Detailed logarithmic timeline


This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and humankind in one table. Each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. In each table cell on the right, references to events or notable people are given, more or less in chronological order within the cell.

Each row corresponds to a change in log(time before present) (that is, the logarithm of the time before the present) of about 0.1 (using base 10 logarithm). The dividing points are taken from the R′′20 Renard numbers. Thus each row represent about 21% of the time from its beginning until the present.

The table is divided into sections with subtitles. Note that each such section contains about 68% of all the time from the beginning of the section until now.


Visual timelines including ages

The following five timelines show the geologic time scale to scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon. The second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon. In a similar way, the most recent era is expanded in the third timeline, the most recent period is expanded in the fourth timeline, and the most recent epoch is expanded in the fifth timeline.

GelasianCalabrian (stage)ChibanianPleistocenePleistoceneHoloceneQuaternary
Millions of Years (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th)
Thousands of years (5th)

13 700 million years ago to 5 500 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
13.7 Ga – 11 Ga

Big Bang occurs when ordinary space and time develop from a primeval state (possibly a virtual particle or false vacuum) described by a quantum theory of gravity or "theory of everything". Infant universe cools as it begins growing outward. The universe is almost completely smooth, as quantum variations begin to cause slight variations in density. The universe's expansion decelerates at a faster rate. Recombination; electrons merge with nuclei to form atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen and helium distributions at this time remain constant as electron baryon plasma thins. Ordinary matter particles decouple from radiation. Formation of galaxies. Formation of HD 140283, the "Methuselah star", seemingly more than 14 Ga ago. Earliest quasars, habitable epoch.[1][2] First stars. Due to many being Population III stars (some Population II stars at this time); they are much bigger and hotter, and their lifespans are fairly short. Unlike later generations of stars, these stars are metal-free. Reionization begins, with certain wavelengths of light absorption by neutral hydrogen making Gunn–Peterson troughs. The resulting ionized gas (mainly free electrons) in the intergalactic medium causes some light scattering, but with much lower opacity than before recombination due to cosmic expansion and gas clumping into galaxies. Formation of the star SMSS J031300.36−670839.3 and the star clusters NGC 6522 and Omega Centauri.

11 Ga – 9 Ga

Formation of the Gliese 581 planetary system, BX442 (oldest grand design spiral galaxy observed), globular cluster NGC 2808, red giant star Mu Cephei, and the Andromeda Galaxy. Barnard's Star (nearby red dwarf star) may have formed.

9 Ga – 7 Ga

Formation of the earliest Population I stars and planetary nebulae, followed by rocky terrestrial planets, moons, asteroids and icy comets. Formation of the exoplanets 55 Cancri B, Kepler 11 c and 51 Pegasi b. A galaxy collides with the Milky Way, giving rise to the so-called Gaia Sausage population of stars. Formation of Gliese 876 and its planets.[3]

7 Ga – 5.5 Ga

Formation of the exoplanets Kepler 452b and GJ 1214 b and the stars Alpha Centauri and Tau Ceti.

5 500 million years ago to 1 800 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ga – 4.5 Ga Precambrian Supereon

Hadean eon

Pre-Noachian era

Pre-Tolstojan period

Pre-Nectarian period

The dark-energy dominated era starts after the matter-dominated era. Formation of the open star cluster Messier 67. A primal supernova possibly triggers the formation of the Solar System. Formation of the Sun, Earth and Moon. Due to accretion, many smaller planets form orbits around the proto-Sun, some with conflicting orbits, causing the Early Heavy Bombardment to begin. A large planetoid strikes Mercury, removing its original crust and mantle outer envelope, leaving the planet's core exposed, which may explain why Mercury's iron content is notably high. Many Galilean moons may have been made at this time, including Europa and Titan, which may presently be hospitable to some life forms. The Earth-Moon system is formed after a giant impact by the hypothetical planetoid Theia. The Moon's gravitational pull helps calm Earth's changing axis of rotation. A major collision with a Pluto-sized planetoid causes Martian dichotomy, forming Mars' North Polar Basin.

4.5 Ga – 3.5 Ga

Hadean eon

beginning of Archaean eon

Eoarchean era

Nectarian era

Imbrian period

Formation of Kepler 438 b. Huge meteorite impact makes South Pole Aitken Basin on Moon, then huge mountain chain on lunar south limb forms. Late Heavy Bombardment (possibly). Origin of life. Earliest known life forms: unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life, found in mineral deposits aged 4.25 Ga located in the Jack Hills of Western Australia.[4][5] Resonance at Jupiter and Saturn's orbits moves Neptune into the Kuiper belt, causing disruption among asteroids and comets there, so the Late Heavy Bombardment batters the inner Solar System. Herschel Crater is formed on Mimas. A meteorite impact on Mars makes Hellas Planitia, the largest unambiguous structure on planet. Anseris Mons, lonely massif at Mars south highlands, at northeast edge of Hellas Planitia uplifted in the wake of a meteorite impact. Nectaris Basin forms from a large impact event causing ejecta from Nectaris to form the upper part of a densely cratered Lunar Highlands. Tolstoj (crater) forms on Mercury. Caloris Basin forms on Mercury, leading to the formation of "Weird Terraine" when seismic activity triggers volcanic activity across Mercury. Rembrandt (crater) forms on Mercury. Last universal common ancestor. Evidence for hydrothermal vent microbes.[6][7]Biogenic graphite in metasedimentary rocks aged 3.7 Ga discovered in Western Greenland.[8]Weathering of land affects ocean chemistry.[9][10]Bacteria and Archaea split.

