Deepa Mehta

Summary

Deepa Mehta
Canadian director Deepa Mehta (48198952367).jpg
Deepa Mehta in 2005
Born (1950-01-01) 1 January 1950 (age 71)
NationalityCanadian
OccupationFilm director, screenwriter, film producer
Years active1976–present
Known forElements Trilogy
Spouse(s)
(m. 1973; div. 1983)

David Hamilton (– present)
ChildrenDevyani Saltzman (daughter)
RelativesDilip Mehta (brother)

Deepa Mehta, OC OOnt ([d̪iːpa ˈmeːɦt̪a] born 1 January 1950) is an Indo-Canadian film director and screenwriter, best known for her Elements Trilogy, Fire (1996), Earth (1998), and Water (2005).

Earth was submitted by India as its official entry for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and Water was Canada's official entry for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, making it only the third non-French-language Canadian film submitted in that category after Attila Bertalan's 1990 invented-language film A Bullet to the Head and Zacharias Kunuk's 2001 Inuktitut-language feature Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner.

She co-founded Hamilton-Mehta Productions, with her husband, producer David Hamilton in 1996. She was awarded a Genie Award in 2003 for the screenplay of Bollywood/Hollywood.[1] In May 2012, Mehta received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts.[2]

Early life

Mehta was born in Amritsar, Punjab[3] near the militarized border of Pakistan and experienced firsthand the impacts brought forth by the Partition of India.[4] She describes learning about warfare from citizens of Lahore, stating "Even when I was growing up in Amritsar, we used to go every weekend to Lahore, so I just grew up around people who talked about it incessantly and felt it was one of the most horrific sectarian wars they knew of."[5]

Her family moved to New Delhi while she was still a child, and her father worked as a film distributor. Subsequently, Mehta attended Welham Girls High School, boarding school in Dehradun on the foothills of Himalayas.[6] She graduated from the Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi with a degree in Philosophy.[7]

Mehta notes how her reception to film transformed and changed as she got older and was exposed to different types of cinema, which ultimately influenced her to become a filmmaker herself. She states:

"When I was growing up in Delhi and I went to university in Delhi, I used to watch [Indian] films. I grew up with a very healthy dose of Indian commercial cinema. My father was a film distributor, so from a very young age I saw commercial Indian cinema. But once I went to university, or even my last year of school, I really started watching and enjoying Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak and had exposure to non-Hindi cinema and non-Hollywood cinema. At university, I was also exposed to directors like Truffaut and Godard. There was also intense exposure to Japanese cinema. So, Ozu, Mizoguchi."[8]

Career

After graduating Mehta began working for a production company that made documentary and educational films for the Indian government.[9] During the production of her first feature-length documentary focusing on the working life of a child bride,[9] she met and married Canadian documentary filmmaker Paul Saltzman, who was in India making a film. She migrated to Toronto to live with her husband in 1973.[10]

Once in Canada, Mehta and Saltzman along with Mehta's brother Dilip started Sunrise Films, a production company, initially producing documentaries but moved into television production creating the television series Spread Your Wings (1977–79) about the creative and artistic work of young people from around the world.[9][11] Additionally, Mehta directed several episodes of the Saltzman produced CBC drama Danger Bay (1984–90).[10]

Mehta also directed the documentaries At 99: A Portrait of Louise Tandy Murch (1975)[9] and Traveling Light (1986), the latter focusing on the work of Mehta's brother Dilip as a photojournalist. Traveling Light would go on to be nominated for three Gemini Awards. In 1987, based on the works of Alice Munro, Cynthia Flood and Betty Lambert, Mehta produced and co-directed Martha, Ruth and Edie. Screened at the Cannes International Film Festival, it would go on to win the Best Feature Film Award at the 11th International Film Festival in Florence in 1988.[9]

In 1991 she made her feature-film directorial debut with Sam & Me (starring Om Puri), a story of the relationship between a young Indian boy and an elderly Jewish gentleman in the Toronto neighbourhood of Parkdale. It broke the record at the time for the highest-budgeted film directed by a woman in Canada at $11 million.[10] It won Honorable Mention in the Camera d'Or category of the 1991 Cannes Film Festival. Mehta followed this with her film Camilla starring Bridget Fonda and Jessica Tandy in 1994. In 2002, she directed Bollywood/Hollywood, for which she won the Genie Award for Best Original Screenplay.[1]

Mehta directed two episodes of George Lucas' television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.[12] The first episode, "Benares, January 1910", aired in 1993. The second episode was aired in 1996 as part of a TV movie titled Young Indiana Jones: Travels with Father.

