Demographics of Sweden

Summary

The demography of Sweden is monitored by the Statistiska centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden). Sweden's population was 10,481,937 (May 2021), making it the 15th-most populous country in Europe after Czech Republic, the 10th-most populous member state of the European Union, and the 87th-most populous country in the world. The total fertility rate was rated at 1.66 in 2020,[1] which is far below the replacement rate of 2.1.

Demographics of Sweden
Sweden Population Pyramid.svg
PopulationIncrease 10,481,937 (May 2022)
Growth rate0.5% (2022 est.)
Birth rate10.83 births/1,000 population (2022)
Death rate9.46 deaths/1,000 population (2022)
Life expectancy82.7 years
 • male80.94 years (2022)
 • female84.58 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate1.67 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years17.71%
65 and over20.59%
Sex ratio
Total1.01 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
65 and over0.69 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Swede(s) adjective: Swedish
Major ethnicSwedes
Language
OfficialSwedish
SpokenSwedish, others
Swedes celebrating Midsummer (Swedish: Midsommar)
Historical population of Sweden

The population exceeded 10 million for the first time on Friday, 20 January 2017.[2][3] The three largest cities are Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Sweden's population has become much more ethnically, religiously and linguistically diverse over the past 70 years as a result of immigration. Every fourth (24.9%) resident in the country has a foreign background and every third (32.3%) has at least one parent born abroad. The most common foreign ancestry is Finnish.[4]

The last large immigration wave was the immigration of asylum seekers during the European migrant crisis since 2015 mostly from Syria due to the Syrian civil war but also many other countries like Iraq and Afghanistan with 162,877 asylum seekers in 2015 and smaller numbers after it.[5]

Statistics Sweden projects a Swedish population of 12.6 million in 2070.[6]

PopulationEdit

 
The birth and death rates in Sweden 1950–2008.
 
Swedish population pyramid, 1860–2020
 
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
  0–9.9
  10–24.9
  25–49.9
  50–99.9
  100–199.9
  200+

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[7]

  • One birth every 4 minutes
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 8 minutes
  • One net migrant every 14 minutes

CitiesEdit

Sweden has 17 cities with a population of over 100,000 people. Most of Sweden's population lives in Svealand and Götaland.


FertilityEdit

 
TFR of Sweden overtime to 2016

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[8]

Years 1630 1632 1634 1636 1638 1640 1642 1644 1646 1648 1650 1652 1654 1656 1658[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.81 4.25 3.89 4.38 4.4 4.92 4.38 4.25 4.95 5.4 4.34 4.54 5.33 4.72 4.58
Years 1660 1662 1664 1666 1668 1670 1672 1674 1676 1678 1680 1682 1684 1686 1688[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.2 4.54 5.01 4.98 4.6 5.13 5.01 4.38 4.28 4.35 4.64 5.4 5.25 4.84 5.29
Years 1690 1692 1694 1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714 1716 1718[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.99 5.11 4.98 5.33 5.11 5.56 5.81 5.52 5.16 5.32 4.3 5.63 5.81 4.92 5.13
Years 1720 1722 1724 1726 1728 1730 1732 1734 1736 1738 1740 1742 1744 1746 1748[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.62 5.09 5.02 4.75 4.23 4.77 4.86 4.77 4.51 4.96 4.52 4.35 5.02 4.85 4.86
Years 1750 1752 1754 1756 1758 1760 1762 1764 1766 1768 1770 1772 1774 1776 1778[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.09 5.29 5.4 5.23 4.68 5.06 4.98 4.92 4.79 4.77 4.68 4.1 4.89 4.67 4.94
Years 1780 1782 1784 1786 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.06 4.54 4.47 4.67 4.81 4.33 5.19 4.79 4.92 4.79 4.07
Years 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.26 4.5 4.45 4.52 4.5 4.36 4.42 4.31 3.78 4.67
 
Estimated birth rate (blue) and death rate in Sweden for the period of 1735 to 2000. The graph indicates strong population growth for the period of 1800 to 1970, and a beginning population decline from the 1980s.
Years 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.01 4.76 4.22 4.42 4.93 5.01 4.74 4.8 4.68 4.68
Years 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.03 5.09 5.22 4.9 5.18 4.94 4.44 4.77 4.94 4.67
Years 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.32 4.38 4.84 4.78 4.63 4.52 4.37 4.17 4.18 4.46
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.3 4.49 4.36 4.56 4.46 4.25 4.2 4.3 4.66 4.45
 
A Swedish family with their five children in 1898
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.36 4.2 4.26 4.53 4.3 4.23 4.36 4.66 4.71 4.71
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.44 4.59 4.65 4.69 4.58 4.68 4.4 3.93 4.03 4.11
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.37 4.34 4.49 4.54 4.6 4.57 4.62 4.44 4.56 4.36
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.29 4.32 4.24 4.4 4.34 4.39 4.36 4.24 4.1 4.15
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[8]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.14 3.93 3.97 3.94 4.01 3.98 3.92 3.99 3.9 4