3.5 Ga – 2.8 Ga Archaean eon

Paleoarchean era

Mesoarchean era

Amazonian period

Eratosthenian period

Microbial mat fossils[11][12] and signs of life on land.[13] in Western Australia. Stromatolites. Martian climate thins to its present density when groundwater at its upper crust (megaregolith) begins to freeze, forming a thick cryosphere above a deeper liquid water zone. Impact cratering becomes the main geological force on the Moon. Onverwacht series form, containing some of the oldest microfossils which are mostly spheroidal and carbonaceous algae-like. Formation of the continent Ur, covering between 12 and 16% of current continental crust. Formation of the Limpopo Belt. Gneiss and greenstone belts at Baltic Shield laid down at Kola Peninsula, Karelia, and northeast Finland. Formation of Kenorland, based upon Baltic shield core. Breakup of the continents Vaalbara and Ur as the latter becomes part of the supercontinent Kenorland. Possible Cyanobacteria (photosynthesis).[14] Stabilization of cratons. Sterane biomarkers possibly indicate first eukaryotes. Possible largest crater on earth near Maniitsoq, Greenland.[15]

2.8 Ga – 2.2 Ga Neoarchean era

End of Archaean eon

Beginning of Proterozoic eon

Paleoproterozoic era

Siderian period

Rhyacian period

Lomagundi event signalling oxygen in the atmosphere. Beginning of Huronian glaciation. Grypania fossils. Bushveld Igneous Complex. Transvaal Basin begins to form. Continents form.[16][17]

2.2 Ga – 1.8 Ga Paleoproterozoic era

Orosirian period

End of Huronian glaciation. First unambiguous Cyanobacteria fossils, in Belcher Islands.[14] First known eukaryotic acritarchs (probably).[18] Earliest known eukaryote fossils. First known multicellular organisms collectively known as "Gabonionta" (Francevillian Group Fossil); Wopmay orogen along west border of the Canadian Shield. Bolide over 10 km in size creates Vredefort crater. Milky Way perturbed by collision.[19] Oxygen levels briefly plummet (possibly).[14] 10-km diameter bolide creates Sudbury Basin. Columbia supercontinent. Possible traces of 24-isopropylcholestane from sponges.[20]

1 800 million years ago to 550 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ga – 1.4 Ga Statherian period, end of Paleoproterozoic

beginning of Mesoproterozoic era, Calymmian period

Possibly multicellular red algae (eukaryotic).[21] Erosion of granite introduces copper, zinc, and molybdenum into surface waters.[22]

1.4 Ga – 1.1 Ga Mesoproterozoic era

Ectasian period, beginning of Stenian period

Eukaryotes found in lakes.[23]

1.1 Ga – 900 Ma End of Stenian period, end of Mesoproterozoic

beginning of Neoproterozoic era. Tonian period Copernican period.

On moon, emergence Of impact craters possessing bright optically immature ray systems. Coming together of Rodinia supercontinent. Mercury changes into & is still desolate cold planet influenced by space erosion & solar wind extremes. Titan begins evolving recognizable surface features including rivers, lakes & deltas. Fossils of organisms with two kinds of cells (cellular differentiation).[24][25]

900 Ma – 700 Ma Cryogenian period

Traces of sponge-like animals.[26][27][28][29] Terrestrial fungi.[30][31] Breakup of Rodinia, Sturtian glaciation begins, possible Snowball Earth, volcanism on Venus practically stops

700 Ma – 550 Ma End of Cryogenian, beginning of Ediacaran period

Pannotia supercontinent forms, then breaks up into Laurentia, Gondwana, Angaraland and Baltica. Marinoan glaciation. First non-microscopic life (Ediacaran biota). Rangeomorphs. HD 189733 b forms around parent HD 189733 & it’s 1st planet revealing climate, organic parts, even colour (blue) Of its atmosphere. Shuram excursion of δ13C, possibly connected to rise of first Cambrian-like animals such as arthropod-like Yilingia.[32]

550 million years ago to 180 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 Ma – 450 Ma

End of Ediacaran. Beginning of Phanerozoic Eon (lasting till now) and Palaeozoic Era. Cambrian period (541–485 Ma) – Ordovician (485–443 Ma)

Cambrian explosion. Fish-like Myllokunmingia, Haikouichthys, & Pikaia. First conodonts. Trilobites. Radiodonts, including earliest large predators known. All modern mineralized phyla present.[33]Bivalves. Arthropods dominant until arrival of chambered nautili.[34] Stifling hot "Dead Interval".[35]End-Botomian mass extinction. Appalachian Mountains form. First fossils of plants on land.[36]Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. First eurypterids or "sea scorpions". Collision of asteroids gives rise to L chondrite group of meteoroids and several craters ca. 470 Ma ago (Ordovician meteor event).[37] Andean-Saharan glaciation. First starfish, sea urchins, placoderms, cartilaginous fish (such as sharks) and bony fish.

450 Ma – 350 Ma

Silurian (443–419 Ma) – Devonian (416–359 Ma)

Ordovician-Silurian extinction events. Prototaxites, tree-like organism, probably a fungus or lichen. First clear evidence of land animals (millipedes or scorpions).[36] First wood.[38][39]Jaekelopterus, giant "sea scorpion". First amphibians, the Labyrinthodontia, the group that now includes reptiles and mammals. Archaeopteris (fern-like trees), Tiktaalik (lungfish) walks on land. Ichthyostega. First seeds, coelacanths. Kellwasser event. Hangenberg event with atmospheric oxygen falling to 13%. Few arthropods left on land.[36] Beginning of Karoo Ice Age. Romer's gap in the tetrapod record.

350 Ma – 280 Ma

Carboniferous (359–299 Ma), beginning of Permian period (299–252 Ma)

Karoo Ice Age. Formation of Pangaea supercontinent. Oxygen levels rise and animals colonize the land a second time.[36]Millipedes up to 2.6 metres in length. First winged insects and reptiliomorphs such as Solenodonsaurus and Eogyrinus. Synapsids and then pelycosaurs (forerunners of mammals). Reptiles. Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse. Prionosuchus, a large carnivorous amphibian.

