Ctenochasmatids
Temporal range:
Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous 152–105 Ma
Ctenochasma elegans 1.jpg
Cast of a Ctenochasma elegans specimen
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Clade: Euctenochasmatia
Family: Ctenochasmatidae
Nopsca, 1928
Type species
Ctenochasma roemeri
Meyer, 1852
Subgroups

Ctenochasmatidae is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea.

The earliest known ctenochasmatid remains date to the Late Jurassic Kimmeridgian age. Previously, a fossil jaw recovered from the Middle Jurassic Stonesfield Slate formation in the United Kingdom, was considered the oldest known. This specimen supposedly represented a member of the family Ctenochasmatidae,[1] though further examination suggested it actually belonged to a teleosaurid stem-crocodilian instead of a pterosaur.[2]

Classification

Cladogram following a topology by Andres, Clark & Xu, 2014.[2]

 Ctenochasmatidae 
 Gnathosaurinae 

Kepodactylus insperatus

Elanodactylus prolatus

Feilongus youngi

Moganopterus zhuiana

Huanhepterus quingyangensis

Plataleorhynchus streptophorodon

Gnathosaurus subulatus

Gnathosaurus macrurus

 Ctenochasmatinae 

Ctenochasma

Pterodaustro guinazui

Eosipterus yangi

Beipiaopterus chenianus

Gegepterus changi

In 2018, Longrich, Martill, and Andres recovered a significantly different set of relationships for early pterodactyloids in their own analysis, as shown below using the earliest available definitions for each clade name.[3]

Ctenochasmatidae
Ctenochasmatinae

Ctenochasma

Pterodaustrini

PterodaustroPterodaustro BW.jpg

Beipiaopterus

Gegepterus

Kepodactylus

Moganopterinae

Moganopterus

Feilongus

Ardeadactylus

Elanodactylus

Gnathosaurinae

Huanhepterus

PlataleorhynchusPlataleorhynchus.jpg

Gnathosaurus

References

  1. ^ Buffetaut, E. and Jeffrey, P. (2012). "A ctenochasmatid pterosaur from the Stonesfield Slate (Bathonian, Middle Jurassic) of Oxfordshire, England." Geological Magazine, (advance online publication) doi:10.1017/S0016756811001154
  2. ^ a b Andres, B.; Clark, J.; Xu, X. (2014). "The Earliest Pterodactyloid and the Origin of the Group". Current Biology. 24: 1011–6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.030. PMID 24768054.
  3. ^ Longrich, N.R., Martill, D.M., and Andres, B. (2018). Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs from North Africa and mass extinction of Pterosauria at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. PLoS Biology, 16(3): e2001663. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001663