Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan

Summary

The Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan (立憲民主党, Rikken-minshutō), commonly abbreviated to CDP,[10] or CDPJ[11] is a liberal political party in Japan.[12]

Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan
立憲民主党
Rikken-minshutō
AbbreviationCDP or CDPJ
LeaderKenta Izumi
Deputy LeaderSeiji Osaka
Secretary-GeneralChinami Nishimura
Chairperson of the Policy BureauJunya Ogawa
Founded3 October 2017; 4 years ago (2017-10-03)
15 September 2020; 22 months ago (2020-09-15)[a]
Merger ofDemocratic Party for the People (majority faction)
Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan[a]
Split fromDemocratic Party (2016)[a]
Headquarters2-12-4 Fuji Building 3F, Hirakawa-chō,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0093, Japan
NewspaperRikken-minshu[4]
Ideology
Political positionCentre to centre-left
International affiliationCouncil of Asian Liberals and Democrats (observer)
Colors  Blue[7]
Slogan 生活安全保障
Seikatsu anzen hoshō[8]
("Guaranteeing security of livelihood")
Councillors
39 / 248
Representatives
96 / 465
Prefectural assembly members
37 / 2,598
Municipal assembly members[9]
157 / 29,425
Website
cdp-japan.jp/english Edit this at Wikidata

It was founded in October 2017 as a split from the Democratic Party ahead of the 2017 general election. In late 2020, the party was re-founded following a merger with majorities of the Democratic Party for the People and the Social Democratic Party as well as some independent lawmakers. As of 2021, the CDP is considered the primary opposition party in Japan and is the second largest party in the National Diet behind the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.[13]

HistoryEdit

 
CDP headquarters in Hirakawa-chō, Tokyo.

Formation and 2017 electionEdit

The party was formed in the run up to the 2017 general election from a split of the centre-left wing of the opposition Democratic Party (DP).[14][15][12][16] Prior to the election on 28 September 2017, the DP House of Representatives caucus dissolved in order for party members to stand as candidates for Tokyo governor Yuriko Koike's Party of Hope or as independents in the upcoming election.[17]

The new party was launched on 2 October 2017 by DP deputy leader Yukio Edano at a press conference in Tokyo for liberals and left-leaning members of the DP who do not wish to, or were rejected for, contesting the election as candidates for the Party of Hope.[18][19]

On 3 October 2017, it was announced that the new party would not contest seats where former Democrats were running as Party of Hope candidates,[20] a gesture which was not returned when the Party of Hope ran a candidate in Edano's incumbent district. The Japanese Communist Party (JCP), in turn, pulled their own candidate from running in Edano's district so as to not take away votes from him.[21] The party won a total of 55 seats,[12] becoming the leading opposition party and leading the pacifist bloc (including the JCP and Social Democratic Party) to become the largest opposition bloc.

In July 2020, the CDP became an observer affiliate of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats.[22]

2020 merger and refoundationEdit

 
CDPJ logo from October 2017 to September 2020.

On 19 August 2020, the CDP announced that it would merge with the majority of the Democratic Party for the People (DPP) as well as some independent Diet members in September of that year.[23]

On 10 September 2020, the new party elected Edano as leader and also voted to retain the CDP name.[24] Following the merger, the new CDP had a total of 149 members and held 107 seats in the House of Representatives, compared to 156 members and 96 seats held by the Democratic Party in 2016. The independents who joined the CDP in this merger included former Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda. Several conservative DPP members, including DPP president Yuichiro Tamaki, did not join the CDP and instead formed their own party.[13]

On 14 November 2020, the Social Democratic Party (SDP) voted to agree to a merger arrangement with the CDP, allowing SDP members to leave the party and join the CDP.[25] However, SDP leader Mizuho Fukushima was opposed to the merger agreement and as a result remains in the Social Democratic Party.[26]

The CDP contested the 2021 general election in an electoral pact co-operating with the JCP, Reiwa Shinsengumi and continuing DPP and SDP parties in fielding single opposition candidates in single-seat constituencies.[27] Edano resigned as party leader following the election on 2 November 2021, due to poorer than expected electoral results in which the CDP fell from 110 to 96 seats.[28][29]