280 Ma – 220 Ma Permian period, end of Paleozoic era

beginning of Mesozoic era, Triassic period (252–201 Ma)

Cycads, seed ferns. Oxygen in atmosphere peaks, around 30%.[36]Gorgonopsians and other therapsids (forerunners of mammals) displace pelycosaurs as dominant land animals. End-Capitanian extinction event.[40]Cynodonts (forerunners of mammals). First warm-blooded animals.[41]Siberian Traps eruption and Permian-Triassic extinction event. Dinosaur tracks.[42][43] 40 °C sea temperatures during Smithian-Spathian extinction. Turtles. Archosaurs: dominance of Suchians (forerunners of crocodilians). First pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Dinosaurs. Gymnosperms dominant. Dicroidium flora common on land. Manicouagan Crater formed. First lizards.

220 Ma – 180 Ma

Triassic, Jurassic (201–145 Ma)

First redwoods. Central Atlantic eruption and Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Oxygen in atmosphere hits low of about 12%.[36] Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Mammals. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales, and cycads) and ferns common. Sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs. Toarcian turnover (extinction). Gondwana breaks up.

180 million years ago to 55 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 Ma – 140 Ma Jurassic

Possible true polar wander moves east Asia southward by 25°, leading to aridification.[44]India breaks from East Gondwana. Juramaia sinensis, first known eutherian mammal. First birds (Archaeopteryx). Dinosaurs are dominant terrestrial animal. Small Magellanic Cloud passes through Large Magellanic Cloud.[45][46]

140 Ma – 110 Ma Early Cretaceous (145 – 100 Ma), Aptian & Albian ages

Flowering plants. First Enantiornithes or "backward birds". Ontong Java eruption. First known snakes. Early-Aptian anoxic event. Seas cool by 5 °C during 2 million years.[47] Earliest known monotreme fossils. Sinodelphys, earliest known marsupial. Eomaia, similar to placental mammals.

110 Ma – 90 Ma Late Cretaceous: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, and Santonian ages

Supervolcano in eastern Australia sends particles to west coast.[48][49]Bees. Mammals diversify into many forms.[50]Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (oceans anoxic for half a million years),[51] extinction of ichthyosaurs.

90 Ma – 70 Ma Campanian & Maastrichtian ages of the Cretaceous

Dominance of angiosperm rosids. Rocky Mountains begin forming. Zealandia breaks away from Australia. Mosasaurs are dominant marine predator. Polaris, 1 Of significant navigable stars, forms.

70 Ma – 55 Ma End of Mesozoic era

beginning of Cenozoic era and Paleogene period, Paleocene epoch (66–56 Ma)

Evidence for grasses in dinosaur dung (coprolites). Crocodiles. Madagascar breaks away from India. Bolide creates Chicxulub Crater. Deccan Traps. Possible Shiva crater. Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event, (non-avian) dinosaurs die out. Mammals dominate. Titanoboa, largest known snake. Eritherium, first known proboscid. Lemurs. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

55 million years ago to 18 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 Ma – 45 Ma Early Eocene

First creodonts. First equid, the Eohippus or Hyracotherium. Andes mountains begin to rise. Azolla event reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. India collides with Asia, giving rise to the Himalayas. First cetaceans (whales) and simians.

45 Ma – 35 Ma Eocene

Primates cross Atlantic to South America and become New World monkeys. First elephant-like animal, the Moeritherium. Grasses common. 100-km Popigai crater in Siberia. 2-mile (3.2 km) diameter bolide creates 90-km Chesapeake Bay impact crater in America.

35 Ma – 28 Ma Beginning of Oligocene epoch (34 – 23 Ma)

Tasmanian Seaway and Drake Passage open, allowing creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Baleen whales appear. Gould Belt of stars created.[52]Alps begin to rise. First indricotheria, "hornless rhinoceros" about 6 metres high. Eruption of La Garita Caldera in Colorado, one of largest in Earth history.

28 Ma – 22 Ma Oligocene, Chattian age

Pelagornis sandersi, largest known flying bird with a wingspan of 6 or 7 metres. Puijila darwini, early pinniped. Daeodon shoshonensis ("terminator pig"). Nimravids, "false sabre-toothed cats", die out in America.

22 Ma – 18 Ma Beginning of Neogene period, Miocene epoch (23 to 5 Ma), Aquitanian age

Dawn bear – ancestor of bears. Sharp decrease in water exchange between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea due to partial closure of the Mesopotamian Seaway.[53] Cooling and drying of climate in North America.[53]Pseudaelurus felid comes to America.

18 million years ago to 5.5 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 Ma – 14 Ma Miocene, Burdigalian age, Langhian age

Antarctica becomes mostly ice-covered. Africa/Arabia collides with Eurasia, end of Tethys Sea. Columbia River basalts. First deinotheres, similar to an elephant but with tusks on lower jaw. Nördlinger Ries impact crater. Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, Middle Miocene disruption. Hominidae split from gibbons.

14 Ma – 11 Ma Miocene, Serravallian age

Last of the adapiforms. Final closure of the Mesopotamian Seaway.[53]Anoiapithecus, one of the first hominids, in Spain.

11 Ma – 9 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

Olympic Mountains reach present height. Rudapithecus, a great ape that was probably bipedal.[54][55]

9 Ma – 7 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

First Gigantopithecus, an ape almost 10 feet (3.0 m) tall. C4 grasses become common. Betelgeuse forms. Crocodiles cross the Atlantic to America.[56]

7 Ma – 5.5 Ma Miocene, Messinian age

Graecopithecus ("Greek ape"), possibly ancestor of hominins. "Toumaï", of species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, shows some human traits. First Thylacosmilus, sabre-toothed marsupial of South America. Orrorin tugenensis, possible hominin. Apparent hominin footprints near Trachilos, on Crete.[57][58]Mediterranean Sea dries up (Messinian Event).

5.5 million years ago to 1.8 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ma – 4.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

Zanclean Deluge. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis. Divergence of polar bears and brown bears.[59] Possible date of 52-km Karakul crater in Tajikistan.

4.5 Ma – 3.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

First Australopithecus afarensis, a bipedal great ape. Hominin fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania.

