Comparison of orbital rocket engines

Summary

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Current and upcoming rocket engines

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Status Use Propellant Power cycle Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[b] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aeon 1  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 1st CH4 / LOX Gas generator 310 86,740 (SL)[1]
Aeon 1 Vacuum  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 2nd CH4 / LOX Gas generator 360 100,085 (SL)[1]
AJ-10-190  USA Aerojet Space Shuttle, Orion Active Upper N2O4/MMH Pressure-fed 316[2] 26,689[2] 118[2] 23.08 8.62[2]
AJ-60A  USA Aerojet Atlas V Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 275 1,270,000[3]
AR1  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Beta (potential)[4] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 2,200,000 (SL)[5] 2.72
BE-3  USA Blue Origin New Shepard Active 1st LH2 / LOX Combustion tap-off 490,000[6]
BE-3U  USA Blue Origin New Glenn Development 2nd LH2 / LOX Expander, open 710,000[6]
BE-4  USA Blue Origin New Glenn, Vulcan Development 1st CH4 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 2,400,000[7][8] 134[9]
CE-20  India LPSC GSLV Mk III Active Upper LH2 / LOX Gas generator 443 200,000 588 34.7 60.00 5.05
CE-7.5  India LPSC GSLV Mk II Active Upper LH2 / LOX Staged 454[10] 73,500 445 16.85 58
Engine-2  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 327[11]
290 (SL)
100,000[11] 2.62
Engine-2 Vacuum  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 365[11] 100,000[11] 2.62
GEM 63  USA Northrop Grumman Atlas V Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 1,662,745[12] 44,225
GEM 63XL  USA Northrop Grumman Vulcan Development Booster HTPB Solid fuel 2,025,720[12] 47,990
Hadley  USA Ursa Major Technologies GOLauncher 1[13] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 22,241 (SL)[14]
HM-7B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2, 3, 4, 5 ECA Active Upper LH2 / LOX Gas generator 446[15]
310 (SL)[16]
64,800[15]
43,600 (SL)[16]
165[15] 43.25 37[15] 5
HyPER-15  South Korea Innospace Icarus-N, -M, -S Development 1st LH2/paraffin N/A 150,000[17]
LE-5B  Japan Mitsubishi, JAXA H-IIA,
H-IIB
Active Upper LH2 / LOX Gas generator 447[18] 137,000 269 51.93 36.0 5
LE-7A  Japan Mitsubishi, JAXA H-IIA,
H-IIB
Active 1st LH2 / LOX Staged 438[19]
338 (SL)[19]
1,098,000
870,000 (SL)
1,800 62.2 121 5.9
Lightning 1  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX Combustion tap-off 322[20] 70,100[20]
Merlin 1D FT  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 B5, Heavy Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 311 914,000[21]
845,000 (SL)[21]
470 194.5[21]
Merlin Vacuum 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 B5, Heavy Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 348[22] 981,000[23] 2.36
M10  EU Avio Vega-E[24] Development Upper[24] CH4 / LOX[24] Expander, closed 362[24] 98,000[24] 3.4[24]
NewtonThree  USA Virgin Orbit LauncherOne Development Booster RP-1 / LOX Gas generator[25] 266,893[26]
NewtonFour  USA Virgin Orbit LauncherOne Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX Gas generator[27] 22,241[26]
NK-33A (AJ26-62),
11Д111 / 14Д15
 Soviet Union JSC Kuznetsov Antares 100, Soyuz-2-1v Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 331[28]
297 (SL)
1,680,000
1,510,000 (SL)
1,222 136.8 145
P80  Europe Avio Vega Active 1st HTPB Solid fuel 280[29] 3,015,000[29] 96,000 with fuel 88
P120  Europe Avio Ariane 6,
Vega-C
Development Booster, 1st HTPB Solid fuel 279[30] 4,650,000[30] 161,000 with fuel[30] 105
P230  Europe Avio Ariane 5 Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 286[31]
259 (SL)
6,996,000
5,860,000 (SL)
269,000 with fuel[31] 69
S139  India SDSC PSLV Active 1st HTPB Solid fuel 269[32] 4,860,000 160,200
with fuel
58
Raptor[33]  USA SpaceX Starship Development 1st, 2nd CH4 / LOX Staged, full-flow 350[34]
330 (SL)
2,205,000 (SL, est.)[35] ~1,360 (goal)[36] ≥170 (goal)[36] 330[37] 3.6[38]
Raptor Vacuum[33]  USA SpaceX Starship Development 2nd CH4 / LOX Staged, full-flow 380+[39] 2,150,000[40] ~1,360 (goal)[36] ≤120 (goal)[36] 330[37] 3.6[38]