Mehta directed several English-language films set in Canada, including The Republic of Love (2003) and Heaven on Earth (2008) which deals with domestic violence and has Preity Zinta playing the female lead. It premiered at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival.[13] Also in 2008 Mehta produced the documentary The Forgotten Woman, directed by her brother Dilip.[10]

In 2015, Mehta wrote and directed Beeba Boys. It premiered at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival.[14]

In 2016, Mehta directed the drama film Anatomy of Violence, which uses fiction to explore the root causes which led to the 2012 Delhi gang rape and murder.[15]

On 29 October 2020, Telefilm Canada announced that Mehta's film Funny Boy (2020) would represent Canada in the Academy Awards race for best international feature film.[16] However, the film was disqualified by the Academy Awards as its mix of English, Sinhala and Tamil dialogue did not surpass the required percentage of non-English dialogue.[17]

At the 9th Canadian Screen Awards in 2021, Mehta won the Best Director award for Funny Boy.[18] She and cowriter Shyam Selvadurai also won the award for Best Adapted Screenplay.[19]

Elements trilogy

Mehta is best known for her Elements TrilogyFire (1996), Earth (1998) (released in India as 1947: Earth), and Water (2005) — which won her much critical acclaim.[20] Some notable actors who have worked in this trilogy are Aamir Khan, Seema Biswas, Shabana Azmi, Kulbhushan Kharbanda, John Abraham, Rahul Khanna, Lisa Ray, and Nandita Das. These films are also notable for Mehta's collaborative work with author Bapsi Sidhwa. Sidhwa's novel Cracking India (1991, U.S.; 1992, India; originally published as Ice Candy Man, 1988, England) is the basis for Mehta's 1998 film Earth.

Mehta describes the conception of the idea for the Elements films to be extremely organic. She first conceived of the idea for Water while shooting in Varanasi, stating "You know, you read about widows — my grandmother is a widow — but I had never seen such institutionalization of widows until I went to Varanasi. There was a widow there called Gyanvati who was about 80 years old, and through her I got to know about ashrams and found it very moving. I thought that if I make a film, it would be about something surrounding widows; then I forgot about it. Then I wrote Fire."[21]

After completing the filming process for Fire, Mehta told Shabana Azmi that her next film would be an adaptation of Bapsi Sidwha's Cracking India; when Azmi asked what it would be called, Mehta replied: "Earth".[22] Mehta maintains that each film centers on politics of a certain phenomenon.[23]

Fire follows the love affair between two sisters-in-law whose own sexless marriages bring them together in a passionate romance. It caused controversy upon its release as several Hindutva groups took issue with its central lesbian romance, one that was seen to break traditional family and religious value within society, as there were protests in cities across India.[24] Internationally, the film was critically acclaimed and would go on to win the Most Popular Canadian Film at the Vancouver International Film Festival.[10] This was also the first feature length dramatic film which Mehta both wrote and directed, a practice which she would continue throughout the rest of her career.[9]

Earth focuses on the time before and during the Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 and how the life of one family was uprooted by this historical event. The central focus for Earth was intended to be about "the division of the earth, but it is also metaphoric- what does our matrubhoomi (motherland) mean to us?"[25] The film resembled Mehta's own family history as her parents fled the newly created Pakistan in 1947 whilst Mehta herself was born in Punjab, not far from the Indian/Pakistan border.[9]

Water is about is an eight-year-old girl who is suddenly widowed. In keeping with traditions of widowhood, she is left in an ashram, where she is to live from then on. The film, meant to be shot in India, was attacked by Hindu fundamentalists who saw the film as disrespectful and who took issues with Mehta's earlier films and their portrayal of Hindu culture.[24] The regional government overruled the permission given from the central government to the production which allowed them to film in the holy city of Varanasi.[24] Eventually the production moved to Sri Lanka.[26] Water opened the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2006.[27]

Midnight's Children

Mehta collaborated on the screenplay for Midnight's Children with the novel's author, Salman Rushdie.[28][29][30] Indian American actor Satya Bhabha played the role of Saleem Sinai[31] while other roles were played by Shriya Saran, Seema Biswas, Shabana Azmi, Anupam Kher, Siddharth Narayan, Rahul Bose, Soha Ali Khan,[32] Shahana Goswami[33] and Darsheel Safary.[34]

