Comparison of orbital rocket engines

Summary

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Current and upcoming rocket engines

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Status Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[b] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aeon 1  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 1st CH4 / LOX 310 86,740 (SL)[1]
Aeon 1 Vacuum  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 Development 2nd CH4 / LOX 360 100,085 (SL)[1]
AJ-10-190  USA Aerojet Space Shuttle

Orion

Active Upper N2O4/MMH 316[2] 26,689[2] 118[2] 23.08 8.62[2]
AJ-60A  USA Aerojet Atlas V Active Booster HTPB 275 1,270,000[3]
AR1  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Beta (potential)[4] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 2,200,000 (SL)[5] 2.72
BE-3  USA Blue Origin New Shepard Active 1st LH2 / LOX 490,000[6]
BE-3U  USA Blue Origin New Glenn Development 2nd LH2 / LOX 710,000[6]
BE-4  USA Blue Origin New Glenn
Vulcan
Development 1st CH4 / LOX 2,400,000[7][8] 134[9]
CE-20  India LPSC GSLV Mk III Active Upper LH2 / LOX 443 200,000 588 34.7 60.00 5.05
CE-7.5  India LPSC GSLV Mk II Active Upper LH2 / LOX 454[10] 73,500 445 16.85 58
Engine-2  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 327[11]
290 (SL)
100,000[11] 2.62
Engine-2 Vacuum  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 365[11] 100,000[11] 2.62
GEM 63  USA Northrop Grumman Atlas V Development Booster HTPB 1,662,745[12] 44,225
GEM 63XL  USA Northrop Grumman Vulcan Development Booster HTPB 2,025,720[12] 47,990
Hadley  USA Ursa Major Technologies GOLauncher 1[13] Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 22,241 (SL)[14]
HM-7B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
Ariane 5 ECA
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 446[15]
310 (SL)[16]
64,800[15]
43,600 (SL)[16]
165[15] 43.25 37[15] 5
LE-5B  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 447[17] 137,000 269 51.93 36.0 5
LE-7A  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 438[18]
338 (SL)[18]
1,098,000
870,000 (SL)
1,800 62.2 121 5.9
Lightning 1  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 322[19] 70,100[19]
Merlin 1D FT  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 B5
Falcon Heavy
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 311 914,000[20]
845,000 (SL)[20]
470 194.5[20]
Merlin Vacuum 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 B5
Falcon Heavy
Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 348[21] 981,000[22] 2.36
Mira (LM10)  Italy Avio Vega E[23] Development 3rd[23] CH4 / LOX[23] 362.3[23] 98,100[23] 250[23] 40[23] 3.4[23]
NewtonThree  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Development Booster RP-1 / LOX 266,893[24]
NewtonFour  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Development 2nd RP-1 / LOX 22,241[24]
NK-33A (AJ26-62)
11Д111 / 14Д15
 Soviet Union JSC Kuznetsov Antares 100
Soyuz-2-1v
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 331[25]
297 (SL)
1,680,000
1,510,000 (SL)
1,222 136.8 145
P80  Europe Avio Vega Active 1st HTPB 280[26] 3,015,000[26] 96,000 with fuel
P120C  Europe Avio Ariane 6
Vega-C
Development Booster, 1st HTPB 279[27] 4,650,000[27] 161,000 with fuel[27]
P230  Europe Avio Ariane 5 Active Booster HTPB 286[28]
259 (SL)
6,470,000
5,860,000 (SL)
269,000 with fuel[28]
S139  India SDSC PSLV Active 1st HTPB 269[29] 4,860,000 160,200
with fuel
58
Raptor[30]  USA SpaceX Starship Development 1st, 2nd CH4 / LOX 356[31]
330 (SL)
2,205,000 (SL, est)[32] ~1,360 (goal)[33] ≥170 (goal)[33] 330[34] 3.6[35]
Raptor Vacuum[30]  USA SpaceX Starship Development 2nd CH4 / LOX 380+[36] 2,150,000[37] ~1,360 (goal)[33] ≤120 (goal)[33] 330[34] 3.6[35]
RD-0124
14Д23
 Russia KBKhA Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2-1v
Angara
Active 2nd, 3rd RP-1 / LOX 359[38] 294,300 520 57.7 160
