT 800 -- -- -- 3[n] 1 1 1 Active 2002 Var.: KT-1, KT-2, KT2-A [78]
DF-21 Kuaizhou  CHN CASIC 400 (KZ-1)–​1,500 (KZ-11) -- -- -- 14[o] 14[p] 12 12 Active 2013 Var.: KZ-1, KZ-1A, KZ-11, KZ-21. As of July 2020, KZ-21 is the only unflown variant. [79]
Lambda 4S  JPN Nissan ISAS -- -- -- 5 1 Retired 1966 1970 [citation needed]
LauncherOne  USA Virgin Orbit 300 (SSO) -- -- -- 1[q] 0 0 0 Active 2020 [80]
Long March 1  CHN CALT 300 -- -- -- 2 2 2 2 Retired 1970 1971 [81][82][83]
Long March 1D  CHN CALT 740 -- -- -- 0 Retired 1995 2002 3 suborbital launches only (2 successful.) [81][82][83]
DF-5
Long March 2-3-4
 CHN CALT 12,000 5,500 3,300 326[r][s] 320 [t] 317 311 Active 1971 See notes Var.: 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F,[u] 3, 3A, 3B, 3B/E, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C. See [v] for retired var. among those listed here. [85]
Long March 5  CHN CALT 25,000 14,000 8,000 -- 5[w] 5 4 4 Active 2016 Var.: 5, 5B [86][87]
Long March 6  CHN CALT 1,500 -- -- -- 3[x] 3 3 3 Active 2015 [88]
Long March 7  CHN CALT 20,000 5,500-7,000 (7A var.)[89] -- -- 3[y] 2 2 2 Active 2016 Variants: 7, 7A [90][89]
Long March 8  CHN CALT 4,500 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 1st stage + boosters with vertical take-off and vertical landing capabilities [89]
Long March 11  CHN CALT 700 -- -- -- 9[z] 9 9 9 Active 2015 Likely based on DF-31 missile [91]
Minotaur I  USA Orbital ATK 580 -- -- -- 11[aa] 11 11 11 Active 2000 Derived from the Minuteman II [92][93]
Minotaur IV & V  USA Orbital ATK 1,735 640 447 50 8[ab] 8 8 8 Active 2010 Also 2 suborbital launches (HTV-2a). Var.: IV, IV Lite, IV HAPS, V. Derived from Peacekeeper missile [92][94]
Miura 5  ESP PLD Space 300 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 [95]
Mu 1-3-4  JPN Nissan Motor IHI 770 -- -- -- 27 Retired 1966 1995 Var.: 1, 3D, 4S, 3C, 3H, 3S, 3SII [96]
Mu 5  JPN Nissan Motor IHI 1,800 -- -- -- 7 6 Retired 1997 2006 Var.: M-V, M-V KM [citation needed]
N1 Soviet Union USSR NPO Energia 90,000 -- 23,500 -- 4 0 0 0 Retired 1969 1972 Designed for Soviet Manned Lunar Mission [97]
N-I & II  JPN Mitsubishi 2,000 730 -- -- 15 15 15 14[ac] Retired 1975 1987 Derived from the American Delta rocket [98]
Naro  ROK Khrunichev KARI 100 -- -- -- 3 2 1 1 Retired 2009 2013 First stage uses the Russian RD-151 engine [99]
New Glenn  USA Blue Origin 45,000 13,000 -- 0 Devel. 2021/2022 [100]
New Line  CHN LinkSpace 200 (SSO) -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 [101]
Nuri  ROK KARI 1,500 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 [102]
OS-M  CHN OneSpace 205 (M1) -- -- -- 1 0 0 0 Active 2019 Var.: M1, M2, M4. Single M1 failed launch; M2 & M4 in development. [103]
Pegasus  USA Orbital ATK 450 -- -- -- 44[ad] 43 41 39 Active 1990 [104]
Prime  UK Orbex 150 (SSO) -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2022 [105][106]
UR-500 Proton Soviet Union USSR
 RUS
Khrunichev 23,000 6,920 5,680 65 (Proton-M) 424[ae] 376 Active 1965 Var.: K, M, Medium in development. [107][108][109]
PSLV  IND ISRO 3,800 1,200 -- -- 50[af] 49 48 47 Active 1993 Var.: CA, XL, QL, DL
Launched moon probe Chandrayaan I, Mars probe Mangalyaan I
[110][111]
Qased  IRN IRGC unknown -- -- -- 1[ag] 1 1 1 Active 2020 [112]
UR-100N Rokot Strela  RUS Eurockot Khrunichev 2,100 -- -- -- 37[ah] 36 35 35 Active 1994 34 Rokot launches (no launches post-2019 due to Ukrainian tech ban); 3 Strela launches. [113][114][115][116]
RS1  USA ABL Space Systems 1,200 -- -- 12 0 Devel. 2020 [117]
Safir  IRN ISA 50 -- -- -- 7[ai] 5 4 4 Active 2007 Numbers given here may be in dispute [118]
Saturn I & IB  USA Chrysler Douglas 18,600 -- -- 19 13 13 13 13 Retired 1961 1975 Saturn 1 family also included 6 suborbital test launches [119][120]