The film was released on 9 September 2012 at Toronto International Film Festival[35] and would be nominated for Best Motion Picture along with 7 other nominations at the Canadian Screen Awards.[10]

Themes

Many of Mehta's films across her career have focused on the duality of her national and cultural identity which has informed much of her filmmaking as she has been described as the "quintessential transnational filmmaker".[36] With her childhood and heritage informing her of key Indian and Hindu traditions, she has been seen to compare these practices with a more "Westernized" philosophy that has often resulted in controversy.[24] The production of her film Water was delayed by protests from Hindu fundamentalists whilst several of her other films releases have seen boycotts across India, including the film Fire.[24]

Mehta's Elements trilogy notably explores themes of the emergence of new identities, particularly in the context of independence. In Fire, the older character Radha's sense of agency and empowerment increases as she becomes sexually liberated through the younger character Sita.[37] Professor Subeshini Moodley discusses how these women employ their bodies to cross boundaries & borders, stating how “their bodies being the marginal spaces that they occupy, these protagonists don’t always begin as women with agency, but grow and develop to that point. Their marginal spaces are first defined in order to show how they later redefine and transcend its boundaries”.[38] Put otherwise, by allowing themselves to explore their sexuality with each other, these women are breaking free of the restrictive confines of the traditional female Indian archetype that used to define their value (such as traits of virtue & obedience), and instead are reclaiming their power by transgressing the boundaries of their culture.[39]

Another way in which Fire exemplifies the emergence of modern female identities is through its deliberate defiance of patriarchal structures through religious & cultural symbolism. The protagonists’ names of Radha and Sita are direct references to the heroines of the traditional Hindu epic, Ramayana, in which the characters Radha and Sita represent contrasting elements of feminine virtue; Radha embodying the playful adventuress and Sita being the dutiful and dedicated wife.[40] However, Mehta switches the defining characteristics of these characters for her film, making Radha the obedient matriarch and Sita the inquisitive newlywed. This is important to note when discussing a key scene in the film in which after Ashok learns of his wife’s affair with Sita, Radha’s sari catches fire from the kitchen stove and she nearly becomes engulfed in flames.[41] This is a clear allusion to a sequence from the Ramayana in which Sita is forced to prove her purity for her husband Rama by walking through a fire.[42] Dr. David Burton discusses how Mehta’s film subverts the traditional symbolism of the religious epic through its reversed meaning; in Fire, Radha survives the fire not to represent her purity for her husband, but rather to “assert her freedom from patriarchal control and traditional notions of sexual purity”, once again conveying how the film effectively depicts the inception of modernity in the female realm.[43]

As previously mentioned, Mehta based Earth on Pakistani author Bapsi Sidwha's acclaimed 1988 novel Ice Candy Man, which employs a young Parsi girl from a wealthy family as its protagonist.[44] Mehta's decision to maintain such a privileged protagonist is noteworthy; in one scene, Lenny’s mother attempts to explain to her daughter the role which Parsis play in the movement for India’s independence, in which she compares Parsis in India to sugar in milk: “sweet but invisible”.[45] While this takes on a negative connotation within the film, in a larger historical context, Lenny’s observation further supports Mehta’s decision to have the film’s protagonist taken on by a figure of such religious, cultural and ethnic ambivalence. The main goal of Lenny’s wealthy Parsi family is to stay neutral during the political tensions of Partition, and her astute renouncement of her family’s invisibility only reinforces this. Furthermore, the “the fact that Lenny is neither Hindu nor Muslim [frees] the narrative from a divisive communal dichotomy”.[46] Lenny’s whole world is encompassed by her relationship with her Hindu nanny, her nanny’s adoration from two Muslim men, and their diverse friend group. When the conflict of Partition tears the group apart, Lenny’s whole world is simultaneously destroyed, and her humanist perspective allows for an unbiased portrayal of the negative effects which a fear of change and breaking tradition can inflict upon a society’s health.[47]