RD-0146D  Russia KBKhA Angara Development Upper LH2 / LOX 470[39] 68,600 59
RD-107A
14Д22
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 320.2[40]
263.3 (SL)
1,019,892
839,449 (SL)
1,090 78.53 61.2
RD-108A
14Д21
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 320.6[40]
257.7 (SL)
921,825
792,377 (SL)
1,075 75.16 55.5
RD-171M[c]11Д520  Russia NPO Energomash Zenit-2M
Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB
Zenit-3SLBF
Soyuz-5
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2[41]
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-180  Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V
Atlas III
Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 338.4[42]
311.9 (SL)
4,152,136
3,826,555 (SL)
5,480 71.2 261.7 2.72
RD-181  Russia NPO Energomash Antares 200 Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 339.2[43]
311.9 (SL)
2,085,000
1,922,000 (SL)
2,200 89 262.6
RD-191  Russia NPO Energomash Angara Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[44]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
2,200 89.09 262.6
RD-193  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2-1v Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[45]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
1,900 103.15
RD-276
14Д14М
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH 315.8[46]
288 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,120 171.2 168.5
RD-8
11D513
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Zenit Active 2nd vernier RP-1 / LOX 342 78,450 380 77.47 2.4
RD-801  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 336 [47]
300.7 (SL)
1,339,255
1,198,608 (SL)
1,630 180 2.65
RD-809K  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak Development Upper RP-1 / LOX 352 [47] 98,067 330 2.62
RD-810  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak, Zenit Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 335.5 [48]
299 (SL)
2,104,890
1,876,149 (SL)
2,800 180 2.65
RD-843  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Vega Active upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 2,452 15.93 20.4 2.0
RD-861K  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 330 [49] 77,629 207 2.41
RD-870  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Cyclone-4M Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 340 [50]
301.5 (SL)
876,715
777,667 (SL)
1,353 2.684
Reaver 1  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha Development 1st RP-1 / LOX 295.6[19] 184,000[19]
RL-10A-4-2[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Atlas IIIB
Atlas V
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 451 99,195 168 60.27 42 5.5
RL-10B-2[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 465.5 110,093 301 37.27 44 5.88
RL-10C-1[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS,
Vulcan
Active Upper LH2 / LOX 450 101,820 191 54.5 44 5.5
RS-25  USA Rocketdyne Space Shuttle
SLS
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 452.3
366 (SL)
2,279,000
1,860,000 (SL)[52]
3,526 53.79 206.4
RS-68A[d]  USA Rocketdyne Delta IV
Delta IV Heavy
Active 1st LH2 / LOX 411[53]
362 (SL)
3,558,577
3,135,996 (SL)
6,686 54.31 109 5.97
Rutherford  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 1st RP-1 / LOX 311 24,465
16,890 (SL)
Rutherford Vacuum  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 343 24,465
S200  India SDSC GSLV Mk III Active Booster HTPB 274.5[54] 5,150,000[55][56][57] 207,000
with fuel[54]
SCE-200  India LPSC GSLV Mk III
ULV
Development Upper, main RP-1 / LOX 335
299 (SL)
2,030,000
1,820,000 (SL)
2,700 180
SLS Solid Rocket Booster[e]  USA Orbital ATK SLS Development Booster PBAN 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
SLV-1  India Godrej & Boyce PSLV Active Booster HTPB 253[58] 502,600 10,800
with fuel
43
SRB-A3  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA

