Constantine IV

Summary

Constantine IV (Latin: Constantinus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanizedKōnstantinos; c. 650–685), called the Younger (Greek: ὁ νέος, romanizedho neos)[2][3] and sometimes incorrectly Pogonatos (Latin: Pogonatus; Greek: Πωγωνᾶτος, romanizedPogonâtos, "the Bearded") out of confusion with his father,[4] was Eastern Roman Emperor from 668 to 685. His reign saw the first serious check to nearly 50 years of uninterrupted Islamic expansion, while his calling of the Sixth Ecumenical Council saw the end of the monothelitism controversy in the Byzantine Empire; for this, he is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, with his feast day on September 3.[1] He successfully defended Constantinople from the Arabs.

Constantine IV
Emperor of the Romans
Constantine IV mosaic.png
Constantine IV, mosaic in basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna.
Byzantine emperor
ReignSeptember 668 – July 685
Coronation13 April 654
PredecessorConstans II
SuccessorJustinian II
Co-emperors
Bornc. 650
Constantinople
(now Istanbul, Turkey)
Died10 July 685 (aged 35)
Constantinople
Burial
SpouseAnastasia
Issue
DynastyHeraclian
FatherConstans II
MotherFausta
ReligionChalcedonian Christianity

Constantine the New
Holy and Right-Believing Emperor of the Romans
Venerated inEastern Orthodoxy[1]
Major shrineChurch of the Holy Apostles
Feast3 September
AttributesImperial attire

Early careerEdit

The eldest son of Constans II and Fausta, daughter of patrician Valentinus,[5] Constantine IV had been named a co-emperor with his father in 654, most likely in Easter (13 April).[6] He became emperor on September 668, when news arrived at Constantinople that Constans II had been assassinated in Sicily.[7]

The first task before the new Emperor was the suppression of the military revolt in Sicily under Mezezius which had led to his father's death.[8] Within seven months of his accession, Constantine IV had dealt with the insurgency with the support of Pope Vitalian,[9] but this success was overshadowed by troubles in the east.

As early as 668 the Caliph Muawiyah I received an invitation from Saborios, the commander of the troops in Armenia, to help overthrow the Emperor at Constantinople.[10] He sent an army under his son Yazid against the Byzantine Empire. Yazid reached Chalcedon and took the important Byzantine center Amorion.[11] While the city was quickly recovered, the Arabs next attacked Carthage and Sicily in 669.[12] In 670 the Arabs captured Cyzicus and set up a base from which to launch further attacks into the heart of the Empire.[13] Their fleet captured Smyrna and other coastal cities in 672.[14] Finally, in 672, the Arabs sent a large fleet to attack Constantinople by sea.[14] While Constantine was distracted by this, the Slavs laid siege to Thessalonica.[13]

The Siege of Constantinople (674–678)Edit

 
Coin issued by Constantine.

Commencing in 674, the Arabs launched the long-awaited siege of Constantinople. The great fleet that had been assembled set sail under the command of Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr[12] before the end of the year; during the winter months some of the ships anchored at Smyrna, the rest off the coast of Cilicia.[12] Additional squadrons reinforced the forces of Abd ar-Rahman before they proceeded to the Hellespont, into which they sailed in about April 674.[12] From April to September 674 the fleet lay moored from the promontory of Hebdomon, on the Propontis, as far as the promontory of Kyklobion, near the Golden Gate, and throughout those months continued to engage with the Byzantine fleet which defended the harbour from morning to evening.[12]

Knowing that it was only a matter of time before Constantinople was under siege, Constantine had ensured that the city was well provisioned.[12] He also constructed a large number of fireships and fast-sailing boats provided with tubes or siphons for squirting fire. This is the first known use of Greek fire in combat,[14] which was one of the key advantages that the Byzantines possessed. In September the Arabs, having failed in their attempts to take the city, sailed to Cyzicus, which they made their winter quarters.[15] Over the following five years, the Arabs returned each spring to continue the siege of Constantinople, but with the same results.[12] The city survived, and finally in 678 the Arabs were forced to raise the siege. The Arabs withdrew and were almost simultaneously defeated on land in Lycia in Anatolia.[13] This unexpected reverse forced Muawiyah I to seek a truce with Constantine. The terms of the concluded truce required the Arabs to evacuate the islands they had seized in the Aegean, and for the Byzantines to pay an annual tribute to the Caliphate consisting of fifty slaves, fifty horses, and 300,000 nomismata.[15] The raising of the siege allowed Constantine to go to the relief of Thessalonica, still under siege from the Sclaveni.[13]

Later reignEdit

 
A solidus showing Constantine and his brothers, minted before 681 when the latter were mutilated.