Life expectancyEdit

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1751–1949

Years 1751 1754 1756 1768 1776 1781 1789 1795 1810 1818 1824 1837 1847 1855 1861[9]
Life expectancy in Sweden 38.4 37.4 36.2 35.0 41.5 37.8 31.2 36.5 31.9 40.0 44.9 39.6 40.1 43.0 47.1
Years 1868 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896 1905 1911 1913 1916 1922 1929 1935 1943 1949[9]
Life expectancy in Sweden 43.2 50.0 47.6 49.1 50.4 53.4 54.5 58.0 58.7 58.2 61.0 62.3 64.9 68.7 70.8

1950–2015

 
Development of life expectancy in Sweden
Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 71.9 1985–1990 77.2
1955–1960 72.9 1990–1995 78.2
1960–1965 73.5 1995–2000 79.3
1965–1970 74.1 2000–2005 80.1
1970–1975 74.8 2005–2010 81.1
1975–1980 75.4 2010–2015 81.9
1980–1985 76.4

Source: UN World Population Prospects

 
Largest cities or towns in Sweden
"Kommungruppsindelning 2017". Retrieved 16 September 2017. & "SCB befolkningsstatistik". Retrieved 11 July 2018.
Rank Name County Pop. Metro. Rank Name County Pop. Metro.
 
Stockholm
 
Gothenburg
1 Stockholm Stockholm 952,058 2,205,105 11 Umeå Västerbotten 125,434 137,800  
Malmö
 
Uppsala
2 Gothenburg Västra Götaland 565,496 1,015,974 12 Lund Skåne 121,893 197,300
3 Malmö Skåne 334,987 689,206 13 Borås Västra Götaland 111,354 151,300
4 Uppsala Uppsala 221,141 257,200 14 Huddinge Stockholm 110,335 136,000
5 Linköping Östergötland 158,953 189,800 15 Eskilstuna Södermanland 105,014 110,900
6 Örebro Örebro 150,949 196,700 16 Nacka Stockholm 101,697 114,800
7 Västerås Västmanland 150,564 169,200 17 Gävle Gävleborg 100,825 107,500
8 Helsingborg Skåne 143,671 321,500 18 Halmstad Halland 99,932 119,300
9 Norrköping Östergötland 140,991 149,600 19 Sundsvall Västernorrland 98,837 115,300
10 Jönköping Jönköping 137,863 156,700 20 Södertälje Stockholm 96,254 158,300

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[10]

Population
10,202,491 (July 2020 est.)

[fn 1]

Age structure
0-14 years: 17.54% (male 904,957 /female 855,946)
15-24 years: 11.06% (male 573,595 /female 537,358)
25-54 years: 39.37% (male 2,005,422 /female 1,947,245)
55-64 years: 11.67% (male 588,314 /female 583,002)
65 years and over: 20.37% (male 946,170 /female 1,098,986) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 17.43% (male 892,462/female 843,375)
15-24 years: 11.31% (male 581,025/female 545,971)
25-54 years: 39.42% (male 1,993,590/female 1,933,080)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 578,942/female 574,479)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 931,593/female 1,085,970) (2017 est.)
Median age
total: 41.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 45th
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.2 years (2018 est.)
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2017 est.)
Birth rate
12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 164th
11.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd
9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 141st
Net migration rate
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 23rd
6.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Population growth rate
0.8% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 129th
0.81% (2017 est.)
0.93% (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82.1 years Country comparison to the world: 16th
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.2 years (2017 est.)
Net birth surplus rate
2.40 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births Country comparison to the world: 218th
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
2.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 17.9%. Country comparison to the world: 72nd
male: 18.8%
female: 17% (2017 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2016)
Urbanisation
88% of total population (2020 est.)
Rate of urbanisation: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Population changeEdit

The demography of Sweden is monitored by Statistics Sweden (SCB).

The 2005 Swedish census showed an increase of 475,322 compared to the 1990 census, an average increase of 31,680 annually. During the 1990s, birth rate increased by more than 100,000 children per year while death rates fell and immigration surged. In the early 2000s, birth rate declined as immigration increased further, with the context of unrest in the Middle East, upholding steady population growth.[11][12]

Historical populations
YearPop.±%
1570 900,000—    
1650 1,225,000+36.1%
1700 1,485,000+21.2%
1750 1,780,700+19.9%
1800 2,347,300+31.8%
1850 3,482,500+48.4%
1900 5,136,400+47.5%
1950 7,041,900+37.1%
1970 8,081,300+14.8%
1980 8,318,000+2.9%
1990 8,590,600+3.3%
2000 8,882,800+3.4%
2010 9,415,600+6.0%
2019 10,327,600+9.7%
Source: Historical figures – Sveriges land och folk,[13] Modern figures – Statistics Sweden As of:[14] Dec. 2019[15]