Kenta Izumi was elected as the leader of the CDP in the 2021 Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan leadership election on 30 November 2021. Formerly a member of the Democratic Party for the People he said that the two parties are regarded by the public as "close" and "thought to be like brothers" and "expressed support for a tie-up" between the two.[30][31][32][33][34]

Ideology and platformEdit

The CDP has been described as liberal[35][32] and social-liberal,[36] and in favour of constitutionalism.[37] The party has also been described as progressive[5][38] and centre-left,[12][15][39] and following its enlargement in 2020 has variously been described as centrist[40] or centre-left.[41][42]

At launch in 2017, the CDP opposed the proposed revision of Article 9 of Japan's postwar constitution.[12][43][44] The party supports the phasing out of nuclear energy in Japan,[45] and government investment in renewable energy.[46] The party does not support the legalization and maintenance of casinos.[47] The party also supports "building a society that supports each other and makes full use of individuality and creativity."[48][49] In their 2017 political programme, the party expressed support for grassroots democracy and diplomatic pacifism.[50]

In 2019, the party pledged to support LGBT rights and the legalization of same-sex marriage in Japan.[51]

The party supported a freeze in the increase of the consumption tax as of 2017,[52][53] and supports a temporary consumption tax cut as of 2020, along with higher taxes on corporations and wealthy individuals.[13] In the run-up to the 2021 general election, party leader Edano stated his party's support for redistribution of wealth.[54] The 2021 election platform also offered support for progressive taxation, a pledge for additional welfare payments for citizens on low incomes, and raising the capital gains tax rate to 25% by 2023.[55]

LeadershipEdit

Position Name
Leader Kenta Izumi
Deputy leader Seiji Osaka
Secretary-General Chinami Nishimura
Chairman of the Policy Bureau Junya Ogawa
Election Campaign Committee chief Kensuke Onishi
Diet Affairs Committee chief Sumio Mabuchi
Joint House General Council chief Tomoko Abe

List of the LeadersEdit

No. Name
(Birth–death)
Constituency / title Term of office Election results Image Prime Minister (term)
Took Office Left Office
Split from: Democratic Party (2016) (centre-left)
1 Yukio Edano
(b. 1964)
Rep for Saitama 5th 3 October 2017 14 September 2020
2017
Unopposed
  Abe S. 2012–20
Merger of: Democratic Party for the People (centre-right; majority faction) & Some Independents Group
1 Yukio Edano
(b. 1964)
Rep for Saitama 5th 15 September 2020 12 November 2021
2020[b]
Yukio Edano – 107
Kenta Izumi – 42
  Abe S. 2012–20
Suga 2020–21
Kishida 2021–present
2 Kenta Izumi
(b. 1974)
Rep for Kyoto 3rd 30 November 2021 Incumbent
Kenta Izumi – 189
Seiji Osaka – 148
Junya Ogawa – 133
Chinami Nishimura – 102
Kenta Izumi – 205
Seiji Osaka – 128
 

Election resultsEdit

General election resultsEdit

House of Representatives
Election Leader No. of
candidates
Seats Position Constituency votes PR Block votes Status
No. ± Share No. Share No. Share
2017 Yukio Edano 78
55 / 465
11.8% 2nd 4,852,097 8.75% 11,084,890 19.88% Opposition
Merger of: Democratic Party for the People (centre-right; majority faction) & Some Independents Group (2020)
2021 Yukio Edano 240
96 / 465
20.6% 2nd 17,215,621 29.96% 11,492,095 20.00% Opposition

Councillors election resultsEdit

House of Councillors
Election Leader No. of
candidates
Seats Position Constituency votes Party list votes Status
Won ± Share Not up Total[c] No. Share No. Share
2019 Yukio Edano 42
17 / 124
13.7% 15
32 / 245
2nd 7,951,430 15.79% 7,917,720 15.81% Opposition
Merger of: Democratic Party for the People (centre-right; majority faction) & Some Independents Group (2020)
2022 Kenta Izumi 51
17 / 125
13.6% 22
39 / 248
2nd 8,154,330 15.33% 6,771,914 12.77% Opposition