3.5 Ma – 2.8 Ma Pliocene, Piacenzian

Evidence of use of stone tools by A. afarensis.[60][61]Carbon dioxide levels like today for a long period, with temperatures 2° to 3°C higher than today, and sea level 20 metres higher.[62] Human line loses fur (possibly).[63] Possible time of Isthmus of Panama connecting South and Central America. Great American Interchange. Lucy, member of the species Australopithecus afarensis. First Megatherium americanum, a giant sloth.

2.8 Ma – 2.2 Ma Beginning of Quaternary period, Pleistocene epoch, and Gelasian age, Lower Paleolithic

Homo habilis appears. Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary extinction of marine megafauna, including the megalodon shark,[64] possibly caused by a nearby supernova or supernovas of the Scorpius–Centaurus association, which deposited 60Fe on Earth.[65][66]Oldowan tools used near Gona, Ethiopia. Possible tool use in Sivalik Hills, India.[67][68][69] Beginning of the current ice age, known as the Quaternary glaciation, impact of Eltanin asteroid (1 to 4 km in diameter) in Pacific. Stone artefacts at Longgupo (Dragon Bone Slope) in China.[70] (see also Wushan Man)

2.2 Ma – 1.8 Ma Gelasian

Island Park Caldera in Wyoming and Idaho. Homo erectus appears. Dmanisi Man (Homo erectus georgicus) in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Xiaochangliang, China. Human-like Australopithecus sediba. Homo ergaster in Africa. First signs of Acheulian culture, in Kenya. Last known terror birds.

1.8 million years ago to 550,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ma – 1.4 Ma Beginning of Calabrian age

First true hand-axes. Homo erectus found in Europe.

1.4 Ma – 1.1 Ma Calabrian age

Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho erupts.

1.1 Ma – 900 ka Calabrian age

Stone artefacts on Flores, made by hominins.[71] This required crossing seas at least 19 km wide.[72] Possible evidence of cooking with fire.[73][74] 14-km Zhamanshin Crater formed in Kazakhstan. Hominin footprints and tools in England.

900 ka – 700 ka End of Calabrian age, beginning of Chibanian age (Middle Pleistocene)

Species of Homo found in Yun County, Hubei, sharing features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.[75][76]Australasian strewnfield. Evidence of use of fire[77] and of olives, acorns, and other plant-based foods,[78][79] at Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Palestine. Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal. Hominins present in Luzon, Philippines, possible ancestors of Flores man.[80][81]Homo floresiensis-like creatures on Flores.[82][83]

700 ka – 550 ka Günz glaciation

Yellowstone Caldera supervolcano spreads ash over North America. Homo antecessor in Spain. Cut marks on human bones indicate cannibalism.[84]

550,000 years ago to 180,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 ka – 450 ka Günz-Mindel interglacial Mindel glaciation

Stone points (possibly for spears) used by Homo heidelbergensis in South Africa. Etching on shell at Trinil in East Java, done by Homo erectus.[85]Homo heidelbergensis in Germany, France, and Greece. Oldest known spear, Clacton-on-Sea.[86]

450 ka – 350 ka Mindel glaciation, Mindel-Riss interglacial

Venus of Tan-Tan (300 to 500 ka ago) and Venus of B'rekhat Ram (231 to 800 ka BC). First appearance of proto-Neanderthal traits. Sima de los Huesos hominins in Spain, related to Neanderthals.[87] First known homicide victim was dropped into the cave.[88]Weald–Artois Anticline breached by a massive glacial lake outburst flood, creating a valley under present-day Strait of Dover.[89] Hominin footprints in Italy (Ciampate del Diavolo).

350 ka – 280 ka

Earliest known Middle Stone Age tools. Long distance transport of obsidian.[90][91][92]Schöningen wooden spears[93] in an area soon covered by ice.[92] Evidence for use of fire to pre-treat stone for making blades, at Qesem cave in Palestine.[94][95] Earliest known Homo sapiens remains at Adrar Ighud in Morocco. Stone tools in Ḥaʼil Province of Arabia.[96]>[97]Geminga supernova.

280 ka – 220 ka

Jinniushan woman near Korea, with traits between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Dali Man in China, with some features of Homo sapiens.[98][99]Homo naledi skeletons in the Rising Star cave system, South Africa, and evidence of deliberate entombing of dead.[100][101] Estimated time of Y-chromosomal Adam.[102][103]Homo sapiens Omo remains in Ethiopia. Bedding made of ash and grass.[104]Strait of Dover formed. Britain (possibly) becomes an island for the first time.[89] Apparent date of stone tools at the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico.

220 ka – 180 ka Illinoian Stage (Riss glaciation)

Homo sapiens in Greece.[105][106]Homo sapiens at Misliya cave in Palestine.[107][108]

180,000 years ago to 55,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 ka – 140 ka Illinoian Stage (Riss glaciation)

Underground circular piles of stalagmites built by Neanderthals.[109][110] Use of ochre, fine stone blades, and seafood at Pinnacle Point, SA.[111] Clear evidence of roasting of plant-based food (rhizomes of Hypoxis).[112][113]Denisovans (in Tibet).[114][115] Beginning of Mousterian culture. Estimated time of Mitochondrial Eve.

140 ka – 110 ka Beginning of Late Pleistocene, Eemian interglacial

Appearance of full-blown Neanderthal traits. Stone tools in Crete (40 km from nearest neighboring land).[116] Signs of Homo in California.[117][118]Neanderthals make ornaments from eagle claws.[119][120] Temperatures generally higher during the Eemian interglacial than during the Holocene. Sea levels 5 to 10 metres above current level.[121] Evidence of humans in southwest Victoria (Australia).[122]Late Eemian Aridity Pulse.[123] Tools, including a point probably made from a sperm whale tooth, used in Morocco for working leather and fur.[124][125] Tools used at Talepu site in Sulawesi.[126][127]Shell jewelry in Spain, apparently made by Neanderthals.[128][129]Jawbone with modern human chin in Guangxi Province.[99]

110 ka – 90 ka

Last evidence of Homo erectus.[130] Shells with holes, probably used as beads, at the Es Skhul cave on Mount Carmel. Abbassia Pluvial. Denisovan "art" (parallele lines).[131][132] Humans with modern teeth in China (Fuyan Cave, between 80 and 120 ka ago).[133][99]Paint made at Blombos Cave.[134] Metre-high Flores Man on the island of Flores (Indonesia). Human burial at Jebel al-Qafzeh in Israel.

