Deodar forests

Summary

Deodar Forests are forests dominated by Cedrus deodara, also known as Deodar Cedars. These types of trees are found naturally in Western Himalayas from Gandaki river in central Nepal to Hindukush Mountain range in Afghanistan.

Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara) is native to the Himalayan Mountains where its local name is Deodar, which translates from the original Sanskrit as "timber of the gods". They were officially introduced into cultivation in 1831 although they have been grown in Chinese parks and gardens for centuries.

Native ForestsEdit

The native forests of the Deodar Cedar are located in the Himalayan mountain range and spread from Nepal through Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. This range is mostly dominated by Cedrus deodara but also shares its space with an assortment of other species as well. Other species include Quercus ilex, Juglans regia, Taxus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Abies pinerow, Pinus giardiana, Pinus wallichiana. There are several areas that appear "monospecific" where 99 percent Cedrus deodara is the dominant species. Most of the monospecific areas are dry temperate areas, however there are a few recorded monospecific areas that are moist temperate regions.[1]

Deodar forests have been recorded to start growing at an elevation of 5,600 ft and will stop at about 9,000 ft. The Cedrus deodara will not tolerate temperatures below 0 degrees Fahrenheit despite its natural high elevation.[2]

Urban ForestsEdit

Deodar Cedars are very popular in the urban landscape setting making them very common. Placing more trees around cities is becoming increasingly more popular and a necessity, adding to property value and air quality.[3] This is creating new urban forests by mixing new species together and creating more diversity of natural habitats.[3] The Deodar Cedar is natural to a high climate that gets high amounts of snow in the winter season. Most places where this species is being introduced into an urban setting has less harsh conditions, letting it grow more resiliently. Deodars can range from 40ft in height to 160ft making them a prominent figure in the urban forest.[4]

UnderstoryEdit

Deodar Cedars aren't the only plant life of the forest. The forest floor is covered with many other plants contributing to the ecosystem. Rosa webbiana, Rubus brunonii, Hedera nepalensis, Vicia sativa, Medicago denticulata, Rumex hastatus, Cynodon dactylon, Rumex dentatus, Urtica dioica, Geranium rotundifolium, Viola conescens, Tribulus terrestris, aconitum chasmanthus[1]

ClimateEdit

General cultivation is limited to areas with mild winters as these trees are frequently killed by temperatures below −13 °F. Prefers sunny and well-drained locations.

Threats And ChallengesEdit

This species of tree is used industrially for lumber and its oils in its native part of the world. Afghanistan, Pakistan and India have over logged this tree and is starting to pose a serious threat to its native environment.[5] There have been recent reports of Phytophthora cinnamomi affecting Deodar Cedars in the Himalayan regions[6] Phytophthora cinnamomi has killed 200 trees so far and another 150 are starting to show unhealthy symptoms[6]

Cultural ImportanceEdit

The Deodar forests in the Himalayas are considered a sacred place to the Hindu people of India. Darukavana which translates to Deodar forest is mentioned quite often through ancient Hindu texts. These forests are considered a spiritual place to live for families who are devoted to the lord Shiva, the Hindu god.[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Mesaik, Ahmed; Nazim, Kanwal; Siddiqui, Muhammad; Wahab, Muhammad; Khan, Nazreen; Khan, Nasrullah; Hussain, Syed (2010-10-01). "Community description of Deodar forests from Himalayan range of Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Botany. 42: 3091–3102.
  2. ^ "Cedrus deodara, Oregon State Univ., LANDSCAPE PLANTS". oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  3. ^ a b "Urban Forests | US Forest Service". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  4. ^ "1. Deodar Cedar". depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  5. ^ "Deodar Cedar | University of Redlands". Sites. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  6. ^ a b "Cedrus deodara root rot disease-threat to the Himalayan forestry and environment". www.cabi.org. 2000. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  7. ^ "Deodar Forest Himachal Pradesh". 2017-12-06. Retrieved 2019-10-31.