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c The "old CDP" was founded on 3 October 2017[1] as a split from the Democratic Party and dissolved on 14 September 2020,[2] while the current party was founded on 15 September 2020[3] as a merger of the old CDP, the majority of the Democratic Party for the People and some independent lawmakers.
  2. ^ Held after the merger with the Democratic Party for the People.
  3. ^ The Upper house is split in two classes, one elected every three years.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "政治資金規正法に基づく政治団体の届出" (PDF). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (in Japanese). 3 October 2017.
  2. ^ "政治資金規正法及び政党助成法に基づく政党の解散の届出" (PDF). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (in Japanese). 14 September 2020.
  3. ^ "政治資金規正法に基づく政治団体の届出" (PDF). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (in Japanese). 15 September 2020.
  4. ^ 機関紙「立憲民主」のご案内 [Information of the newspaper "Rikken-minshu"]. cdp-japan.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  5. ^ a b Brad Glosserman (2019). Peak Japan: The End of Great Ambitions. Georgetown University Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-62-616668-4.
  6. ^ "Japan opposition parties' failing merger bid offers glimpse into divisions". The Japan Times. 17 January 2020.
  7. ^ 日本に定着するか、政党のカラー [Will the colors of political parties settle in Japan?] (in Japanese). Nikkei, Inc. 21 October 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2019. 立憲民主党は青だ。 [Constitutional Democratic Party is blue.]
  8. ^ "立憲民主党 | 生活安全保障" [Constitutional Democratic Party | livelihood security]. cdp-japan.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  9. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, party membership statistics for chief executives and assembly members in prefectures and municipalities: Prefectural and local assembly members and governors/mayors by political party as of 31 December 2021
  10. ^ "Japan's ruling camp nervous about opposition unity as election looms". The Japan Times. 16 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  11. ^ Reuters (18 October 2021). October 2021/ "Japan PM: new disease command centre may come after pandemic". Reuters. Retrieved 26 October 2021. {{cite news}}: Check |url= value (help)
  12. ^ a b c d e William D. Hoover, ed. (2018). Historical Dictionary of Postwar Japan. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-5381-1156-7.
  13. ^ a b c Kuronuma, Susumu (11 September 2020). "Japan's fractured opposition unites as party of 140-plus lawmakers". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  14. ^ Ian Neary (2019). The State and Politics of Japan (2nd ed.). Polity Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-50-953585-9.
  15. ^ a b "New centre-left party launched in Japan ahead of vote". Channel News Asia. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  16. ^ "2017 Lower House Election / Edano announces launch of new party of liberals". The Yomiuri Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  17. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (28 September 2017). "Democratic Party effectively disbands, throwing support behind Koike's party for Lower House poll" – via Japan Times Online.
  18. ^ "Major opposition's liberal wing to form new group". Kyodo News. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  19. ^ "VOTE 2017: Edano plans to form new party as liberal force in election:The Asahi Shimbun".
  20. ^ "Koike's party unveils 1st list of 192 candidates for upcoming election". Japan Today. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  21. ^ "Yukio Edano: Japan's opposition leader to watch". Nikkei Asian Review. 22 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  22. ^ "Japan's Main Opposition Party Joins CALD as Observer". cald.org. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  23. ^ "Japan's largest opposition parties to merge in September". The Asahi Shimbun. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  24. ^ Johnston, Eric (10 September 2020). "Yukio Edano elected chief of new CDP, Japan's top opposition party". The Japan Times. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  25. ^ "Social Democratic Party to split; most Diet members to join CDPJ". The Japan Times. 25 February 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  26. ^ "Social Democratic Party to split; most Diet members to join CDPJ". The Japan Times. 25 February 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  27. ^ "CDPJ pays price for opposition cooperation". the-japan-news.com. 1 November 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  28. ^ "Coronavirus pandemic updates: Nov. 6, 2021".