H-IIB
Epsilon

Active Booster HTPB 283.6[59] 2,305,000
2,150,000 (SL)
76,600
with fuel
111
TEPREL  Spain PLD Space Miura 1
Miura 5
Operational 1st RP-1 / LOX 32,000 (SL)
TQ-12[60]  China Landspace ZQ-2 Development 1st CH4 / LOX 284 667,000 (SL) 101
Vikas (rocket engine)  India LPSC Active 2nd, main, booster N2O4 / UDMH 262 680,500–804,500
600,500–756,500 (SL)
53.0–58.5
Vinci  Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Development Upper LH2 / LOX 467[61] 180,000 280 65.60 61
Vulcain 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX 429[62]
318 (SL)[63]
1,359,000[62]
939,500 (SL)[63]
1,800[62] 77.04 117.3[62]
YF-100  China AALPT Active Booster, 1st RP-1 / LOX 335[64]
300 (SL)
1,340,000
1,200,000 (SL)
180
YF-115  China AALPT Active 2nd RP-1 / LOX 341.5 176,500
YF-21B  China AALPT Active Booster, 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[65] 740,400 (SL)[65]
YF-21C  China AALPT Active 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.7 (SL)[65] 740,400 (SL)[65]
YF-25  China AALPT Active Booster N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[65] 740,400 (SL)[65]
YF-22B  China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[65] 738,400
YF-22C  China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[65] 742,040
YF-22D  China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[65] 741,400
YF-22E  China AALPT Active 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[65] 741,400
YF-40  China AALPT Active 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 303 103,000
YF-50D  China AALPT Active Upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 6,500
YF-73  China AALPT Long March 3 Active 3rd LH2 / LOX 420.0 44,150
YF-75  China AALPT Active 3rd LH2 / LOX 438.0[65] 167,170
YF-75D  China AALPT Long March 5 Active 2nd LH2 / LOX 442.0 86,260
YF-77  China AALPT Long March 5 Active 1st LH2 / LOX 430
310.2 (SL)
700,000
510,000 (SL)
2,700 102
YF-90  China AALPT Long March 9 Development 2nd LH2 / LOX 453 2,300,000
YF-100  China AALPT Long March 7, Long March 5 Active 1st RP-1/ LOX 300 1,223,500 2,700 133
YF-130  China AALPT Long March 9 Development 1st RP-1/ LOX 306 4,800,000
Zefiro 9A  European Union Avio Vega Active 3rd HTPB 295.2[66] 314,000[66] 11,400 with fuel 75
Zefiro 23  European Union Avio Vega Active 2nd HTPB 287.5[67] 1,122,000[67] 25,935 with fuel
Delphin  USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[68] Active 1st RP-1/LOX[69] 27,000[70]
Aether  USA Astra Space Rocket 3.0[71] Active 2nd RP-1/LOX[69]

Retired and canceled rocket engines

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[f] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aestus  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 G, G+, ES Upper N2O4 / MMH 324[72] 30,000 111 27.6 11 1.9
Aestus II  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4 / MMH 340[73] 55,400 138 41.0 60 1.9
F-1[g]  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1 / LOX 304
263 (SL)
7,770,000
6,770,000 (SL)
8,391 82.27 70 2.27
F-1A[h][74]  USA Rocketdyne 1st RP-1 / LOX 303
270 (SL)
8,989,000
8,007,000 (SL)
9,015 90.6 80 2.27
AJ-260-2 United States USA Aerojet S-I stage replacement (proposed) 1st PBAN 263s 26,183,755 831,345