RD-0124,
14Д23
 Russia KBKhA Soyuz-2.1b,
Soyuz-2-1v,
Angara
Active 2nd, 3rd RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 359[41] 294,300 520 57.7 160
RD-0146D  Russia KBKhA Angara Development Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 470[42] 68,600 59
RD-107A,
14Д22
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG, -2 Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 320.2[43]
263.3 (SL)
1,019,892
839,449 (SL)
1,090 78.53 61.2
RD-108A,
14Д21
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG, -2 Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 320.6[43]
257.7 (SL)
921,825
792,377 (SL)
1,075 75.16 55.5
RD-171M,[c] 11Д520  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-5, Zenit-2M, -3SL, -3SLB, -3SLBF Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 337.2[44]
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-180  Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V, III Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 338.4[45]
311.9 (SL)
4,152,136
3,826,555 (SL)
5,480 71.2 261.7 2.72
RD-181  Russia NPO Energomash Antares 200 Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 339.2[46]
311.9 (SL)
2,085,000
1,922,000 (SL)
2,200 89 262.6
RD-191  Russia NPO Energomash Angara Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 337.5[47]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
2,200 89.09 262.6
RD-193  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2-1v Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 337.5[48]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
1,900 103.15
RD-276,
14Д14М
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH Staged, oxidizer-rich 315.8[49]
288 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,120 171.2 168.5
RD-8,
11D513
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Zenit Active 2nd vernier RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 342 78,450 356 77.47 2.4
RD-801  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Mayak Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 336 [50]
300.7 (SL)
1,339,255
1,198,608 (SL)
1,630 180 2.65
RD-809K  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Mayak Development Upper RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 352 [50] 98,067 330 2.62
RD-810  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Mayak, Zenit Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 335.5 [51]
299 (SL)
2,104,890
1,876,149 (SL)
2,800 180 2.65
RD-843  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Vega Active upper N2O4 / UDMH Pressure-fed 315.5 2,452 15.93 20.4 2.0
RD-861K  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 330 [52] 77,629 207 2.41
RD-870  Ukraine Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 340 [53]
301.5 (SL)
876,715
777,667 (SL)
1,353 2.684
Reaver 1  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 1st RP-1 / LOX Combustion tap-off 295.6[20] 184,000[20]
RL-10A-4-2[54]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Atlas IIIB, V Active Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 451 99,195 168 60.27 42 5.5
RL-10B-2[54]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III, IV, SLS Active Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 465.5 110,093 301 37.27 44 5.88
RL-10C-1[54]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III, IV, SLS, Vulcan Active Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 450 101,820 191 54.5 44 5.5
RS-25  USA Rocketdyne Space Shuttle, SLS Active 1st LH2 / LOX Staged, fuel-rich 452.3
366 (SL)
2,279,000
1,860,000 (SL)[55]
3,526 53.79 206.4
RS-68A[d]  USA Rocketdyne Delta IV, IV Heavy Active 1st LH2 / LOX Gas generator 411[56]
362 (SL)
3,558,577
3,135,996 (SL)
6,686 54.31 109 5.97
Rutherford  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 1st RP-1 / LOX Electric pump 311 24,900
25,000 (SL)
35[57] 72.8 (SL)
Rutherford Vacuum  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX Electric pump 343 25,800[57]
S200  India SDSC GSLV Mk III Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 274.5[58] 5,150,000[59][60][61] 207,000
with fuel[58]
SCE-200  India LPSC GSLV Mk III,
ULV