Population projectionsEdit

 
Born in 1953, a report on the longitudinal study Project Metropolitan

In 1950 Sweden had fewer people aged 10–20 with more people ages 20–30 and 0–10. In 2017 the ratio of male to female remains steady at about 50–50. As a whole, the graph broadens with people appearing to live longer. In 2050 it is predicted that all ages will increase from below 300,000 males and females to above 300,000 males and females. With about 50,000 people living to the ages of 90–100. In 2100 the graph is shaped as a rectangle with people of all ages and genders remaining steady. It narrows slightly at the top of the graph with about 250,000/300,000 males and females living to be 90–100 years old.[16] Statistics Sweden projects the following population development in Sweden:[17]

Year Projection
2016 9,995,000
2020 10,431,000
2026 11,046,000
2030 11,344,000
2040 11,898,000
2050 12,395,000
2060 12,858,000

Eurostat projects a population in Sweden reaching 11,994,364 people in 2040 and 14,388,478 in 2080.[18]

Urbanisation and population densityEdit

The population density is just over 25 people per km2 (65 per square mile), with 1,437 persons per km2 in localities (continuous settlement with at least 200 inhabitants).[19],[20] 87% of the population live in urban areas, which cover 1.5% of the entire land area.[21] 63% of Swedes are in large urban areas.[21] The population density is substantially higher in the south than in the north. The capital city Stockholm has a municipal population of about 950,000 (with 1.5 million in the urban area and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area). The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö. Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund. The Öresund Region, the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.

Norrland, which covers approximately 60% of the Swedish territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometer). The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Svealand, as well as southern and central Småland. An area known as Finnveden, which is located in the south-west of Småland, and mainly below the 57th parallel, can also be considered as almost empty of people.

EthnicityEdit

The majority of the population are ethnic Swedes, or people who can trace most of their ethnicity to Sweden going back at least 12 generations. The Sweden Finns are a large ethnic minority comprising approximately 50,000 along the Swedish-Finnish border, and 450,000 first and second-generation immigrated ethnic Finns, mainly living in the Mälaren Valley region. Meänkieli Finnish has official status in parts of northern Sweden near the Finnish border. In addition, Sweden's indigenous population groups include the Sami people, who have a history of practicing hunting and gathering and gradually adopting a largely semi-nomadic reindeer herding lifestyle. While the Sámi have lived in Fennoscandia from at earliest 3,500 years[22] to at latest around 2,650 years,[23] Sámi settlement of Scandinavia does not predate Norse/Scandinavian settlement of Scandinavia, as sometimes popularly assumed. The migration of Germanic-speaking peoples to Southern Scandinavia happened independently and separate from the later Sami migrations into the northern regions.[24] Today, the Sami language holds the status of official minority language in the Norrbotten, Västerbotten and Jämtland counties.

In addition to the Sami, Tornedalers, and Sweden Finns, Jewish and Roma people have national minority status in Sweden.[25]

There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around two million (19.6%) inhabitants in Sweden are born in another country. Of those, more than half are Swedish citizens.[26] The most common countries of origin were Syria (1.82%), Finland (1.45%), Iraq (1.41%), Poland (0.91%), Iran (0.76%) and Somalia (0.67%).[27] The average age in Sweden is 41.1 years.[28]

There are at least two studies that forecast future demographic changes in Sweden largely due to immigration and low birth rates. A 2006 study states that "[based upon current data, extrapolated with relevant assumptions] Sweden and the Netherlands would have majority foreign-origin populations by the end of the [21st] century."[29] A 2018 study concluded that in Sweden by "2065, the share of the native population is [set] to decrease to 49%, the Western population is projected to fall to 63%, and the Muslim population increase to 25%."[30] Thomas Lindh, at the time head researcher for the Swedish Institute for Futures Studies, claimed in an interview that by the year "2050, more than half of Sweden's population will be immigrants or second-generation immigrants."[31]