Mehta's last film in the Elements trilogy, Water, showcases the gross oppression endured by Indian women during precolonial times. It also employs a filmic depiction of the mistreatment of widows to present strong support for the breaking of traditional social norms and an embrace of contemporary identities for Indian women. One example of this can be seen through the Hindu male hegemony’s reliance upon the authority of Hindu scriptures to rationalize the mistreatment of widows.[48] In Water, when Narayan’s father is revealed to be a former client of Kalyani, he attempts to justify his sexual exploits to his son by using his class privilege, stating that Brahmins can sleep with whomever they want as the women they sleep with are blessed.[49] Narayan’s response that Brahmins who interpret the Holy Scripture for their own benefit should not be honored elucidates the immense hypocrisy which underlines various ancient religious ideologies that are often employed solely by the caste of men who seek to benefit from such outdated customs.[50] Burton also points out how such selfish reworkings of religious ideologies is the real killer of faith, instead of Mehta’s sensational films. He states, “Reformers… who often view the negative aspects of their religion as misreadings and cultural accretions are themselves in danger of essentializing Hinduism insofar as they imply that the version of Hinduism of which they approve is the only genuine one”.[51] In other words, the insistence to uphold such outdated structures of patriarchal hegemony simply on the basis of religiosity is in itself more blasphemous and sacrilegious than any sin outlined by ancient scriptures. However, there are certain elements of Water that allude to the positivity of embracing modernity. For example, Chuyia’s eventual rescue by Shakuntala and potentially happy future with Narayan presents the promise of Gandhi-influenced reform within Indian society.[52]

Mehta often uses her films to explore the impacts of cultural and political unrest on the lives of normal citizens, stating, "A driving force in the stories I want to tell is definitely curiosity. I was intrigued by sectarian war. I’m appalled by it. I was immensely curious about how it affects the everywoman and everyman."[53]

Personal life

In Canada she met and married filmmaker Paul Saltzman whom she divorced in 1983. The couple have a daughter, Devyani Saltzman, an acclaimed author, curator and cultural critic.

Mehta is currently married to producer David Hamilton.[54] Her brother, Dilip Mehta, is a photojournalist and film director. He directed Cooking with Stella, which he co-wrote with Deepa.[7]

Mehta participated in a TV PSA for the charity Artists Against Racism, and is a member of the organization.[55]

Legacy

Mehta is credited with "infusing the energy of mainstream Indian cinema with fierce political consciousness".[56] Her decision to explore controversial topics in her films, such as same-sex relationships and the challenging of religious norms, has branded her as a notoriously formidable figure in Indian film society.

Filmography

Year Title Director Screenwriter Producer Notes
1975 At 99: A Portrait of Louise Tandy Murch Yes No No Documentary short film
1986 K.Y.T.E.S: How We Dream Ourselves Yes No Yes Documentary film
1988 Martha, Ruth and Edie Yes No Yes Directorial debut
1991 Sam & Me Yes No Yes
1994 Camilla Yes No No
1996 Fire Yes Yes Yes
1998 Earth Yes Yes Yes
2002 Bollywood/Hollywood Yes Yes No Also executive music producer
2003 The Republic of Love Yes Yes No
2005 Water Yes Yes No Also development consultant
2006 Let's Talk About It Yes No No Documentary film; direct-to-video
2008 The Forgotten Woman No Yes Executive Documentary film
Heaven on Earth Yes Yes Executive
2009 Cooking with Stella No Yes Executive
2012 Midnight's Children Yes Yes Executive Based on the novel by Salman Rushdie[28]
2015 Beeba Boys Yes Yes No [57]
2016 Mostly Sunny No Yes No Documentary film
Anatomy of Violence Yes No No
Fantassút No No Yes Documentary short film
The Big Crunch No No Associate Short film
2020 Violation No No Executive
2020 Funny Boy Yes Yes No Adaptation of the novel by Shyam Selvadurai

TV and web series

Year Title Director Screenwriter Executive
producer
Notes
1976–1981 Spread Your Wings Yes Yes Yes Documentary:
director (4 episodes);
writer (episode "Child of the Andes");
executive producer (13 episodes);
production (2 episodes);
sound (10 episodes)
1989–1990 Danger Bay Yes No No 4 episodes
1993–1996 The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles Yes No No 2 episodes
2019 Leila Yes Yes Creative A Netflix original series based on a missing girl named leila:
director (2 episodes);
writer and creative executive producer (6 episodes)
2020 Little America Yes No No Episode "The Manager"
2021 Yellowjackets Yes No No Episode: "Bear Down"

As actress

Year Title Role Notes
1983 For the Record Ranjeet Singh TV Series (episode "Reasonable Force")
1990 Jurm Cameo
Aashiqui Cameo
2005 Water Special Appearance