With the temporary passing of the Arab threat, Constantine turned his attention to the Church, which was torn between Monothelitism and Orthodoxy.[16] In November 680 Constantine convened the Sixth Ecumenical Council (also known as the Third Council of Constantinople).[13] Constantine presided in person during the formal aspects of the proceedings (the first eleven sittings and then the eighteenth), surrounded by his court officials, but he took no active role in the theological discussions.[17] The Council reaffirmed the Orthodox doctrines of the Council of Chalcedon in 451.[citation needed] This solved the controversy over monothelitism; conveniently for the Empire, most monothelites were now under the control of the Umayyad Caliphate.[13] The council closed in September 681.[18]

Due to the ongoing conflicts with the Arabs during the 670s, Constantine had been forced to conclude treaties in the west with the Lombards, who had captured Brindisi and Taranto.[19] Also in 680, the Bulgars under Khan Asparukh crossed the Danube into nominally Imperial territory and began to subjugate the local communities and Slavic tribes.[13] In 680, Constantine IV led a combined land and sea operation against the invaders and besieged their fortified camp in Dobruja.[20] Suffering from bad health, the Emperor had to leave the army, which panicked and was defeated by the Bulgars.[21] In 681, Constantine was forced to acknowledge the Bulgar state in Moesia and to pay tribute/protection money to avoid further inroads into Byzantine Thrace.[16] Consequently, Constantine created the Theme of Thrace.[19]

His brothers Heraclius and Tiberius had been crowned with him as Augusti during the reign of their father,[22] and this was confirmed by the demand of the populace,[23] but in 681 Constantine had them mutilated by slitting their noses so they would be considered ineligible to rule.[13] At the same time he associated on the throne his own young son Justinian II. Constantine died of dysentery on or around 10 July 685.[7]

FamilyEdit

By his wife Anastasia, Constantine IV had at least two sons:

In art and popular cultureEdit

  • Constantine IV was portrayed by Iossif Surchadzhiev in the 1981 Bulgarian movie Aszparuh, directed by Ludmil Staikov.
  • Constantine IV is the subject of the song "Imperator" ("Emperor"), released by the Bulgarian heavy metal band Epizod in their 2012 album Moyata molitva ("My prayer").

SourcesEdit

Primary sourcesEdit

Secondary sourcesEdit

  • Bury, J.B., A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Vol. II, MacMillan & Co., 1889
  • Garland, Lynda, "Anastasia (Wife of Constantine IV)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. 15 July 2000. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  • Gibbon, Edward (1827). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. 6. Oxford: William Pickering.
  • Grumel, Venance. "Quel est l'empereur Constantin le nouveau commémoré dans le Synaxaire au 3 septembre?." Analecta Bollandiana 84.1–2 (1966): 254–260. doi:10.1484/J.ABOL.4.02605
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  • Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. Vol. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.
  • Moore, R. Scott (1997). "Constantine IV (668 -685 A.D.)". De Imperatoribus Romanis.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  • Norwich, John Julius (1990), Byzantium: The Early Centuries, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011447-5
  • Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society (Stanford University Press, 1997) ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
  • Zuckerman, C. (1995). "A Gothia in the Hellespont in the Early Eighth Century". Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies. 19 (1): 234–242. doi:10.1179/030701395790836649.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b September 3/September 16[permanent dead link]. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  2. ^ Zuckerman 1995.
  3. ^ Grumel 1966.
  4. ^ Norwich, p. 316
  5. ^ Kazhdan, p. 496
  6. ^ PBW "Konstantinos IV".
  7. ^ a b Grierson, Philip (1962). "The Tombs and Obits of the Byzantine Emperors". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 16: 50. doi:10.2307/1291157. ISSN 0070-7546. JSTOR 1291157. Constantine's death is usually placed in September 685 on the ground that the sources attribute to him a reign of 17 years... [but] such a figure can be taken only as a round number.
  8. ^ Bury, p. 303
  9. ^ Bury, p. 315
  10. ^ Bury, p. 306
  11. ^ Bury, p. 307
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Bury, p. 310
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Moore 1997.
  14. ^ a b c Norwich, p. 323
  15. ^ a b Norwich, p. 324
  16. ^ a b Norwich, p. 326
  17. ^ Bury, p. 317
  18. ^ Bury, p. 316
  19. ^ a b Kazhdan, p. 501
  20. ^ Bury, pp.333-334
  21. ^ Norwich, p. 325
  22. ^ Dumbarton Oaks, Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection, Vol. II, Part 2 (1968), p. 513
  23. ^ Bury, p. 308
  24. ^ Garland, 2000
  25. ^ Gibbon 1827, p. 99.

External linksEdit

Constantine IV
Born: 652 Died: 685
Regnal titles
Preceded by Byzantine Emperor
668–685
with Constans II, 654–668
Heraclius and Tiberius, 659–681
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by
Theodosius and Paulus in 656, then lapsed
Consul of the Roman Empire
668
Succeeded by
Lapsed,
Justinian II in 686