 
Swedes of two Swedish parents in Sweden's counties and overall as of 2020.
Background Groups Year
2002[32] 2005[32] 2010[32] 2015[32] 2020[33]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
  Swedes (total) 7,582,574 84.8% 7,584,394 83.82% 7,617,681 80.90% 7,663,997 77.79% 7,693,255 74.1%
Swedes of two Swedish parents 7,028,802 78.61% 6,997,684 77.34% 6,965,033 73.97% 6,939,156 70.44% 6,900,476 66.5%
Swedes of one Swedish parent and one foreign born 553,772 6.19% 586,710 6.48% 652,648 6.93% 724,841 7.35% 792,779 7.6%
Total: Foreign background 1,358,214 15.19% 1,463,358 16.17% 1,797,889 19.09% 2,187,020 22.20% 2,686,040 25.9%
Born outside Sweden 1,053,463 11.78% 1,125,790 12.44% 1,384,929 14.70% 1,676,264 17.01% 2,046,731 19.7%
Born in Sweden to two foreign-born parents 304,751 3.40% 337,568 3.73% 412,960 4.38% 510,756 5.18% 639,309 6.2%
Total: 8,940,788 100% 9,047,752 100% 9,415,570 100% 9,851,017 100% 10,379,295 100%
Background Groups 2020[34]
Greater Stockholm Greater Gothenburg Greater Malmo
Number % Number % Number %
  Swedes (total) 1,557,214 65.09% 750,587 71.50% 494,526 66.07%
Swedes of two Swedish parents 1,320,872 55.21% 660,772 62.95% 431,207 57.61%
Swedes of one Swedish parent and one foreign born 236,342 9.87% 89,815 8.55% 63,319 8.46%
Total: Foreign background 834,951 34.90% 299,055 28.49% 253,907 33.92%
Born outside Sweden 624,609 26.11% 223,420 21.28% 190,092 25.39%
Born in Sweden to two foreign-born parents 210,342 8.79% 75,635 7.20% 63,815 8.52%
Total: 2,392,165 100% 1,049,642 100% 748,433 100%

Vital statisticsEdit

Data according to Statistics Sweden, which collects the official statistics for Sweden.[35]

Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural
change
Crude birth

rate (per 1000)

Crude death

rate (per 1000)

Natural change

(per 1000)