90 ka – 70 ka Beginning of Würm glaciation

Homo sapiens by lake in what is now the Nafūd desert of Arabia.[135][136][97] Shell beads in Taforalt Caves, Morocco. Use of insecticidal Cape laurel in bedding at Sibudu Cave in South Africa.[137] Tools made in Kota Tampan, Malaysia, probably by Homo sapiens. Abstract designs engraved on ochre, and pressure flaking, at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Use of glue at Sibudu Cave. Arrowhead-like projectile points[138] and possibly poisoned arrows.[139][140]

70 ka – 55 ka Ca. 68,000 – ca. 53,000 BCE

Supervolcano Toba in Indonesia erupts, covering south Asia with ash and starting a 1,000-year ice age. Cave art in Spain, by Neanderthals or Homo sapiens.[105][128][141] Humans in Northern Territory, Australia.[142][143]Homo luzonensis in Philippines.[144][145]Sewing needle-like implement used at Sibudu Cave, South Africa.[138] Engraved ostrich eggs at Diepkloof Rock Shelter. Circular structure of posts near Poitiers, built by Neanderthals.[146] Neanderthals reenter Britain.[89]

55,000 years ago to 18,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 ka – 45 ka Ca. 53,000 – ca. 43,000 BCE

Skeleton of a Neaanderthal in Iraq who lived 10 to 15 years after losing forearm.[92] Remains of string in France.[147][148]Australia starts to become largely desert, probably due to man.[149] Oldest known depiction of animals (warty pigs, on Sulawesi).[150][151]

45 ka – 35 ka Ca. 43,000 – ca. 33,000 BCE Upper Paleolithic

Mungo Man in Australia. Homo sapiens in Bacho Kiro cave in Bulgaria.[152][153] Earliest painted "story", in Sulawesi.[154][155]Needles and sewing. Cro-Magnon people in France, Britain, and Italy. Neanderthal Divje Babe fluteprehistoric music. Mining of hematite at the Lion Cave in Swaziland. Deep-sea fishing of tuna.[156][157] Brief geomagnetic Laschamp Excursion. 50-metre diameter asteroid creates 1.2-km Meteor Crater in Arizona. Humans in Tianyuan Cave, China.[158][159] Foot bones seem to indicate wearing of shoes. Ash from giant Campanian Ignimbrite eruption separates Middle Paleolithic from Upper Paleolithic cultures. Neanderthals disappear. Beginnings of Aurignacian culture. Paleolithic flutes and Venus of Hohler Fels, Dyed flax fibres in Georgia.

35 ka – 28 ka Ca. 33,000 – ca. 26,000 BCE

Exchange of ostrich eggshell beads over hundreds of kilometres.[160][92] Oldest known skull of a dog (Siberia), with wolf-like teeth.[161]Oats made into flour.[162][163] Human presence in Japan. Lion man ivory sculpture. Chauvet Cave paintings. Stone mortar and pestle used to grind fern and cattail tubers.[164][165]Boomerang made from mammoth tusk in Poland.[166] Avian figurine in ivory and stone phallus of Hohler Fels.[167]Venus of Dolní Věstonice (first known ceramic). Impression of rope on fired clay.[168] End of Aurignacian culture, beginning of Gravettian.

28 ka – 22 ka Ca. 26,000 – ca. 20,000 BCE

Imprint of woven cloth in clay (Czech Republic). Venus of Lespugue (ivory sculpture). First known spear thrower or atlatl. Humans present in Mexico.[169][170][171]Oruanui eruption in New Zealand. Venus of Brassempouy (carving of face). Lapedo child with mixture of Neanderthal and sapiens features at Lagar Velho Portugal.

22 ka – 18 ka Ca. 20,000 – ca. 16,000 BCE

End of Gravettian culture, beginning of Solutrean. Ishango Bone, thought by some to be a tally stick which may show a prime number sequence. 1.9-km Tenoumer crater in Mauritania. Human footprints in New Mexico (White Sands National Park).[172] Apparent stone tools in use in Brazil (Toca da Tira Peia).[173][174] First clear evidence of building (homes),[175] remains of mud huts at Ohalo, by Sea of Galilee. Pottery sherds at Xianren Cave. Reported date of artefacts found on Cactus Hill in Virginia.[176]

18,000 years ago to 5,500 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 ka – 14 ka Ca. 16,000 – ca. 12,000 BCE

Disappearance of Solutrean. Beginning of Magdalenian culture. Clay figurines of animals.[177]Lascaux cave paintings and 7mm-diameter rope. Red Deer Cave people, a possible separate species of Homo in China. Stone tools at the Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas. Oldest known burial of dog with humans.[178][179] Evidence of massacre at Cemetery 117. Older Dryas cold spell. Most recent glaciation gradually ends. Sea level rises 30 metres in a few hundred years (Meltwater pulse 1A). Beginning of African humid period. Beginning of Natufian culture in Levant. Flatbread (in Jordan).[180][181]

14 ka – 11 ka Ca. 12,000 – ca. 9,000 BCE. End of Pleistocene epoch, beginning of Holocene.

