Decaborane

Summary

Decaborane, also called decaborane(14), is the borane with the chemical formula B10H14. This white crystalline compound is one of the principal boron hydride clusters, both as a reference structure and as a precursor to other boron hydrides. It is toxic and volatile, with a foul odor.[3]

Decaborane
The three-dimensional structure of decaborane
Names
Other names
decaborane
decaboron tetradecahydride
Identifiers
  • 17702-41-9 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
ChemSpider
  • 21241886 checkY
ECHA InfoCard 100.037.904 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 241-711-8
  • 6328162
UNII
  • 4O04290A2J checkY
  • DTXSID80880049 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/B10H14/c11-5-1-2-3(1,5)7(2,9(3,5,11)13-7)8(2)4(1,2)6(1,5)10(4,8,12-6)14-8/h1-10H checkY
    Key: XAMMYYSPUSIWAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/B10H14/c11-5-1-2-3(1,5)7(2,9(3,5,11)13-7)8(2)4(1,2)6(1,5)10(4,8,12-6)14-8/h1-10H
    Key: XAMMYYSPUSIWAS-UHFFFAOYAD
  • [H]1[BH]234[BH]156[BH]278[BH]39([H]4)[BH]712[BH]853[BH]645[BH]311[BH]922[BH]14([H]5)[H]2
Properties
B10H14
Molar mass 122.22 g/mol
Appearance White crystals
Odor bitter, chocolate-like[1]
Density 0.94 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 97–98 °C (207–208 °F; 370–371 K)
Boiling point 213 °C (415 °F; 486 K)
Solubility in other solvents Slightly, in cold water. [1]
Vapor pressure 0.2 mmHg[1]
Hazards
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
may ignite spontaneously on exposure to air[1]
GHS labelling:
GHS02: FlammableGHS06: ToxicGHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazard
Danger
H228, H301, H310, H316, H320, H330, H335, H336, H370, H372
P210, P240, P241, P260, P261, P262, P264, P270, P271, P280, P284, P301+P310, P302+P350, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P307+P311, P310, P312, P314, P320, P321, P322, P330, P332+P313, P337+P313, P361, P363, P370+P378, P403+P233, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
3
2
2
Flash point 80 °C; 176 °F; 353 K
149 °C (300 °F; 422 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
276 mg/m3 (rat, 4 hr)
72 mg/m3 (mouse, 4 hr)
144 mg/m3 (mouse, 4 hr)[2]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm) [skin][1]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm) ST 0.9 mg/m3 (0.15 ppm) [skin][1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
15 mg/m3[1]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Handling, properties and structureEdit

The physical characteristics of decaborane(14) resemble those of naphthalene and anthracene, all three of which are volatile colorless solids. Sublimation is the common method of purification. Decaborane is highly flammable, but, like other boron hydrides, it burns with a bright green flame. It is not sensitive to moist air, although it hydrolyzes in boiling water, releasing hydrogen and giving a solution of boric acid. It is soluble in cold water as well as a variety of non-polar and moderately polar solvents.[3]

In decaborane, the B10 framework resembles an incomplete octadecahedron. Each boron has one "radial" hydride, and four boron atoms near the open part of the cluster feature extra hydrides. In the language of cluster chemistry, the structure is classified as "nido".

Synthesis and reactionsEdit

It is commonly synthesized via the pyrolysis of smaller boron hydride clusters. For example, pyrolysis of B2H6 or B5H9 gives decaborane, with loss of H2.[4] On a laboratory scale, sodium borohydride is treated with boron trifluoride to give NaB11H14, which is acidified to release borane and hydrogen gas.[3]

It reacts with Lewis bases (L) such as CH3CN and Et2S, to form adducts:[5][6]

B10H14 + 2 L → B10H12L2 + H2

These species, which are classified as "arachno" clusters, in turn react with acetylene to give the "closo" ortho-carborane:

B10H12·2L + C2H2 → C2B10H12 + 2 L + H2

Decaborane(14) is a weak Brønsted acid. Monodeprotonation generates the anion [B10H13], with again a nido structure.

In the Brellochs reaction, decaborane is converted to arachno-CB9H14:

B10H14 + CH2O + 2 OH + H2O → CB9H14 + B(OH)4 + H2

ApplicationsEdit

Decaborane has no significant applications, although the compound has often been investigated.

In 2018, LPP Fusion announced plans for using decaborane in its next round of fusion experiments.[7] Decaborane has been assessed for low energy ion implantation of boron in the manufacture of semiconductors. It has also been considered for plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition for the manufacture of boron-containing thin films. In fusion research, the neutron-absorbing nature of boron has led to the use of these thin boron-rich films to "boronize" the walls of the tokamak vacuum vessel to reduce recycling of particles and impurities into the plasma and improve overall performance.[8]

Decaborane was also developed as an additive to special high-performance rocket fuels. Its derivates were investigated as well, e.g. ethyl decaborane.

Decaborane is an effective reagent for the reductive amination of ketones and aldehydes.[9]

SafetyEdit

Decaborane, like pentaborane, is a powerful toxin affecting the central nervous system, although decaborane is less toxic than pentaborane. It can be absorbed through skin.

Purification by sublimation require a dynamic vacuum to remove evolved gases. Crude samples explode near 100 °C.[6]

It forms an explosive mixture with carbon tetrachloride, which caused an often-mentioned explosion in a manufacturing facility.[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0175". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. ^ "Decaborane". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ a b c Gary B. Dunks, Kathy Palmer-Ordonez, Eddie Hedaya "Decaborane(14)" Inorg. Synth. 1983, vol. 22, pp. 202–207. doi:10.1002/9780470132531.ch46
  4. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  5. ^ Charles R. Kutal David A. Owen Lee J. Todd (1968). closo‐1,2‐Dicarbadodecaborane(12). Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 11. pp. 19–24. doi:10.1002/9780470132425.ch5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b M. Frederick Hawthorne, Timothy D. Andrews, Philip M. Garrett, Fred P. Olsen, Marten Reintjes, Fred N. Tebbe, Les F. Warren, Patrick A. Wegner, Donald C. Young (1967). "Icosahedral Carboranes and Intermediates Leading to the Preparation of Carbametallic Boron Hydride Derivatives". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 10. pp. 91–118. doi:10.1002/9780470132418.ch17. ISBN 9780470132418.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Wang, Brian (2018-03-27). "LPP Fusion has funds try to reach nuclear fusion net gain milestone | NextBigFuture.com". NextBigFuture.com. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  8. ^ Nakano, T.; Higashijima, S.; Kubo, H.; Yagyu, J.; Arai, T.; Asakura, N.; Itami, K. "Boronization effects using deuterated-decaborane (B10D14) in JT-60U". 15th PSI Gifu, P1-05. Sokendai, Japan: National Institute for Fusion Science. Archived from the original on 2004-05-30.
  9. ^ Jong Woo Bae; Seung Hwan Lee; Young Jin Cho; Cheol Min Yoon (2000). "A reductive amination of carbonyls with amines using decaborane in methanol". J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 (2): 145–146. doi:10.1039/A909506C.
  10. ^ "Condensed version of the 79th Faculty Research Lecture Presented by Professor M. Frederick Hawthorne". UCLA.

Further readingEdit

  • "Decaborane(14)". WebBook. NIST.
  • "Boron and Compounds". National Pollutant Inventory. Australian Government.
  • "Decaborane". Organic Chemistry Portal.
  • "Boron compounds: decaborane (14)". WebElements.
  • "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Decaborane". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.