Total
fertility
rates
[fn 2]
1900 5,117,000 138,139 86,146 51,993 27.0 16.8 10.2 4.02
1901 5,156,000 139,370 82,772 56,598 27.0 16.1 10.9 4.04
1902 5,187,000 137,364 79,722 57,642 26.5 15.4 11.1 3.95
1903 5,210,000 133,896 78,610 55,286 25.7 15.1 10.6 3.82
1904 5,241,000 134,952 80,152 54,800 25.7 15.3 10.4 3.83
1905 5,278,000 135,409 82,443 52,966 25.7 15.6 10.1 3.83
1906 5,316,000 136,620 76,366 60,254 25.7 14.4 11.3 3.81
1907 5,357,000 136,793 78,149 58,644 25.5 14.6 10.9 3.77
1908 5,404,000 138,874 80,568 58,306 25.7 14.9 10.8 3.79
1909 5,453,000 139,505 74,538 64,967 25.6 13.7 11.9 3.71
1910 5,499,000 135,625 77,212 58,413 24.7 14.0 10.7 3.60
1911 5,542,000 132,977 76,462 56,515 24.0 13.8 10.2 3.49
1912 5,583,000 132,868 79,241 53,627 23.8 14.2 9.6 3.44
1913 5,621,000 130,200 76,724 53,476 23.2 13.6 9.6 3.32
1914 5,659,000 129,458 78,311 51,147 22.9 13.8 9.1 3.29
1915 5,696,000 122,997 83,587 39,410 21.6 14.7 6.9 3.06
1916 5,735,000 121,679 77,771 43,908 21.2 13.6 7.6 2.99
1917 5,779,000 120,855 77,385 43,470 20.9 13.4 7.5 2.93
1918 5,807,000 117,955 104,594 13,361 20.3 18.0 2.3 2.83
1919 5,830,000 115,193 84,289 30,904 19.8 14.5 5.3 2.72
1920 5,876,000 138,753 78,128 60,625 23.6 13.3 10.3 3.22
1921 5,929,000 127,723 73,536 54,187 21.5 12.4 9.1 2.93
1922 5,971,000 116,946 76,343 40,603 19.6 12.8 6.8 2.66
1923 5,997,000 113,435 68,424 45,011 18.9 11.4 7.5 2.55
1924 6,021,000 109,055 72,001 37,054 18.1 12.0 6.1 2.43
1925 6,045,000 106,292 70,918 35,374 17.6 11.7 5.9 2.34
1926 6,064,000 102,007 71,344 30,663 16.8 11.8 5.0 2.22
1927 6,081,000 97,994 77,219 20,775 16.1 12.7 3.4 2.11
1928 6,097,000 97,868 73,267 24,601 16.1 12.0 4.1 2.08
1929 6,113,000 92,861 74,538 18,323 15.2 12.2 3.0 1.95
1930 6,131,000 94,220 71,790 22,430 15.4 11.7 3.7 1.96
1931 6,152,000 91,074 77,121 13,953 14.8 12.5 2.3 1.88
1932 6,176,000 89,779 71,459 18,320 14.5 11.6 2.9 1.83
1933 6,201,000 85,020 69,607 15,413 13.7 11.2 2.5 1.72
1934 6,222,000 85,092 69,921 15,171 13.7 11.2 2.5 1.67
1935 6,242,000 85,906 72,813 13,093 13.8 11.7 2.1 1.70
1936 6,259,000 88,938 74,836 14,102 14.2 12.0 2.2 1.75
1937 6,276,000 90,373 75,392 14,981 14.4 12.0 2.4 1.77
1938 6,297,000 93,946 72,693 21,253 14.9 11.5 3.4 1.84
1939 6,326,000 97,380 72,876 24,504 15.4 11.5 3.9 1.90
1940 6,356,000 95,778 72,748 23,030 15.1 11.4 3.7 1.86
1941 6,389,000 99,727 71,910 27,817 15.6 11.3 4.3 1.92
1942 6,432,000 113,961 63,741 50,220 17.7 9.9 7.8 2.19
1943 6,491,000 125,392 66,105 59,287 19.3 10.2 9.1 2.41
1944 6,560,000 134,991 72,284 62,707 20.6 11.0 10.6 2.61
1945 6,636,000 135,373 71,901 63,472 20.4 10.8 10.4 2.63
1946 6,719,000 132,597 70,635 61,962 19.7 10.5 9.2 2.57
1947 6,803,000 128,779 73,579 55,200 18.9 10.8 8.1 2.50
1948 6,883,000 126,683 67,693 58,990 18.4 9.8 8.6 2.47
1949 6,956,000 121,272 69,537 51,735 17.4 10.0 7.4 2.39
1950 7,014,000 115,414 70,296 45,118 16.5 10.0 6.5 2.28
1951 7,073,000 110,168 69,799 40,369 15.6 9.9 5.7 2.20
1952 7,125,000 110,192 68,270 41,922 15.5 9.6 5.9 2.22
1953 7,171,000 110,144 69,553 40,591 15.4 9.7 5.7 2.25
1954 7,213,000 105,096 69,030 36,066 14.6 9.6 5.0 2.18
1955 7,262,000 107,305 68,634 38,671 14.8 9.5 5.3 2.25
1956 7,315,000 107,960 70,205 37,755 14.8 9.6 5.2 2.29
1957 7,364,000 107,168 73,132 34,036 14.6 9.9 4.7 2.29
1958 7,409,000 105,502 71,065 34,437 14.2 9.6 4.6 2.26
1959 7,446,000 104,743 70,889 33,854 14.1 9.5 4.5 2.29
1960 7,480,000 102,219 75,093 27,126 13.7 10.0 3.7 2.17
1961 7,520,000 104,501 73,555 30,946 13.9 9.8 4.1 2.21
1962 7,562,000 107,284 76,791 30,493 14.2 10.2 5.6 2.25
1963 7,604,000 112,903 76,460 36,443 14.8 10.1 4.7 2.33
1964 7,661,000 122,664 76,661 46,003 16.0 10.0 6.0 2.47
1965 7,734,000 122,806 78,194 44,612 15.9 10.1 5.8 2.39
1966 7,808,000 123,354 78,440 44,914 15.8 10.0 5.8 2.37
1967 7,868,000 121,360 79,783 41,577 15.4 10.1 5.3 2.28
1968 7,914,000 113,087 82,476 30,611 14.3 10.4 3.9 2.07
1969 7,968,000 107,622 83,352 24,270 13.5 10.5 3.0 1.94
1970 8,043,000 110,150 80,026 30,124 13.7 9.9 3.8 1.94
1971 8,098,000 114,484 82,717 31,767 14.1 10.2 3.9 1.98
1972 8,122,000 112,273 84,051 28,222 13.8 10.3 3.5 1.93
1973 8,137,000 109,663 85,640 24,023 13.5 10.5 3.0 1.88
1974 8,161,000 109,874 86,316 23,558 13.5 10.6 2.9 1.91
1975 8,193,000 103,632 88,208 15,424 12.6 10.8 1.8 1.78
1976 8,222,000 98,345 90,677 7,668 12.0 11.0 1.0 1.70
1977 8,252,000 96,057 88,202 7,855 11.6 10.7 0.9 1.64
1978 8,276,000 93,248 89,681 3,567 11.3 10.8 0.5 1.61
1979 8,294,000 96,255 91,074 5,181 11.6 11.0 0.6 1.66
1980 8,310,000 97,064 91,800 5,264 11.7 11.0 0.7 1.69
1981 8,320,000 94,065 92,034 2,031 11.3 11.1 0.2 1.63
1982 8,325,000 92,748 90,671 2,077 11.1 10.9 0.2 1.60
1983 8,329,000 91,780 90,791 989 11.0 10.9 0.1 1.61
1984 8,337,000 93,889 90,483 3,406 11.3 10.9 0.4 1.66
1985 8,350,000 98,463 94,032 4,431 11.8 11.3 0.5 1.74
1986 8,370,000 101,950 93,295 8,655 12.2 11.1 1.1 1.79
1987 8,398,000 104,699 93,307 11,392 12.5 11.1 1.4 1.84
1988 8,437,000 112,080 96,743 15,337 13.3 11.5 1.8 1.96
1989 8,493,000 116,023 92,110 23,913 13.7 10.8 2.9 2.02
1990 8,559,000 123,938 95,161 28,777 14.5 11.1 3.4 2.14
1991 8,617,000 123,737 95,202 28,535 14.4 11.0 3.4 2.12
1992 8,668,000 122,848 94,710 28,138 14.2 10.9 3.3 2.09
1993 8,719,000 117,998 97,008 20,990 13.5 11.1 2.4 2.00
1994 8,781,000 112,257 91,844 20,413 12.8 10.5 2.3 1.90
1995 8,831,000 103,326 96,910 6,416 11.7 11.0 0.7 1.74
1996 8,843,000 95,297 94,133 1,164 10.8 10.6 0.2 1.61
1997 8,846,000 89,171 92,674 -3,503 10.1 10.5 -0.4 1.52
1998 8,851,000 88,384 92,891 -4,507 10.0 10.5 -0.5 1.51
1999 8,858,000 88,173 94,726 -6,553 10.0 10.7 -0.7 1.50
2000 8,872,000 90,441 93,285 -2,844 10.2 10.5 -0.3 1.54
2001 8,896,000 91,466 93,752 -2,286 10.3 10.5 -0.2 1.57
2002 8,925,000 95,815 95,009 806 10.7 10.6 0.1 1.65
2003 8,958,000 99,157 92,961 6,196 11.1 10.4 0.7 1.71
2004 8,994,000 100,928 90,532 10,396 11.2 10.1 1.1 1.75
2005 9,030,000 101,346 91,710 9,636 11.2 10.2 1.0 1.77
2006 9,081,000 105,913 91,177 14,736 11.7 10.0 1.7 1.85
2007 9,148,000 107,421 91,729 15,692 11.7 10.0 1.7 1.88
2008 9,220,000 109,301 91,449 17,852 11.9 9.9 2.0 1.91
2009 9,299,000 111,801 90,080 21,721 12.0 9.7 2.3 1.93
2010 9,378,000 115,641 90,487 25,154 12.3 9.6 2.7 1.98
2011 9,449,000 111,770 89,938 21,832 11.8 9.5 2.3 1.90
2012 9,519,000 113,177 91,938 21,239 11.9 9.7 2.2 1.90
2013 9,644,000 113,593 90,402 23,191 11.8 9.4 2.4 1.89
2014 9,747,000 114,907 88,976 25,931 11.9 9.2 2.7 1.88
2015 9,851,000 114,870 90,907 23,963 11.7 9.3 2.4 1.85
2016 9,995,000 117,425 90,982 26,443 11.8 9.2 2.6 1.85
2017 10,120,000 115,416 91,972 23,444 11.4 9.1 2.3 1.78
2018 10,230,000 115,832 92,185 23,647 11.3 9.0 2.3 1.75
2019 10,327,000 114,523 88,766 25,757 11.1 8.7 2.4 1.70
2020 10,379,000 113,077 98,124 14,953 10.9 9.5 1.1 1.66
2021 10,452,326 114,263 91,958 22,305 11.0 8.8 2.2 1.67