Development Upper, main RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 335
299 (SL)
2,030,000
1,820,000 (SL)
2,700 180
SLS Solid Rocket Booster[e]  USA Orbital ATK SLS Development Booster PBAN Solid fuel 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
SLV-1  India Godrej & Boyce PSLV Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 253[62] 502,600 10,800
with fuel
43
SRB-A3  Japan IHI Aerospace,
JAXA
H-IIA,
H-IIB,
Epsilon
Active Booster HTPB Solid fuel 283.6[63] 2,305,000
2,150,000 (SL)
76,600
with fuel
111
TEPREL  Spain PLD Space Miura 1, 5 Operational 1st RP-1 / LOX Pressure-fed 32,000 (SL)
TQ-12[64]  China Landspace ZQ-2 Development 1st CH4 / LOX Gas generator 284 667,000 (SL) 101
Vikas (rocket engine)  India LPSC PSLV, GSLV, GSLV Mk III Active 2nd, main, booster N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 262 680,500–804,500
600,500–756,500 (SL)
53.0–58.5
Vinci  Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Development Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 467[65] 180,000 280 65.60 61
Vulcain 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX Gas generator 429[66]
318 (SL)[67]
1,359,000[66]
939,500 (SL)[67]
1,800[66] 77.04 117.3[66]
YF-21B  China AALPT Long March 2E, 2F, 3 Active Booster, 1st N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 260.66 (SL)[68] 740,400 (SL)[68]
YF-21C  China AALPT Long March 2C, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 260.7 (SL)[68] 740,400 (SL)[68]
YF-25  China AALPT Long March 3B, 3C Active Booster N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 260.66 (SL)[68] 740,400 (SL)[68]
YF-22B  China AALPT Long March 2E, 2F Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 298.0[68] 738,400
YF-22C  China AALPT Long March 2C, 2D, 4B, 4C Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 298.0[68] 742,040
YF-22D  China AALPT Long March 3 Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 298.0[68] 741,400
YF-22E  China AALPT Long March 3A, 3B, 3C Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 298.0[68] 741,400
YF-40  China AALPT Long March 4B, 4C Active 3rd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 303 103,000
YF-50D  China AALPT Long March 3B, 3C, 5, 7 Active Upper N2O4 / UDMH Pressure-fed 315.5 6,500
YF-73  China AALPT Long March 3 Active 3rd LH2 / LOX Gas generator 420.0 44,150
YF-75  China AALPT Long March 3A, 3B, 3C Active 3rd LH2 / LOX Gas generator 438.0[68] 83,585
YF-75D  China AALPT Long March 5 Active 2nd LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 442.6 88,360 265 34 41 6.0
YF-77  China AALPT Long March 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX Gas generator 430.1
320.1 (SL)
700,000
518,000 (SL)
1,054 50 102 5.5
YF-79  China AALPT Long March 9 Development 3rd LH2 / LOX Expander, closed 460.1 243,300 70 6.0
YF-90  China AALPT Long March 9 Development 2nd LH2 / LOX Staged, fuel-rich 454.3 2,300,000 4,674 50 183 5.5
YF-100  China AALPT Long March 7, 5 Active 1st RP-1/ LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 335
300(SL)
1,340,000
1,200,000 (SL)
1,912 64 180 2.6
YF-115  China AALPT Long March 6, 7 Active 2nd RP-1/ LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 341.5 176,500 120 2.5
YF-130  China AALPT Long March 9 Development 1st RP-1/ LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 309 4,800,000 6,118 80 220
Zefiro 9A  European Union Avio Vega Active 3rd HTPB Solid fuel 295.2[69] 314,000[69] 11,400 with fuel 75
Zefiro 23  European Union Avio Vega Active 2nd HTPB Solid fuel 287.5[70] 1,122,000[70] 25,935 with fuel 94
Zefiro 40  European Union Avio Vega Active 3rd HTPB Solid fuel 293.5[71] 1,304,000[71] 39,206 with fuel 115
Delphin  USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[72] Active 1st RP-1/LOX[73] Electric pump 27,000[74]
Aether  USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[75] Active 2nd RP-1/LOX[73] Electric pump

Retired and canceled rocket engines

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Power cycle Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[f] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aerojet M-1  USA Aerojet Nova ? 1st, 2nd? LH2 / LOX Gas generator 428 (SL) 6,670,000 9,068 60 ?