Awards

Year Award Category Work Result
2016 Toronto International Film Festival Best Canadian Feature Film Anatomy of Violence Nominated
Valladolid International Film Festival Golden Spike – Best Film Nominated
Washington DC South Asian Film Festival Outstanding Achievement in International Cinema Won
2015 Toronto Film Critics Association Awards Clyde Gilmour Award Won
Toronto International Film Festival Best Canadian Feature Film Beeba Boys Nominated
2013 Canadian Screen Awards Achievement in Direction Midnight's Children Nominated
Directors Guild of Canada DGC Team Award – Feature Film Won
2012 London Film Festival Best Film Nominated
Valladolid International Film Festival Golden Spike – Best Film Nominated
2009 Directors Guild of Canada DGC Team Award – Feature Film Heaven on Earth Nominated
Genie Awards Best Screenplay, Original Nominated
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Director – Canadian Film Nominated
2008 Dubai International Film Festival Muhr AsiaAfrica Award: Best Scriptwriter – Feature Won
Muhr AsiaAfrica Award: Best Film – Feature Nominated
2007 Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists Silver Ribbon – Best Non-European Director Water Nominated
Chlotrudis Awards Best Director Nominated
Awards of the International Indian Film Academy Outstanding Achievement in International Cinema Won
2006 Genie Awards Best Achievement in Direction Water Nominated
Oslo Films from the South Festival Silver Mirror Award – Best Feature Won
New York Film Critics Humanitarian Award Won
San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival Audience Award – Best Narrative Feature Won
Taormina International Film Festival Arte Award Won
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Director – Canadian Film Won
Women Film Critics Circle Awards Best Foreign Movie by or About Women Won
2005 Toronto Female Eye Film Festival Honorary Director Award Won
Valladolid International Film Festival Youth Jury Award Water Won
Golden Spike Nominated
2003 Directors Guild of Canada DGC Team Award – Feature Film Bollywood/Hollywood Won
Genie Awards Best Screenplay, Original Won
Newport International Film Festival Student Jury Award Won
Sarasota Film Festival Audience Award – Best Comedy Won
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Director – Canadian Film Nominated
1997 Paris Lesbian and Feminist Film Festival Best Feature Film Fire Won
L.A. Outfest Outstanding Narrative Feature Won
Verona Love Screens Film Festival Best Film Won
1996 Mannheim-Heidelberg International Filmfestival Special Prize of the Jury Won
International Independent Award Nominated
Vancouver International Film Festival Most Popular Canadian Film Won
1976 Chicago International Film Festival Gold Hugo – Best Documentary At 99: A Portrait of Louise Tandy Murch Nominated