In 2020 78,714 (69.6%) babies were born to Swedish-born mothers while 34,363 (30.4%) were born to foreign-born mothers. The total fertility rate for Swedish-born women was 1.60, for foreign-born ones 1.92. [36]

Current vital statisticsEdit

[37][38]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January – May 2021 48,272 40,128 +8,144
January – May 2022 45,039 40,140 +4,899
Difference   -3,233 (−6.70%)   +12 (+0.03%)   -3,245

MigrationEdit

 
Population pyramid segmented by background. Swedish background in color, foreign background in gray

Prior to World War II, emigrants generally outnumbered immigrants. Since then, net migration has been positive with many immigrants coming to Sweden from the 1970s through today.

EmigrationEdit

Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population at the time, emigrated to North America, and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 US Census Bureau estimate.[39] In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong.[40]

ImmigrationEdit

 
 
Increases (1984–2014) of asylum in Sweden by origin
  Serbia and Montenegro: 118 669
  Iraq: 98 211
  Syria: 65 616
  Bosnia-Herzegovina: 58 166
  Somalia: 55 123
  Iran: 50 571
  Other countries: 134 479
  Unknown: 43 350
Data source (Swedish government).

The demographic profile of Sweden has altered considerably due to immigration patterns since the 1970s. As of 2020, Statistics Sweden reported that around 2,686,040 or 25.9% of the inhabitants of Sweden were from a foreign background: that is, each such person either had been born abroad or had been born in Sweden to two parents who themselves had both been born abroad.[41] Also taking into account people with only one parent born abroad, this number increases to one third (33.5%).[42]

Additionally, the birth rate among immigrant women after arriving in Sweden is somewhat higher than among ethnic Swedes.[43] Taking into account the fact that immigrant women have on average fewer[citation needed] children than Swedish women of comparable age, however, the difference in total birth rate is only 0.1 children more if the woman is foreign born – with the disclaimer that some women may have children not immigrating to and not reported in Sweden, who are thus not included in the statistics.[44]

Historical immigrationEdit

World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[45]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of immigrant labour was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia.[citation needed] but the influx gave rise to an anti-Finnish sentiment within Sweden and Norway. This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968, respectively.