Saturn V  USA Boeing North American Douglas 118,000 -- 47,000 185 13 13 13 Retired 1967 1973 Var.: Apollo, Skylab [119][121][122]
Scout  USA US Air Force NASA 210 -- -- -- 125 104 Retired 1960 1994 Var.: X1, X2, A, D, G [123]
Shavit  ISR IAI 225 -- -- 15 11[aj] 9 9 9 Active 1988 Var.: Shavit, -1, -2 [124]
R-29
Shtil Volna
 RUS Makeyev 430 -- -- -- 8[ak] 7 2 2 Withdrawn in 2010[125] 1995 2006 Var.: Volna, Shtil, 2.1, 2R, 3 [125]
Simorgh  IRN ISA 350 -- -- -- 4[al] 3[am] 0 0 Active 2016 [126]
SLS  USA Orbital ATK Boeing United Launch Alliance Aerojet Rocketdyne 95,000–​130,000 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 Expected 2020 [127][128]
SLV  IND ISRO 40 -- -- -- 4 3 3 2 Retired 1979 1983 Launched Rohini satellite series [129]
R-7 Semyorka Soyuz Soviet Union USSR
 RUS
RSC Energia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 2,400 1,200 -- 1,919[an] [ao] 1,800[ap] Active 1957 Var.: Sputnik, Luna, Vostok-L, Vostok-K, Voskhod, Molniya, Molniya-L, Molniya-M, Polyot, Soyuz, Soyuz-L, Soyuz-M, Soyuz-U, Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-2, Soyuz-2-1v [130][131]
SS-520  JPN IHI Aerospace 4 -- -- -- 2[aq] 2 1 1 2017 2 successful suborbital flights and 2 orbital flights (one success). A test of how small orbital rockets can be. The rocket has a mass of only 2.6 tonnes. [132]
Small Satellite Launch Vehicle  IND ISRO 500 300 -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 As of December 2019, design of the rocket has been completed and first developmental flight is to take place in early 2020. [133][134][135]
STS
Space Shuttle
 USA Alliant Martin Marietta Rockwell 24,400 3,810 -- 450 135 134 134 133 Retired 1981 2011 Orbiter mass: 68585 kg. [136]
Starship  USA SpaceX 150,000 40,000 100,000+[ar] -- 0 Devel. 2020 Previously called BFR [137][138][139][140][141]
RT-2PM
Start-1
 RUS MITT 532 -- -- -- 7[as] 6 6 6 Active 1993 [142]
Taurus / Minotaur-C  USA Orbital Sciences 1,450 -- -- -- 9[at] 9 6 6 Active 1989 Var.: 2110, 3110, 3210 [143]
Terran 1  USA Relativity Space 1,250 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 anticipates 3-D printing most rocket parts [144]
Thor  USA Douglas 1,270 -- 38 -- 357 Retired 1957 1980 Launched Pioneer & Explorer probes [39]
LGM-25C
Titan I-II-III-IV
 USA Martin Marietta 21,900 5,773 8,600 350 369 Retired 1959 2005 Var.: I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, IIID, IIIE, 34D, IVA, IVB
Gemini launcher
[145][146]
R-36
Tsyklon
Soviet Union USSR
 UKR
Yuzhmash 4,100 -- -- -- 259 Retired 1967 2009 Var.: 1, 2, 3. [147]
Unified Launch Vehicle  IND ISRO 4,500–​41,300 1,500–​16,300 -- -- 0 Devel. Var.: 6S12, 2S60, 2S138, 2S200 [148]
Unha-3  DPRK KCST 200 -- -- -- 4[au] 3 2 Active 2006 Var.: Paektusan based on Taepodong-1 missile; Unha based on Taepodong-2 missile. [149][150]
Vanguard  USA Martin 23 -- -- -- 12 3 Retired 1957 1959 [151]
Vega  EU Avio 2,300 -- -- 23 16[av] 15 15 15 Active 2012 Vega-C and Vega-E in development. [152]
Yenisei  RUS TsSKB-Progress
RSC Energia
88,000-​115000 20,000-27,000 0 Devel. 2028 [153][154][155][156]
Vikram  IND Skyroot Aerospace 720 -- -- 0 Devel. 2021 Var.: Vikram 1, Vikram II, Vikram III [157]
VLM  BRA CTA 150 -- -- -- 0 Devel. 2022 [158][159][160]
Vulcan  USA ULA 17,800–​34,900 7,400–​16,300 -- 99 0 Devel. 2021 [161][162][163][164]
Yun Feng Taiwan TWN National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology 50-​200 -- -- 0 Devel. unknown [165]
Zenit Soviet Union USSR
 UKR
 RUS
Yuzhnoye 13,740 6,160 4,098 -- 84[aw] 74 72 Active 1985 Var.: 2, 2M (2SB, 2SLB), 3SL, 3SLB, 3SLBF [166]
Zero  JPN Interstellar Technologies 100 (SSO) -- -- 0 Devel. 2022-2023 [167]
Zhuque-1  CHN LandSpace 300 -- -- 1 1 0 0 Active 2018 [168][169]
Zhuque-2  CHN LandSpace 4,000 -- -- 0 Devel. 2020 [168]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Number of Antares launches current as of 02 October, 2020.