with fuel

Gamma 2  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd RP-1 / H2O2 265[75] 68,200 173 40.22 8
Gamma 8  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st RP-1 / H2O2 265[76] 234,800 342 70.01 47.40 8
HM-7A  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 3rd LH2 / LOX 443[77]
308 (SL)
61,700 149 42.2 30 5
J-2  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V
Saturn IB
2nd, 3rd LH2 / LOX 421[78]
200 (SL)
1,033,100
486,200 (SL)
1,438 73.18 30 5.5
J-2X  USA Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne SLS(proposed) Upper LH2 / LOX 448[79] 1,310,000 2,470 58.41 95 5.5–4.5
Kestrel  USA SpaceX Falcon 1 Upper RP-1 / LOX 317 31,000 52 65 9.3
LE-5  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-I Upper LH2 / LOX 450[80] 103,000 245 42.87 36.0 5.5
LE-5A  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II Upper LH2 / LOX 452[81] 121,500 242 51.19 40.0 5
LE-7  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II 1st LH2 / LOX 446[82] 1,078,000
843,500 (SL)
1,714 64.13 127 5.9
Merlin 1C  USA SpaceX 1st, 2nd RP-1 / LOX 304[83]
266 (SL)[84]
480,408[83]
422,581 (SL)[83]
630 92[83] 67.7
Merlin 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1 / LOX 311[85]
282 (SL)[85]
723,000 470 158 97 2.34
Merlin Vacuum 1C  USA SpaceX 2nd RP-1 / LOX 336[84] 413,644[84] 92
RD-0120
11Д122
 Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2 / LOX 455[86] 1,962,000
1,526,000 (SL)
3,450 57.80 219
RD-56 (KVD-1)
11Д56У
 Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2 / LOX 462[87] 69,626 282 25.17 55.9
RD-117
11Д511
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 316[88]
253 (SL)
978,000
778,648 (SL)
1,100 72.18 54.2
RD-118
11Д512
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1 / LOX 314[88]
257 (SL)
1,000,278
818,855 (SL)
1,100 75.91 59.7
RD-170[i]11Д521[89]  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-264
11Д119
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4 / UDMH 318[90]
293 (SL)
4,521,000 3,600 128.15 206
RD-275
14Д14
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH 316[91]
287 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,070 171.2 160.0
RD-854
8D612
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36ORB 3rd N2O4 / UDMH
RD-855
8D68M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 1st vernier N2O4 / UDMH 328,000 320 65.70 1.97
RD-856
8D69M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3, (Tsyklon-4) 2nd vernier N2O4 / UDMH 54,230 112.5 71.60 1.98
RD-861
11D25
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 78,710 123 88.8 2.1
RD-864
15D177
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36 (missile), Dnipro 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 309 high, 298 low 20,200 high, 8,450 low 199 41 high/17 low 1.8
RD-869
15D300
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36M 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 313 high, 302.3 low 20,470 high, 8,580 low 196 41 high/17 low 1.8
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster[j]  USA Thiokol Space Shuttle
Ares I
Booster PBAN / APCP 268 14,000,000
12,500,000 (SL)
590,000
with fuel
SRB-A  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA Booster HTPB 280[92] 2,250,000 76,400 with fuel
UA1207  USA United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN 272[93]
245 (SL)
7,116,000
6,410,400 (SL)
319,330
with fuel
Viking 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 1st N2O4 / UDMH 690,000
611,200 (SL)
776 90.67
Viking 2B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
1st N2O4 / UH 25 643,000 (SL) 776 84.5
Viking 4  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 713,000 826 88
Viking 4B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
2nd N2O4 / UH 25 800,000 826 98.76
Viking 5C  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 1st N2O4 / UH 25 758,000
678,000 (SL)
826 93.57
Viking 6  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 Booster N2O4 / UH 25 750,000 826 92.59
Vulcain
HM-60
 Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 439[94]
326 (SL)[95]
1,113,000[94]
773,200 (SL)[95]
1,300[95] 84.38 109[94]
Waxwing  United Kingdom Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid 278[96]
245 (SL)
29,400
25,900 (SL)
87 34.48

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d At sea level if denoted SL, in vacuum otherwise
  2. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  3. ^ Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world
  4. ^ Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world
  5. ^ Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built
  6. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  7. ^ Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed
  8. ^ Tested but never flown
  9. ^ World's most powerful liquid fueled rocket engine
  10. ^ Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions


References

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  4. ^ "Aerojet Rocketdyne and Firefly Aerospace to Provide Flexible Access to Space". Global Newswire (Press release). October 18, 2019.
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  7. ^ Ferster, Warren (September 17, 2014). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
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  9. ^ Berger, Eric (March 9, 2016). "Behind the curtain: Ars goes inside Blue Origin's secretive rocket factory". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
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  13. ^ "Generation Orbit - 9.28". TMRO. September 11, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2017 – via YouTube.
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  27. ^ a b c Press release: Successful first test firing for the P120C solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C
  28. ^ a b "P230". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on December 31, 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
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  31. ^ Musk, Elon (September 29, 2017). "Making Life Multiplanetary". youtube.com. SpaceX. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  32. ^ "SN40 is about to be tested & has several upgrades over 330 bar engine. For reference, 330 bar on Raptor produces ~225 tons (half a million pounds) of force". Twitter. Elon Musk. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
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