Contemporary immigrationEdit

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[46] According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 1.33 million foreign-born residents in Sweden, corresponding to 14.3% of the total population. Of these, 859,000 (64.3%) were born outside the EU and 477,000 (35.7%) were born in another EU Member State.[47][48] By comparison, the Swedish civil registry reports, for 2018, that nearly 1.96 million residents are foreign-born, a 47% increase from 2010. There are 8.27 million Swedish-born residents, giving a total population of 10.23 million, and a 19.1% foreign-born population.[49]

The first group of Assyrians/Syriacs moved to Sweden from Lebanon in 1967. Many of them live in Södertälje (Stockholm).[50][51] There are also around 40,000 Roma in Sweden.[52] Some Roma people have long historical roots in Sweden, while others are more recent migrants from elsewhere in Europe.

Immigrants from Western Asia have been a rapidly growing share of Sweden's population. According to the government agency Statistics Sweden, the number of immigrants born in all of Asia (including the Middle East) rose from just 1,000 in 1950 to 295,000 in 2003.[53] Most of those immigrants came from Iraq, Iran, Lebanon and Syria, according to Statistics Sweden.[53]

Immigration of Iraqis increased dramatically during the Iraq War, beginning in 2003. A total of 8,951 Iraqis came to Sweden in 2006, accounting for 45% of the entire Iraqi migration to Europe. By 2007, the community of Iraqis in Sweden numbered above 70,000. In 2008, Sweden introduced tighter rules on asylum seekers.[54]

A significant number of Syrian Christians have also settled in Sweden. There have also been immigrants from South-Central Asia such as Afghanistan and India. Since the European migrant crisis, Syrians became the second-largest group of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in 2017 with 158,443 people (after former Yugoslavia).

Note that the table below lists the citizenship the person had when arriving in Sweden, and therefore there are no registered Eritreans, Russians or Bosnians from 1990, they were recorded as Ethiopians, Soviets and Yugoslavs. The nationality of Yugoslavs below is therefore people who came to Sweden from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia before 1991 and people who came from today's Montenegro and Serbia before 2003, then called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Counting all people who came from Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, there were 176,033 people from there in 2018.

The 42 countries with over 10,000 foreign-born persons.[55][56]
Country 1900 1930 1960 1990 2000 2010 2020 2021
  Syria 6 5,874 14,162 20,758 193,594 196,077
  Iraq 16 9,818 49,372 121,761 146,440 146,769
    Finland 6,644 9,746 101,307 217,636 195,447 169,521 140,337 136,607
    Poland 1,065 6,347 35,631 40,123 70,253 93,762 95,076
  Iran 2 8 115 40,084 51,101 62,120 81,301 83,122
  Somalia 1,441 13,082 37,846 70,184 70,087
  former Yugoslavia 19 1,532 43,346 71,972 70,819 63,419 62,444
  Afghanistan 17 534 4,287 14,420 60,858 62,803
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,526 56,183 60,161 60,194
  Turkey 15 22 202 25,528 31,894 42,527 52,628 54,004
    Germany 5,107 8,566 37,580 37,558 38,155 48,158 51,434 52,960
  Eritrea 3,054 10,301 47,156 48,278
  Thailand 20 4,934 10,353 31,378 44,339 45,109
  India 45 135 361 9,054 11,110 17,863 42,790 47,369
  Norway 7,978 14,731 37,253 52,744 42,464 43,480 41,062 40,625
    Denmark 6,872 8,726 35,112 43,931 38,190 45,548 38,929 38,474
  China (not including Hong Kong) 34 201 520 3,896 8,150 23,998 36,023 37,172
    Romania 3 34 719 8,785 11,776 19,741 32,741 33,695
  United Kingdom 779 1,270 2,738 11,378 14,602 20,839 31,035 31,993
  Lebanon 15 15,986 20,038 24,116 28,885 29,313
  Chile 6 28 69 27,635 26,842 28,387 27,918 27,894
  United States 5,130 8,852 10,874 13,001 14,413 17,179 23,290 24,173
  Russia 1,506 6,523 15,511 22,774 23,455
  Ethiopia 5 59 10,027 11,907 13,822 22,125 22,672
  Pakistan 11 2,291 3,100 10,265 21,172 24,183
  Vietnam 1 6,265 10,898 14,584 21,126 21,528
    Greece 5 22 266 13,171 10,851 11,381 19,737 19,931
    Hungary 50 108 8,544 15,045 14,127 15,339 16,480 16,381
    Lithuania 149 233 785 6,735 15,917 16,434
  Serbia 5,324 15,874 16,719
  Philippines 5 2,613 5,460 9,826 15,640 16,219
    Italy 200 367 4,904 5,989 6,337 7,804 14,155 14,786
  Colombia 73 4,650 7,317 10,531 13,060 13,411
    Spain 30 64 867 4,917 5,079 6,763 12,930 13,409
    Netherlands 50 208 2,105 3,543 4,532 8,700 12,769 13,523
  Bangladesh 1,571 2,937 6,289 12,279 12,965
    Croatia 5,229 6,277 12,207 12,559
  Ukraine 1,459 4,741 11,899 12,891
  Morocco 22 2,720 4,492 7,391 11,898 12,207
    France 255 599 1,750 3,844 5,602 7,944 11,854 12,618
  South Korea 47 8,205 9,170 10,398 11,719 11,795
  Kosovo 2,288 11,164 11,920
  Brazil 41 92 175 2,118 3,496 6,005 10,725 11,680
Total 35,627 61,657 299,879 790,445 1,003,798 1,384,929 2,046,731