Clovis culture in Americas. Tooth drilling and filling in Italy.[182][183] Outburst of water from Lake Agassiz or Younger Dryas impact event brings about the Younger Dryas cold spell. Presence of Australian aborigine-type people in Brazil (Serra da Capivara National Park).[184]Meltwater pulse 1B causes 7.5 metre rise in sea level. Extinction of many species of large animals. Natufian Shaman burial[185] and earliest known banquet.[186]Vela Supernova only 800 ly away. Island of Spartel flooded (possible site of Atlantis). Arrow-shaft straighteners used by Natufian culture in the Levant. Göbekli Tepe (temple-like site of megalithic monuments and art). Lime. Oldest known mummified body, the Spirit Cave mummy in Nevada. Neolithic Revolution (agriculture begins, domestication of animals). Earliest layers of Jericho – first known monumental building (stone tower 8 m high). Oldest naturalistic life-sized sculpture of a human, in Upper Mesopotamia. Domestication and agriculture allow humans to live in one place – civilization.

11 ka – 9 ka Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic. Beginning of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in Mideast, 9th millennium BCE, 8th millennium BCE

Copper pendant in Iraq. Toothpicks and birch-bark chewing gum. Sea rises about 20 m in 9th millennium BCE. Beginning of an inex series of solar eclipses every 29 years, unbroken till the present. Cannabis achenes at archeological site in the Oki Islands, probably indicating use by humans.[187][188]Bas relief of dancing at Nevalı Çori.[189] Possible lunar time reckoner at Warren Field in Aberdeenshire.[190]Dog sleds in use in Arctic.[191][192]Kennewick Man in State of Washington, whose skull was different from modern Native Americans. Oldest cloth yet found (Çayönü). Dentistry. Alcoholic beverage (in China).[193]Mead. Small stone circle at Atlit Yam, Palestine.

9 ka – 7 ka End of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Ubaid period. 7th millennium BCE, 6th millennium BCE

Trepanation. Lake Agassiz largely empties into the Hudson Bay. Finse event, a 300-year cold spell, starting around 6250 BC. Storegga tsunami. Doggerland flooded, cutting off Britain. Meltwater pulse 1C causes 6.5 metre rise in sea level. Mount Etna causes tsunami, possibly ending Atlit Yam settlement (Palestine). Possible evidence of beer making at Göbekli Tepe.[189]Smelted lead, pottery & finger rings at Çatal Höyük. Rock painting of collecting wild honey (Spain). Opium. Wine[194] and beer. Cheesemaking (Poland). Sea rises 15–20 m in 6th millennium BCE. Holocene thermal maximum brings temperatures slightly warmer than in recent past. Older Peron "transgression" (high sea level). Sahara region not a desert (Neolithic Subpluvial). Domestication of the horse. Pottery revolutionized by the potter's wheel. Earliest known smelting of copper (Serbia). Earliest ritual landscapes, mustatils in Arabia.

7 ka – 5.5 ka Chalcolithic. 5th millennium BCE, beginning of 4th millennium BCE

Oldest wrought gold known, in Varna necropolis. Earliest copper-tin bronze. Megaliths spread through Europe. Last mastodons. Arsenical bronze. Copper Age. Continuation of Holocene thermal maximum. Settlements with thousands of houses, in the Tripolye culture (Moldova and Ukraine). 5.9 kiloyear event. Sweet Track roadway. Silver mining. Invention of wheel. Large city of Hamoukar, destroyed in war, probably by Uruk in Sumer.

5,500 years ago to 1,800 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 ka – 4.5 ka End of 4th millennium BCE, beginning of 3rd millennium BCE. Beginning of Bronze Age.

Mound building begins in North America. Ötzi the Iceman. City of Liangzhu in China. Norte Chico civilization in Peru, first known civilization in Americas. Piora Oscillation – redesertification of the Sahara. Yamna culture, identified with the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes. Phonetic writing begins in Sumer (Cuneiform), Egypt, and Elam. Invention of toilet and sewerage systems (Indus civilization and Skara Brae). Soap-like substance produced in Babylon.[195]Early Dynastic Period in Mesopootamia. Wire. Bell Beaker culture in Europe. Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Indus civilization, Ur. Beginning of Old Kingdom of Egypt. Statues of known persons. Stonehenge. Camel domesticated in Bactria and Arabia. Great Sphinx of Giza (possibly).

4.5 ka – 3.5 ka End of 3rd millennium BCE, beginning of 2nd millennium BCE

Sargon of Akkad conquers Sumer, Mari, and Ebla. Courier services in Egypt. Maize cultivation in Mexico. Akkad sacked by the Gutians. 4.2 kiloyear event — a long drought that may have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the Akkadian Empire. Fall of Akkad. Gilgamesh epic Law code of Ur-Nammu. Possible time of the Great Flood of China and Yu the Great. Xia dynasty. Aegean Bronze Age ends. Argaric culture in Spain. Farming starts in KentuckyEastern Agricultural Complex [196]Bahr Yussef canal. Minoan Crete. Hammurabi. Avellino eruption of Vesuvius. Plimpton 322 tablet relating to Pythagorean triples. Calculation of the square root of 2 in Babylon.[197]Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, implying an approximation of pi (as 256/81 or  ). Last mammoths. Thera eruption. Hollow glassware.[198]Surgical and medical papyri in Egypt. Cannabis found in Turkmen shrine.[199]

3.5 ka – 2.8 ka ca. 1500 BCE – ca. 800 BCE. Beginning of Iron Age.

Akhenaten. Rigveda. Shang dynasty. Olmec civilization. Hittites. Oracle bone script in China. Trojan war, Late Bronze Age collapse. Hekla 3 eruption. Beginning of Zhou Dynasty. David and Solomon. Apiculture.

2.8 ka – 2.2 ka ca. 800 BCE – ca. 200 BCE

Zarathustra (Zoroaster), Homer, Hesiod. King Uzziah develops weapon like ballista or trebuchet. Fall of Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. First coins. Solon's reforms in Athens. Cyrus, Kǒng Fūzǐ (Confucius). High THC cannabis used in Xinjiang.[200]Buddha (date uncertain), Pythagoras. Rudimentary democracy in Athens. Greco-Persian Wars, Mo Tzu (Micius). Etruscan civilization, ancient Iberian civilitzation, Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle. Helike sinks beneath the waves. Alexander, Euclid. Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Indo-Greek Kingdom. Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Library of Alexandria. Ashoka. Punic Wars end with razing of Carthage. Qin Dynasty.