In addition to her filmmaking awards, Mehta has received the following honors:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Deepa Metha". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Deepa Mehta biography". Governor General's Performing Arts Awards Foundation. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  3. ^ "The Canadian Encyclopedia bio". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
  4. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 80. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  5. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 80. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  6. ^ "Welham Girls' School". doonschools.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  7. ^ a b Beard. p 270
  8. ^ Khorana, Sukhmani (1 January 2009). "Maps and movies: talking with Deepa Mehta". Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers: 5.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Deepa Mehta – Celebrating Women's Achievements".
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Deepa Mehta".
  11. ^ "Deepa Mehta at the Canadian Women Film Directors Database".
  12. ^ Intern (27 June 2012). "A Forbidden Hope". Boston Review. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  13. ^ "Toronto film festival to 'salute' Indian cinema". The Economic Times. 3 September 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
  14. ^ "Toronto to open with 'Demolition'; world premieres for 'Trumbo', 'The Program'". screendaily.com. Screen Daily. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  15. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 78. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  16. ^ "Deepa Mehta movie 'Funny Boy' chosen as Canada's Oscar contender". Global News. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  17. ^ Naman Ramanchandran (18 December 2020). "Canada's Oscar Entry 'Funny Boy' Pulled From International Feature Film Race". Variety.
  18. ^ Zach Harper, "'Schitt's Creek' and 'Kim's Convenience' win big at 2021 Canadian Screen Awards". Hello! Canada, May 21, 2021.
  19. ^ Naman Ramachandran, "‘Schitt’s Creek,’ ‘Blood Quantum’ Triumph at Canadian Screen Awards". Variety, May 21, 2021.
  20. ^ Catsoulis, Jeannette (28 April 2006). "Movie Review: Water (2005): NYT Critics' Pick". New York Times.
  21. ^ Khorana, Sukhmani (1 January 2009). "Maps and movies: talking with Deepa Mehta". Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers: 4.
  22. ^ Khorana, Sukhmani (1 January 2009). "Maps and movies: talking with Deepa Mehta". Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers: 4.
  23. ^ Khorana, Sukhmani (1 January 2009). "Maps and movies: talking with Deepa Mehta". Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers: 4.
  24. ^ a b c d e Burton, David F. "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion and Film. 17: 1–22.
  25. ^ Khorana, Sukhmani (1 January 2009). "Maps and movies: talking with Deepa Mehta". Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers.
  26. ^ "Deepa Mehta: A director in deep water – all over again". The Independent. 19 May 2006.
  27. ^ "Canadian Film Encyclopedia - Water".
  28. ^ a b "Rushdie visits Mumbai for 'Midnight's Children' film". Movies.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  29. ^ Subhash K Jha (13 January 2010). "I'm a film buff: Rushdie". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  30. ^ Mendes, Ana Cristina; Kuortti, Joel (21 December 2016). "Padma or No Padma: Audience in the Adaptations of Midnight's Children". The Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 52 (3): 501–518. doi:10.1177/0021989416671171. hdl:10451/29281. ISSN 0021-9894. S2CID 164759708.
  31. ^ "Deepa finds Midnight's Children lead". The Times of India. 21 August 2010. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  32. ^ Dreaming of Midnight's Children
  33. ^ Irrfan moves from Mira Nair to Deepa Mehta Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Jha, Subhash K. (31 March 2011). "Darsheel Safary Darsheel Safary in Midnight's Children". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  35. ^ Nolen, Stephanie (15 May 2011). "Mehta at midnight". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  36. ^ Stojanova, Christina (2010). The Gendered Screen: Canadian Women Filmmakers. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 217–232.
  37. ^ Fire, directed by Deepa Mehta (1996; Toronto, Canada: Zeitgeist Films, 1998), Stream.
  38. ^ Moodley, Subeshini (2003). "Postcolonial Feminisms Speaking through an 'Accented' Cinema: The Construction of Indian Women in the Films of Mira Nair and Deepa Mehta". Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity (58): 68. ISSN 1013-0950.
  39. ^ Fire, directed by Deepa Mehta (1996; Toronto, Canada: Zeitgeist Films, 1998), Stream.
  40. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 7. ISSN 1092-1311.
  41. ^ Fire, directed by Deepa Mehta (1996; Toronto, Canada: Zeitgeist Films, 1998), Stream.
  42. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 7. ISSN 1092-1311.
  43. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 8. ISSN 1092-1311.
  44. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 81. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  45. ^ Earth, directed by Deepa Mehta (1999; Canada: Jhamu Sughand), Stream.
  46. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 81. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  47. ^ Earth, directed by Deepa Mehta (1999; Canada: Jhamu Sughand), Stream.
  48. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 3. ISSN 1092-1311.
  49. ^ Water, directed by Deepa Mehta (2005; Canada: David Hamilton Productions), Stream.
  50. ^ Mathew P. John, Film as Cultural Artifact: Religious Criticism of World Cinema. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2017), 104.
  51. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 10. ISSN 1092-1311.
  52. ^ Burton, David (2 October 2013). "Fire, Water and The Goddess: The Films of Deepa Mehta and Satyajit Ray as Critiques of Hindu Patriarchy". Journal of Religion & Film. 17 (2): 3. ISSN 1092-1311.
  53. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 80. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  54. ^ "Deepa Mehta is rightly being celebrated". Rediff.com. 23 February 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  55. ^ "TV – Artists Against Racism".
  56. ^ Qureshi, Bilal (1 June 2017). "ElsewhereThe Discomforting Legacy of Deepa Mehta's Earth". Film Quarterly. 70 (4): 78. doi:10.1525/fq.2017.70.4.77. ISSN 0015-1386.
  57. ^ "Randeep Hooda plays gangster in Deepa Mehta's next".
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  61. ^ "Honorary degree recipients 21st century". Mount Allison University.
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  64. ^ "Appointments to the Order of Canada". 28 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  65. ^ Ha Kyung-min (26 August 2021). "부산국제영화제, 경쟁부문 '뉴 커런츠' 심사위원 확정" [Busan International Film Festival Confirms Jury for 'New Currents' in Competition]. Newsis (in Korean). Naver. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  • Beard, William; Jerry White (2002). "Deepa Mehta as Transnational Filmmaker". North of everything: English-Canadian cinema since 1980. University of Alberta. ISBN 978-0-88864-390-2.
  • Levitin, Jacqueline; Judith Plessis; Valerie Raoul (2003). "25 An Introduction to Deepa Mehta: Making Films in Canada and India". Women Filmmakers: Refocusing. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0903-0.

External links

  • Deepa Mehta at IMDb
  • Hamilton Mehta Productions