  29. ^ "CDPJ leader Edano to resign over election setback". the-japan-news.com. 2 November 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  30. ^ "Izumi Elected Japan Opposition CDP's New Leader". Nippon.com. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  31. ^ Johnston, Eric. "Japan's main opposition party seeks to rebuild under new leader Kenta Izumi". The Japan Times. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  32. ^ a b "Izumi elected leader of Japan's main opposition in runoff vote". The Mainichi. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  33. ^ "Japan's largest opposition elects new leader". NHK WORLD News. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  34. ^ "Kenta Izumi elected leader of Japan's main opposition in runoff". Nikkei Asia. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  35. ^ "Edano's new liberal party to field more than 50 candidates in Lower House election". The Japan Times. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  36. ^ Spremberg, Felix (25 November 2020). "How Japan's Left is repeating its unfortunate history". International Politics & Society Journal. Retrieved 28 February 2021. The new party programme is still decidedly left-liberal
  37. ^ "Edano to form Constitutional Democratic Party". NHK World. NHK. 2 October 2017. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  38. ^ "Japan opposition parties' failing merger bid offers glimpse into divisions". The Japan Times. 17 January 2020.
  39. ^ "Abe eyes big win as Japan votes under N. Korea threats". France 24. 22 October 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  40. ^
    • "Easy win for Japan's new PM". The Saturday Paper. 2 November 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. the centrist Constitutional Democratic Party, lost 13 seats, to end up with 96.
    • "Japan's ruling conservatives have been returned to power, but amid voter frustration, challenges lurk for Kishida". The Conversation. 1 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021. The main opposition, the centrist Constitutional Democratic Party, lost 13 seats, to end up with 96. Other smaller opposition parties only shifted slightly, with the Japanese Communist Party dropping two to ten, and the centre-right Democratic Party for the People gaining three to reach 11.
    • "The Dialectics of March 11: A Decade After the Japan Tsunami". Los Angeles Review of Books. 11 March 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. This situation would seem to be an opportunity for Japan’s political left, which has begun to consolidate around the centrist Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan. However, much like the ruling party, the opposition has been tainted by corporate influence and nepotism.
  41. ^
    • "5 Key Takeaways From Japan's General Election". Center for American Progress. 5 November 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. At the same time, the center-left Constitutional Democratic Party (CDP) saw its total fall by 13 seats to 96, despite high expectations for its performance.
    • "Factbox: Main parties contesting Japan's lower house poll". Reuters. 7 October 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. The centre-left CDPJ is Japan's largest opposition party. Although it was only formed last year, the CDPJ's roots lie in the Democratic Party of Japan, which succeeded in defeating the LDP-Komeito alliance in 2009, and held power for three years.
    • "Partisan Biases in U.S.-Japan Relations". Tokyo Review. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021. For both the LDP and center-left Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan (roughly the successors of the Democratic Party of Japan which governed from 2009-2012), the emphasis is much more on pragmatism than values.
  42. ^ Amory Gethin (16 November 2021). "Political Cleavages and the Representation of Social Inequalities in Japan, 1953-2017". In Amory Gethin; Clara Martinez-Toledano; Thomas Piketty (eds.). Political Cleavages and Social Inequalities: A Study of Fifty Democracies, 1948-2020. Harvard University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-67-424842-7.
  43. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (16 October 2017). "Edano taking center stage as CDP gains momentum" – via Japan Times Online.
  44. ^ Sieg, Linda (17 October 2017). "Underdog centre-left party may outperform expectations in Japan snap poll". Reuters.
  45. ^ "2017 Lower House Election / Parties debate whether, when to bring N-plants back online". The Yomiuri Shimbun. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  46. ^ "It's not enough for political parties to merely tout economic catchwords". The Yomiuri Shimbun. 18 October 2017. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  47. ^ Archived copy 立憲民主党 基本政策, 28 December 2017, archived from the original on 15 February 2018, retrieved 14 January 2018{{citation}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ 【ノーカット】党首討論会@日本記者クラブ. 毎日新聞. 8 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021 – via YouTube.
  49. ^ "CDF Pamphlet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  50. ^ 立憲民主党 政策パンフレット (PDF). 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017.
  51. ^ "Opposition party in Japan pledges to protect LGBT rights". 25 June 2019.
  52. ^ "Edano's new party may outperform expectations in Sunday's election". Japan Today. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  53. ^ "2017 Lower House Election / Voters not impressed". The Economist. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  54. ^ "Japan's main opposition calls for 'wealth distribution first' ahead of election". Reuters. 14 October 2021.
  55. ^ "Japan opposition vows to tax the rich in election platform". Kyodo News. 11 October 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.

External linksEdit

  • Official website