Core cities of Japan

Summary

SapporoHakodate, HokkaidōAsahikawa, HokkaidōAomoriHachinoheMorioka, IwateSendaiAkitaYamagata, YamagataFukushima, FukushimaKōriyama, FukushimaIwaki, FukushimaMito, IbarakiTsukuba, IbarakiUtsunomiya, TochigiMaebashi, GunmaTakasaki, GunmaIsesaki, GunmaŌta, GunmaSaitama, SaitamaKawagoe, SaitamaKumagaya, SaitamaKawaguchi, SaitamaTokorozawa, SaitamaKasukabe, SaitamaSōkaKoshigaya, SaitamaChibaFunabashi, ChibaKashiwa, ChibaHachiōji, TokyoYokohamaKawasaki, KanagawaYokosuka, KanagawaHiratsuka, KanagawaOdawara, KanagawaChigasaki, KanagawaSagamiharaAtsugi, KanagawaYamato, KanagawaNiigataNagaoka, NiigataJōetsu, NiigataToyama, ToyamaKanazawa, IshikawaFukuiKōfu, YamanashiNagano, NaganoMatsumoto, NaganoGifuShizuoka, ShizuokaHamamatsuNumazu, ShizuokaFuji, ShizuokaNagoyaToyohashi, AichiOkazaki, AichiIchinomiya, AichiKasugai, AichiToyota, AichiYokkaichi, MieŌtsu, ShigaKyotoOsakaSakai, OsakaKishiwada, OsakaToyonaka, OsakaSuitaTakatsuki, OsakaHirakata, OsakaIbaraki, OsakaYao, OsakaNeyagawa, OsakaHigashiōsaka, OsakaKobeHimeji, HyōgoAmagasakiAkashi, HyōgoNishinomiyaKakogawa, HyōgoTakarazuka, HyōgoNara, NaraWakayamaTottoriMatsue, ShimaneOkayamaKurashiki, OkayamaHiroshimaKure, HiroshimaFukuyama, HiroshimaShimonosekiTakamatsu, KagawaMatsuyama, EhimeKōchi, KōchiKitakyushuFukuokaKurume, FukuokaSagaNagasakiSasebo, NagasakiKumamotoŌitaMiyazakiKagoshimaNaha, Okinawa
(Circle click-able)

      ― Designated cities

      ― Core cities

      ― Special cities
Administrative divisions
of Japan
Prefectural
Prefectures
Sub-prefectural
Municipal
Sub-municipal

A core city (中核市, Chūkakushi) is a class or category of Japanese cities. It is a local administrative division created by the national government.[1] Core cities are delegated many functions normally carried out by prefectural governments, but not as many as designated cities. To become a candidate for core city status, a city must have a population greater than 300,000 and an area greater than 100 square kilometers, although special exceptions may be made by order of the cabinet for cities with populations under 300,000 but over 200,000.[2] After the abolition of special city status on April 1, 2015, any city with a population above 200,000 may apply for core city status.[3]

Application for designation is made by a city with the approval of both the city and prefectural assemblies.

History

The term "core city" was created by the first clause of Article 252, Section 22 of the Local Autonomy Law of Japan.[4]

List of core cities

As of 1 April 2020, 60 cities have been designated core cities:[3]