Aestus  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 G, G+, ES Upper N2O4 / MMH Pressure-fed 324[76] 30,000 111 27.6 11 1.9
Aestus II  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4 / MMH Gas generator 340[77] 55,400 138 41.0 60 1.9
AJ-260-2 United States USA Aerojet S-I stage replacement (proposed) 1st PBAN Solid fuel 263 s 26,183,755 831,345, with fuel
F-1[g]  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 304
263 (SL)
7,770,000
6,770,000 (SL)
8,391 82.27 70 2.27
F-1A[h][78]  USA Rocketdyne 1st RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 303
270 (SL)
8,989,000
8,007,000 (SL)
9,015 90.6 80 2.27
Gamma 2  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd RP-1 / H2O2 Staged, decomposition and combustion 265[79] 68,200 173 40.22 8
Gamma 8  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st RP-1 / H2O2 Staged, decomposition and combustion 265[80] 234,800 342 70.01 47.40 8
HM-7A  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 3rd LH2 / LOX Gas generator 443[81]
308 (SL)
61,700 149 42.2 30 5
J-2  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V, IB 2nd, 3rd LH2 / LOX Gas generator 421[82]
200 (SL)
1,033,100
486,200 (SL)
1,438 73.18 30 5.5
J-2X  USA Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne SLS (proposed) Upper LH2 / LOX Gas generator 448[83] 1,310,000 2,470 58.41 95 5.5–4.5
Kestrel  USA SpaceX Falcon 1 Upper RP-1 / LOX Pressure fed 317 31,000 52 65 9.3
LE-5  Japan Mitsubishi, NASDA H-I Upper LH2 / LOX Gas generator 450[84] 103,000 245 42.87 36.0 5.5
LE-5A  Japan Mitsubishi, NASDA H-II Upper LH2 / LOX Expander, open 452[85] 121,500 242 51.19 40.0 5
LE-7  Japan Mitsubishi, NASDA H-II 1st LH2 / LOX Staged combustion 446[86] 1,078,000
843,500 (SL)
1,714 64.13 127 5.9
Merlin 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 311[87]
282 (SL)[87]
723,000 470 158 97 2.34
Merlin Vacuum 1C  USA SpaceX Falcon 1, 9 2nd RP-1 / LOX Gas generator 336[88] 413,644[88] 92
RD-0120
11Д122
 Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2 / LOX Staged, fuel-rich 455[89] 1,962,000
1,526,000 (SL)
3,450 57.80 219
RD-56 (KVD-1)
11Д56У
 Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2 / LOX Staged, fuel-rich 462[90] 69,626 282 25.17 55.9
RD-117
11Д511
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, decomposition and combustion 316[91]
253 (SL)
978,000
778,648 (SL)
1,100 72.18 54.2
RD-118
11Д512
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1 / LOX Staged, decomposition and combustion 314[91]
257 (SL)
1,000,278
818,855 (SL)
1,100 75.91 59.7
RD-170[i]11Д521[92]  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Energia 1st RP-1 / LOX Staged, oxidizer-rich 337.2
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-264
11Д119
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4 / UDMH Staged, oxidizer-rich 318[93]
293 (SL)
4,521,000 3,600 128.15 206
RD-275
14Д14
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH Staged, oxidizer-rich 316[94]
287 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,070 171.2 160.0
RD-854
8D612
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash R-36ORB 3rd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator
RD-855
8D68M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, -3, R-36 1st vernier N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 328,000 320 65.70 1.97
RD-856
8D69M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, -3 (-4), R-36 2nd vernier N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 54,230 112.5 71.60 1.98
RD-861
11D25
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, -3 3rd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 78,710 123 88.8 2.1
RD-864
15D177
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash R-36 (missile), Dnipro 3rd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 298–309 8,450–20,200 199 17–41 1.8
RD-869
15D300
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/​Pivdenmash R-36M 3rd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 302.3–313 8,580–20,470 196 17–41 1.8
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster[j]  USA Thiokol Space Shuttle, Ares I Booster PBAN / APCP Solid fuel 268 14,000,000
