A control variable (or scientific constant) in scientific experimentation is an experimental element which is constant and unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Control variables could strongly influence experimental results, were they not held constant during the experiment in order to test the relative relationship of the dependent and independent variables. The control variables themselves are not of primary interest to the experimenter.
A variable in an experiment which is held constant in order to assess the relationship between multiple variables, is a control variable. A control variable is an element that is not changed throughout an experiment, because its unchanging state allows the relationship between the other variables being tested to be better understood.
Essentially, a control variable is what is kept the same throughout the experiment, and it is not of primary concern in the experimental outcome. Any change in a control variable in an experiment would invalidate the correlation of dependent variables (DV) to the independent variable (IV), thus skewing the results.
In any system existing in a natural state, many variables may be interdependent, with each affecting the other. Scientific experiments test the relationship of an IV –that element that is manipulated by the experimenter– to the DV –that element affected by the manipulation of the IV. Any additional independent variable can be a control variable.
Take, for example, the combined gas law, which is stated mathematically as:
In an experimental verification of parts of the combined gas law, (P * V = T), where Pressure, Temperature, and Volume are all variables, to test the resultant changes to any of these variables requires at least one to be kept constant. This is in order to see comparable experimental results in the remaining variables.
If Temperature is made the control variable and it is not allowed to change throughout the course of the experiment, the relationship between the dependent variables, Pressure, and Volume, can quickly be established by changing the value for one or the other, and this is Boyle's law. For instance, if the Pressure is raised then the Volume must decrease.
If, however, Volume is made the control variable and it is not allowed to change throughout the course of the experiment, the relationship between dependent variables, Pressure, and Temperature, can quickly be established by changing the value for one or the other, and this is Gay-Lussac's Law. For instance, if the Pressure is raised then the Temperature must increase.