Name Japanese Flag Population (2012) Date of designation Region Prefecture
Akashi 明石市 Flag of Akashi, Hyogo.svg 290,927 2018-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Akita 秋田市 Flag of Akita, Akita.svg 322,224 1997-04-01 Tōhoku Akita
Amagasaki 尼崎市 Flag of Amagasaki, Hyogo.svg 451,353 2009-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Aomori 青森市 Flag of Aomori, Aomori.svg 297,348 2006-10-01 Tōhoku Aomori
Asahikawa 旭川市 Flag of Asahikawa, Hokkaido.svg 351,765 2000-04-01 Hokkaidō
Fukui 福井市 Flag of Fukui, Fukui.svg 266,612 2019-04-01 Chūbu Fukui
Fukushima 福島市 Flag of Fukushima, Fukushima.svg 289,355 2018-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima
Fukuyama 福山市 Flag of Fukuyama, Hiroshima.svg 462,144 1998-04-01 Chūgoku Hiroshima
Funabashi 船橋市 Flag of Funabashi, Chiba.svg 610,492 2003-04-01 Kantō Chiba
Gifu 岐阜市 Flag of Gifu, Gifu.svg 412,718 1996-04-01 Chūbu Gifu
Hachinohe 八戸市 Flag of Hachinohe, Aomori.svg 241,613 2017-01-01 Tōhoku Aomori
Hachiōji 八王子市 Flag of Hachioji, Tokyo.svg 579,799 2015-04-01 Kantō Tokyo
Hakodate 函館市 Flag of Hakodate, Hokkaido.svg 279,056 2005-10-01 Hokkaidō
Higashiōsaka 東大阪市 Flag of Higashiosaka, Osaka.svg 508,267 2005-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Himeji 姫路市 Flag of Himeji, Hyogo.svg 536,218 1996-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Hirakata 枚方市 Flag of Hirakata, Osaka.svg 407,997 2014-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Iwaki いわき市 Flag of Iwaki, Fukushima.svg 332,994 1999-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima
Kagoshima 鹿児島市 Flag of Kagoshima, Kagoshima.svg 607,257 1996-04-01 Kyushu Kagoshima
Kashiwa 柏市 Flag of Kashiwa, Chiba.svg 404,863 2008-04-01 Kantō Chiba
Kanazawa 金沢市 Flag of Kanazawa, Ishikawa.svg 462,796 1996-04-01 Chūbu Ishikawa
Kawagoe 川越市 Flag of Kawagoe, Saitama.svg 345,361 2003-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Kawaguchi 川口市 Flag of Kawaguchi, Saitama.svg 561,788 2018-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Kōchi 高知市 Flag of Kochi, Kochi.svg 342,568 1998-04-01 Shikoku Kōchi
Kōfu 甲府市 Flag of Kofu, Yamanashi.svg 197,318 2019-04-01 Chūbu Yamanashi
Kōriyama 郡山市 Flag of Koriyama, Fukushima.svg 331,140 1997-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima
Koshigaya 越谷市 Flag of Koshigaya, Saitama.svg 328,079 2015-04-01 Kantō Saitama
Kurashiki 倉敷市 Flag of Kurashiki, Okayama.svg 477,086 2002-04-01 Chūgoku Okayama
Kure 呉市 Flag of Kure, Hiroshima.svg 236,595 2016-04-01 Chūgoku Hiroshima
Kurume 久留米市 Flag of Kurume, Fukuoka.svg 301,821 2008-04-01 Kyushu Fukuoka
Maebashi 前橋市 Flag of Maebashi, Gunma.svg 338,481 2009-04-01 Kantō Gunma
Matsue 松江市 Flag of Matsue, Shimane.svg 208,160 2018-04-01 Chūgoku Shimane
Matsuyama 松山市 Flag of Matsuyama, Ehime.svg 516,823 2000-04-01 Shikoku Ehime
Mito 水戸市 Flag of Mito, Ibaraki.svg 269,162 2020-04-01 Kantō Ibaraki
Miyazaki 宮崎市 Flag of Miyazaki, Miyazaki.svg 402,289 1998-04-01 Kyushu Miyazaki
Morioka 盛岡市 Flag of Morioka, Iwate.svg 299,734 2008-04-01 Tōhoku Iwate
Naha 那覇市 Flag of Naha, Okinawa.svg 321,695 2013-04-01 Kyushu Okinawa
Nagano 長野市 Flag of Nagano, Nagano.svg 380,581 1999-04-01 Chūbu Nagano
Nagasaki 長崎市 Flag of Nagasaki, Nagasaki.svg 440,911 1997-04-01 Kyushu Nagasaki
Nara 奈良市 Flag of Nara, Nara.svg 365,421 2002-04-01 Kansai Nara
Neyagawa 寝屋川市 Flag of Neyagawa, Osaka.svg 238,819 2019-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Nishinomiya 西宮市 Flag of Nishinomiya, Hyogo.svg 483,878 2008-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo
Ōita 大分市 Flag of Oita, Oita.svg 476,008 1997-04-01 Kyushu Ōita
Okazaki 岡崎市 Flag of Okazaki, Aichi.svg 374,085 2003-04-01 Chūbu Aichi
Ōtsu 大津市 Flag of Otsu, Shiga.svg 339,469 2009-04-01 Kansai Shiga
Sasebo 佐世保市 Flag of Sasebo, Nagasaki.svg 259,676 2016-04-01 Kyushu Nagasaki
Shimonoseki 下関市 Flag of Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi.svg 277,937 2005-10-01 Chūgoku Yamaguchi
Suita 吹田市 Flag of Suita, Osaka.svg 357,917 2020-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Takamatsu 高松市 Flag of Takamatsu, Kagawa.svg 420,356 1999-04-01 Shikoku Kagawa
Takasaki 高崎市 Flag of Takasaki, Gunma.svg 371,820 2011-04-01 Kantō Gunma
Takatsuki 高槻市 Flag of Takatsuki, Osaka.svg 355,840 2003-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Tottori 鳥取市 Flag of Tottori, Tottori.svg 196,538 2018-04-01 Chūgoku Tottori
Toyama 富山市 Flag of Toyama, Toyama.png 421,393 2005-04-01 Chūbu Toyama
Toyohashi 豊橋市 Flag of Toyohashi, Aichi.svg 375,804 1999-04-01 Chūbu Aichi
Toyonaka 豊中市 Flag of Toyonaka, Osaka.svg 390,457 2012-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Toyota 豊田市 Flag of Toyota, Aichi.svg 420,680 1998-04-01 Chūbu Aichi
Utsunomiya 宇都宮市 Flag of Utsunomiya, Tochigi.svg 513,722 1996-04-01 Kantō Tochigi
Wakayama 和歌山市 Flag of Wakayama, Wakayama.svg 368,684 1997-04-01 Kansai Wakayama
Yamagata 山形市 Flag of Yamagata, Yamagata.svg 254,519 2019-04-01 Tōhoku Yamagata
Yao 八尾市 Flag of Yao, Osaka.svg 270,735 2018-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Yokosuka 横須賀市 Flag of Yokosuka, Kanagawa.svg 415,259 2001-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa

Former core cities

Name Japanese Flag Date of designation Date of reclassification Region Prefecture
Hamamatsu 浜松市 Flag of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka.svg 1996-04-01 2007-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Shizuoka
Kumamoto 熊本市 Flag of Kumamoto, Kumamoto.svg 1996-04-01 2012-04-01 (Designated city) Kyushu Kumamoto
Niigata 新潟市 Flag of Niigata, Niigata.svg 1996-04-01 2007-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Niigata
Okayama 岡山市 Flag of Okayama, Okayama.svg 1996-04-01 2009-04-01 (Designated city) Chūgoku Okayama
Sagamihara 相模原市 Flag of Sagamihara, Kanagawa.svg 2003-04-01 2010-04-01 (Designated city) Kantō Kanagawa
Sakai 堺市 Flag of Sakai, Osaka.svg 1996-04-01 2006-04-01 (Designated city) Kansai Osaka
Shizuoka 静岡市 Flag of Shizuoka, Shizuoka.svg 1996-04-01 2005-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Shizuoka

Scheduled to become a core city

Name Japanese Flag Population (2012) Scheduled date Region Prefecture
Chigasaki 茅ヶ崎市 Flag of Chigasaki, Kanagawa.svg 236,222 2020-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Fuji 富士市 Flag of Fuji, Shizuoka.svg 253,455 TBD Chūbu Shizuoka
Kishiwada 岸和田市 Flag of Kishiwada, Osaka.svg 198,615 2020-04-01 Kansai Osaka
Matsumoto 松本市 Flag of Matsumoto, Nagano.svg 243,431 2020-04-01 Chūbu Nagano
Odawara 小田原市 Flag of Odawara, Kanagawa.svg 197,413 2020-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa
Ichinomiya 一宮市 Flag of Ichinomiya, Aichi.svg 378,996 2021 (aiming) Chūbu Aichi
Tsukuba つくば市 Flag of Tsukuba, Ibaraki.svg 216,221 TBD Kantō Ibaraki
Tokorozawa 所沢市 Flag of Tokorozawa, Saitama.svg 342,321 TBD Kantō Saitama
Yokkaichi 四日市市 Flag of Yokkaichi, Mie.svg 307,599 2020 (aiming) Kansai Mie

Cities that meet the requirements but have not yet been nominated

The following cities have populations greater than 200,000 but have not yet been nominated. (Cities planning to apply for core city status are not shown.)

See also

References

  1. ^ Web-Japan.org, "Local self-government," p. 3; retrieved 2012-11-28.
  2. ^ 日本財団図書館(電子図書館) Revised Local Autonomy Law. nippon.zaidan.info.
  3. ^ a b 日本總務省 - 中核市・施行時特例市. soumo.go.jp (in Japanese).
  4. ^ 日本財団図書館(電子図書館) Revised Local Autonomy Law. nippon.zaidan.info.

External links

  • "Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s," by A.J. Jacobs at Urban Studies Research, Vol. 2011 (2011); doi:10.1155/2011/692764
  • "Large City System of Japan"; graphic shows core cities compared with other Japanese city types at p. 1 [PDF 7 of 40]
  • "Growth in Second Tier Cities - Urban Policy Lessons from Japan" briefing by CLAIR London on classes of Japanese cities (PDF)