12,500,000 (SL)
590,000
with fuel
SRB-A  Japan IHI Aerospace, JAXA H-IIA Booster HTPB Solid fuel 280[95] 2,250,000 76,400 with fuel
UA1207  USA United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN Solid fuel 272[96]
245 (SL)
7,116,000
6,410,400 (SL)
319,330
with fuel
Viking 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 1st N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 690,000
611,200 (SL)
776 90.67
Viking 2B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2, 3 1st N2O4 / UH 25 Gas generator 643,000 (SL) 776 84.5
Viking 4  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 2nd N2O4 / UDMH Gas generator 713,000 826 88
Viking 4B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2, 3, 4 2nd N2O4 / UH 25 Gas generator 800,000 826 98.76
Viking 5C  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 1st N2O4 / UH 25 Gas generator 758,000
678,000 (SL)
826 93.57
Viking 6  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 Booster N2O4 / UH 25 Gas generator 750,000 826 92.59
Vulcain
HM-60
 Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX Gas generator 439[97]
326 (SL)[98]
1,113,000[97]
773,200 (SL)[98]
1,300[98] 84.38 109[97]
Waxwing  United Kingdom Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid fuel 278[99]
245 (SL)
29,400
25,900 (SL)
87 34.48

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d At sea level if denoted SL, in vacuum otherwise
  2. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  3. ^ Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world
  4. ^ Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world
  5. ^ Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built
  6. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  7. ^ Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed
  8. ^ Tested but never flown
  9. ^ World's most powerful liquid fueled rocket engine
  10. ^ Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions

References

  1. ^ a b "Terran 1 Technical Specifications". Relativity. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "In-Space Product Data Sheets" (PDF). Aerojet Rocketdyne. September 13, 2019.
  3. ^ "Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor". Aerojet Rocketdyne. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  4. ^ "Aerojet Rocketdyne and Firefly Aerospace to Provide Flexible Access to Space". Global Newswire (Press release). October 18, 2019.
  5. ^ "AR1 Engine". Aerojet Rocketdyne. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  6. ^ a b "BE-3". Blue Origin.
  7. ^ Ferster, Warren (September 17, 2014). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Archived from the original on September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  8. ^ "BE-4". Blue Origin. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  9. ^ Berger, Eric (March 9, 2016). "Behind the curtain: Ars goes inside Blue Origin's secretive rocket factory". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  10. ^ "GSLV Launch Vehicle Information". Spaceflight101.com. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d "Engine-2". LAUNCHER. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Developing Vulcan Centaur". ULA. April 4, 2019. Archived from the original on August 25, 2019.
  13. ^ "Generation Orbit - 9.28". TMRO. September 11, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2017 – via YouTube.
  14. ^ "The Engines". Ursa Major Technologies. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d "HM-7 and HM-7B Rocket Engine - Thrust Chamber". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "HM7-B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  17. ^ "innospacecorp on Twitter: "Very proud and excited as we get ready to test the world's largest LOx/Paraffin Hybrid rocket engine developed for a smallsat Launcher."". Twitter. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  18. ^ "LE-5B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  19. ^ a b "LE-7A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
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