2.2 ka – 1.8 ka ca. 200 BCE – ca. 200 CE

Roman Warm Period. Han Dynasty. Mithridates the Great massacres around 100,000 Romans, sparking the Mithridatic Wars. Julius Caesar. Roman Empire, Yeshua (Jesus). Paul. First Jewish–Roman War and destruction of Jerusalem. Spread of Buddhism. Lions become extinct in Western Europe. AD 115 Antioch earthquake, Hadrian's Wall. Second Jewish–Roman War. Kanishka the Great and the Kushan Empire. Antonine Plague, Christianity, Gnosticism, Mithraism

1,800 years ago to 550 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 ka – 1.4 ka ca. 200 – ca. 600

Caracalla rules Roman empire. Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men. Han Dynasty ends with Three Kingdoms forming in China. Ardashir I of Sassanid dynasty conquers Parthian empire at Battle of Hormozdgan. Zhuge Liang dies of illness at Battle of Wuzhang Plains. Crisis of the Third Century in Roman Empire due to Emperor Severus Alexander being assassinated. Kingdom of Hatra dissolved after Fall of Hatra to Persia. Manichaeism Plague of Cyprian. Jin Dynasty. Diocletian. Constantine. Axumite Empire adopts Christianity, conquers Meroë and the Kingdom of Kush. 365 Crete earthquake. Roman Empire splits. Tiwanaku. Classic Maya civilization. Byzantine Empire, East frontier of Western Roman Empire collapses as waves of Suebi, Alans & Vandals cross the frozen Rhine & enter Gaul. Attila the Hun, Constantine III leads many Roman military units from Britain to Gaul & occupies Arles (Arelate). generally seen as Rome's withdrawal from Great Britain. Rome ransacked by Visigoths under King Alaric I. Suebi form first independent Christian kingdom of western Europe in Gallaecia. Augustine of Hippo begins to write The City of God. Jin dynasty ended by Liu Yu of Song. Northern and Southern dynasties in China. First Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical council upholds title Theotokos or "mother of God", for Mary. Battle of Nedao. Germanic tribes destroy the main Hunnic army and do away with Hunnic domination . Vandals sack Rome. Chichen Itza founded at Mexico. Saint Patrick, King Arthur (debatable). Teotihuacán. Dengizich, last Khan rules Hunnic Empire. Riothamus, King of Britons, helps the Romans against the Visigoths. Roman Empire falls due to deposition of Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer. Chan Buddhists found the Shaolin Monastery on Mount Song in Henan, China. Clovis I now King of Western Franks upon the death of Childeric I. King Clovis I defeats & subjugates the Kingdom of Thuringia at Germany. King Kaleb of Axum conquers Jewish Himyarite Kingdom for persecuting Christians. Nika riots. Climate changes of 535-536. Plague of Justinian. Beginning of Late Antique Little Ice Age.

1.4 ka – 1.1 ka ca. 600 – ca. 900

Tang dynasty. Sasanids temporarily conquer Egypt. Muhammad. Muslims capture Ctesiphon, largest city in world. Alexandria falls to the Muslims. Khazar khaganate. Beginning of Turkic expansion. Siege of Constantinople (717–718). Battle of Poitiers. Donation of Pepin. 774–775 carbon-14 spike.[201]Charlemagne. Al-Kindi. Vikings.

1100 y – 900 y ca. 900 – ca. 1120

Beowulf composed. Chinese invent gunpowder. Saeculum obscurum, or "Rule of the Harlots" period of the papacy. Bjarni Herjólfsson sights North America. Leifr Eiriksson goes there (Vinland). Medieval Warm Period. Song Dynasty. Ibn Sina. Reform of Pope Gregory VII. East-West Schism. Height of Kievan Rus' and Fatimid Caliphate, decline of Byzantine Empire. Norman Conquest. First Crusade.

900 y – 700 y ca. 1120 – ca. 1320

Crusades. Height of Khmer Empire. Bombard invented in China. Genghis Khan. Magna Carta. Francis of Assisi. Mount Rinjani on Lombok erupts, causing global cooling and failed harvests. Siege of Baghdad (1258) by the Mongols. Mamluks defeat Mongol army of Hulagu Khan (under Kitbuqa) in the Battle of Ain Jalut — first known use of hand cannon. Golden Horde. Thomas Aquinas. Cannon. Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo. Great Famine of 1315–1317 and beginning of the crisis of the Late Middle Ages.

700 y – 550 y ca. 1320 – ca. 1470

Beginning of Hundred Years' War. Black Death marks the beginning of the Second plague pandemic. Papal Schism of the Catholic Church. Chaucer. Beginning of Ming Dynasty. Hwacha multiple rocket launcher. Zheng He. Beginning of the Renaissance. Battle of Grunwald. Battle of Agincourt. Joan of Arc. 1452/1453 mystery eruption. Fall of Constantinople. Gutenberg. Beginning of Wars of the Roses.

550 years ago to 180 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
550 y – 450 y ca. 1470 – ca. 1570

French-Breton War. Columbus rediscovers the New World. Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (1492 to 1537). Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea. Columbian Exchange. Da Vinci, Michelangelo. Luther and the Reformation. Siege of Vienna. Beginning of the Franco-Ottoman alliance and Siege of Nice. Copernicus, Scientific Revolution. 1556 Shaanxi earthquake.