  2. ^ Number of Ariane 5 launches current as of 15 August, 2020.
  3. ^ Number of Astra launches current as of 12 September, 2020.
  4. ^ Number of Atlas V launches current as of 30 July, 2020.
  5. ^ Number of Delta IV launches current as of 22 August, 2019.
  6. ^ Number of Electron launches current as of 31 August, 2020.
  7. ^ Number of Epsilon launches current as of 18 January, 2019.
  8. ^ Number of Falcon 9 launches are updated via manual input into "Template:Falcon rocket statistics". Said page was last updated on 18 October 2020.
  9. ^ Falcon rocket statistics template page last updated on 18 October 2020.
  10. ^ Number of GSLV Mark II launches current as of 19 December, 2018.
  11. ^ Number of GSLV Mark III launches current as of 22 July, 2019.
  12. ^ GSLV Mark III numbers do not include one successful suborbital flight.
  13. ^ Number of H-II (all versions) launches current as of 19 July, 2020.
  14. ^ Kaituozhe launch numbers current as of 2 March, 2017.
  15. ^ Number of Kuaizhou launches current as of 15 September, 2020.
  16. ^ Information of unknown reliability indicates KZ-11 3rd stage failure on 10 July 2020 and possible upper stage failure of KZ-1A on 12 September, 2020. Launches likely reached space. Numbers may change upon availability of additional information.
  17. ^ LauncherOne launch numbers current as of 25 May, 2020.
  18. ^ Number of Long March 2-3-4 launches current as of 11 October, 2020.
  19. ^ The total number of launches in the CZ-2,3,4 series listed here does not include 6 possible launches [5 possilbe successes and 1 possible failure] of the CZ-2C (3) var. noted in reference.[84]
  20. ^ Sources from List of Long March launches are unclear regarding whether 3 failed launches in the CZ-2,3,4 series reached space; thus the number quoted here is the minimum number of launches that reached space while the actual possible number could be greater than the quoted number by up to three.
  21. ^ CZ-2F is the crew-rated launcher for the Shenzhou spacecraft.
  22. ^ As of 21 February 2020, the following var. in the Long March 2-3-4 family of launchers have been retired: 2A, 2E, 3, 3B, and 4A.
  23. ^ Number of Long March 5 launches current as of 23 July, 2020.
  24. ^ Number of Long March 6 launches current as of 13 November, 2019.
  25. ^ Number of Long March 7 launches current as of 16 March, 2020.
  26. ^ Number of Long March 11 launches current as of 29 May, 2020.
  27. ^ Number of Minotaur I launches current as of 20 November, 2013.
  28. ^ Number of Minotaur IV and V launches current as of 15 July 2020.
  29. ^ One N-I launch partially failed due to recontact between satellite and upper stage.
  30. ^ Number of Pegasus launches current as of 11 October, 2019.
  31. ^ Number of Proton launches current as of 30 July, 2020.
  32. ^ Number of PSLV launches current as of 11 December, 2019.
  33. ^ Number of Qased launches current as of 22 April, 2020.
  34. ^ Number of Rokot+Strela launches current as of 26 December, 2019.
  35. ^ Number of Safir launches current as of 29 August, 2019. Number of launches and possible outcomes are in dispute. See main page at Safir.
  36. ^ Number of Shavit launches current as of 06 July, 2020
  37. ^ 5 of the 8 launches were suborbital (of which 2 failed); 3 of the 8 launches were intended for LEO (2 successes).[125]
  38. ^ Number of launches current as of 9 February, 2020.
  39. ^ According of Russian sources, first launch in 2016 was a successful suborbital flight. According to an Iranian government source, third launch (January 2019) failed due to a problem in the rocket's third stage which implies that the vehicle reached space. According to an Iranian government source, fourth launch (February 2020) reached an altitude of about 355 miles but the vehicle failed to achieve orbital velocity. See sources cited in Simorgh Wikipedia page.
  40. ^ Number of R-7 Semyorka/Soyuz launches current as of 14 October, 2020.
  41. ^ Due to the existence of ICBM variants, suborbital flights, and the large total number of flights, the number of launches reaching space and those reaching any orbit are not given here in order to lessen the dissemnation of inaccurate information.
  42. ^ The total number of launches and launch successes are taken from the R-7 Semyorka Wikipedia page.
  43. ^ Number of SS-520 launches current as of 3 February, 2018.
  44. ^ With in-orbit refueling
  45. ^ Number of Start-1/Start launches current as of 25 April, 2006.
  46. ^ Number of Taurus/Minotaur-C launches current as of 31 October, 2017.
  47. ^ Number of Unha-2/Unha-3 launches current as of 7 February, 2016.
  48. ^ Number of Vega (all versions) launches current as of 03 September, 2020.
  49. ^ Number of Zenit launches current as of 26 December, 2017.

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