The twenty-five largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry as of autumn 2018 were:[57]

  1.   Former Yugoslavia (176 033)*
  2.   Syria (172,258)
  3.   Finland (150,887) *
  4.   Iraq (144 035)
  5.   Poland (92 759)
  6.   Iran (77 386)
  7.   Somalia (68 678)
  8.   Germany (50,863)
  9.   Turkey (49 948)
  10.   Afghanistan (43,991)
  11.   Thailand (41,240)
  12.   Eritrea (42 300)
  13.   Norway (41 747)
  14.   Denmark (40 011)
  15.   India (35 234)
  16.   China (33 288)
  17.   Romania (31 040)
  18.   Chile (27,996)
  19.   United Kingdom (27,658)
  20.   Lebanon (27,487)
  21.   United States (20,930)
  22.   Russia (20,930)
  23.   Vietnam (18,713)
  24.   Ethiopia (19,358)
  25.   Greece (18,142)
  • This only lists Swedish Finns born outside of Sweden; There are ~569,000 people of Finnish origin living in Sweden
  • The seven successor states of Yugoslavia and their historic counterparts (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, and Kosovo) are counted as one group in many agencies across Sweden. There are also roughly 100,000 native-born "Yugoslavians" in Sweden

The ten most common countries of birth among immigrants registered in Sweden during 2016 (including asylum seekers who came in 2015) were the following:[58]

  1.   Syria (+51,540)
  2.   Eritrea (+6,580)
  3.   Poland (+5,078)
  4.   Iraq (+4,901)
  5.   India (+4,247)
  6.   Somalia (+3,794)
  7.   Afghanistan (+3,607)
  8.   Finland (+2,969)
  9.   Germany (+2,666)
  10.   Iran (+2,469)

LanguageEdit

The Swedish language is by far the dominating language in Sweden, and is used by the government administration. English is also widely spoken and is taught in public schools.

Since 1999, Sweden has five officially recognised minority languages: Sami, Meänkieli, Standard Finnish, Romani and Yiddish.

The Sami language, spoken by about 7,000 people in Sweden, may be used in government agencies, courts, preschools and nursing homes in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna and its immediate neighbourhood.[clarify]

Similarly, Finnish and Meänkieli can be used in the municipalities of Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala and Övertorneå and its immediate neighbourhood. Finnish is also official language, along with Swedish, in the city of Eskilstuna.[citation needed]

During the mid to late 20th century, immigrant communities brought other languages, among others being Persian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic and Neo-Aramaic.[59]

ReligionEdit

The majority (56.4%) of the population belongs to the Church of Sweden,[60] the Lutheran church that was disestablished as a state church in 2000. Until 1996, those who had family members in the church automatically became members at birth.[61] Other Christian denominations in Sweden include the Roman Catholic Church (see Catholic Church of Sweden), several Orthodox churches in diaspora, Baptist, Pentecostal, Neo-pietistic (nyevangeliska) and other evangelical Christian churches (frikyrkor = 'free churches'). Shamanism persisted among the Sami people up until the 18th century, but no longer exists in its traditional form as most Sami today belong to the Lutheran church.

Jews were permitted to practice their religion in five Swedish cities in 1782, and have enjoyed full rights as citizens since 1870. The new Freedom of Religion Bill was passed in 1951, and former obstacles against Non-Lutherans working in schools and hospitals were removed. Further, that bill made it legal to leave any religious denomination, without entering another. There are also many Muslims, as well as a number of Buddhists and Baháʼís in Sweden, mainly as a result of 20th and 21st century immigration. There is also a small Zoroastrian community in Sweden.[62]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Crude migration change (per 1,000) is a trend analysis, an extrapolation based average population change (current year minus previous) minus natural change of the current year (see table vital statistics). As average population is an estimate of the population in the middle of the year and not end of the year.
  2. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above represents a stable or increasing population and have been marked blue, while 2.0 and below leads to an aging and, ultimately, declining population.

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External linksEdit

  • Statistics Sweden – Official Database available in English