450 y – 350 y ca. 1570 – ca. 1670

Eighty Years' War. First of about 11 Russo-Turkish Wars (1568 to 1878). Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Battle of Lepanto. Spanish Armada. Microscope. Rise of the Moghul Empire. Russian Time of Troubles and Russian famine of 1601–1603, probably connected to eruption of Huaynaputina. Beginning of Little Ice Age (ca. 1550 to 1850). Beginning of Northern Wars (1554 to 1721). St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and the French Wars of Religion, ending with the Edict of Nantes. William Shakespeare. King James Bible. Thirty Years' War. Galileo. English Civil War. Descartes. Fermat. Pascal. First of four Anglo-Dutch Wars from 1652 to 1784. Louis XIV. Great Plague of London. Great Fire of London. Isaac Newton.

350 y – 280 y ca. 1670 – ca. 1740

Franco-Dutch War. Battle of Vienna and Great Turkish War. Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes and begins persecuting Protestants. Glorious Revolution of 1688. Nine Years' War. Seven ill years in Scotland, failure of the Darién scheme. War of the Spanish Succession. Great Northern War. Kingdoms of England and Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Battle of Poltava in Ukraine – beginning of decline of Swedish power. South Sea Bubble. Defoe, Swift, Bach,

280 y – 220 y ca. 1740 – ca. 1800

A spell of very cold weather in Europe causes the Irish Famine (1740–1741). Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment. Lisbon destroyed by earthquake, tsunami, and fire. Seven Years' War. Rousseau. American Revolution. Watt engine. Dismantlement of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Eruption of Laki. Mozart. French Revolution, Haitian Revolution. Quasi-War between US and France.

220 y – 180 y ca. 1800 – ca. 1840

Barbary Wars between US and Barbary states. First locomotive. Ludwig van Beethoven. Napoleon I of France. New Madrid earthquakes. War of 1812. Eruption of Mount Tambora. Battle of Waterloo. Simón Bolívar. Year Without a Summer. Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). Wars between the British Empire and the Asante Empire. Photography, electric motor. Babbage. Telegraph.

180 years ago to 55 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
180 y – 140 y ca. 1840 – ca. 1880

First Opium War. Spread of anaesthesia use (ether). Mexican–American War. Revolutions of 1848. Crimean War. Taiping Civil War kills at least 20 million. John Snow. Beginning of Third Plague Pandemic. Second Opium War. Darwin. Solar storm of 1859. American Civil War. President Lincoln assassinated. Paraguayan War. Austro-Prussian War. Famine of 1866–68 in Finland and Sweden. Joseph Lister. Marx. Franco-Prussian War. Great Famine of 1876–78 in India and China.[202]Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). Long Depression. Alexander Graham Bell, Telephone.

140 y – 110 y ca. 1880 – ca. 1910

Pasteur. War of the Pacific. First Boer War. Invention of automobile. Krakatoa. 1887 Yellow River flood. Mark Twain. Henry George. Spanish–American War. Boxer Rebellion. Second Boer War. Philippine–American War. Wright brothers. Russo-Japanese War. Herero atrocities by the Germans in German South West Africa. Einstein's papers on special relativity and quantization of light (photons). 1906 San Francisco earthquake. US Panic of 1907. Tunguska event. First Model T.

110 y – 90 y ca. 1910 – ca. 1930

Freud, Cubism, Republic of China, RMS Titanic. Novarupta volcano, biggest eruption of the 20th century. World War I. General relativity, Russian Revolution. Poland wins the Polish–Ukrainian War and the Polish–Soviet War. Irish War of Independence. Russian famine of 1921. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). 1921 Tulsa race massacre. 1923 Tokyo earthquake, fires, and massacre of Koreans. Chinese famine of 1928–30 kills millions. Crash of 1929.

90 y – 70 y ca. 1930 – ca. 1950

Stalin. 1931 Yellow River flood. Soviet famine of 1932–1933 kills ca. 8 million. Great Depression. Hitler. Franklin Roosevelt, New Deal. Sulfa drugs. Gödel. Gandhi. Second Sino-Japanese War, Spanish Civil War. 1938 Yellow River flood. LSD discovered. Winter War. World War II. Ballistic missiles, radar, jet aircraft. Penicillin. Chinese famine of 1942–43. Bengal famine of 1943. Nuclear weapons, Bretton Woods system. United Nations. Cold War begins. Soviet famine of 1946–47. Creation of Pakistan and Republic of India. ENIAC, Formation of Israel and 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

70 y – 55 y ca. 1950 – 1967

NATO, Mao Zedong. Korean War. Structure of DNA found. McCarthyism, Elvis Presley. Suez War. Beginning of Vietnam War. Sputnik. ARPA. Ca. 20–30 million die in Great Chinese Famine. Cuban Revolution., invention of laser. Great Chilean Earthquake, most powerful recorded earthquake. Berlin Wall. Cuban Missile Crisis, The Beatles. American Civil Rights Movement. Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966. Decolonisation, Space Race. Six-Day War.

55 years ago to 18 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
55 y – 45 y 1967–1977

Cultural Revolution (1966–76). 2001 (film). Vietnam War, Counterculture. Sino-Soviet border conflict. First moon landing. Woodstock. Unix. Bhola cyclone kills 500,000. Bangladesh Liberation War. 1972 massacre of Burundian Hutus. Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon resigns. Banqiao Dam and 61 other dams break in China. 1977 Angolan coup d'état attempt and subsequent killings. Khmer Rouge. Tangshan earthquake. Downfall of Gang of Four.

45 y – 35 y 1977–1987

Microcomputers, Jimmy Carter, Three Mile Island, Margaret Thatcher comes to power, Usenet. 1979 South Korean coup d'état, Gwangju Uprising. Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Pac-Man. CNN. MTV. AIDS discovered. First IBM PC. Beginning of presidency of Ronald Reagan. Falklands War. Black July pogrom against Tamils in Sri Lanka. 1.2 million die in 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia. Macintosh. Bhopal disaster. Soviet–Afghan War. Discovery of ozone hole. Challenger disaster. Chernobyl. First 80386. Iran–Contra affair.

35 y – 28 y 1987–1994

BSE, perestroika, Black Monday, 1988 Burmese uprising. End of Iran–Iraq War, George H. W. Bush presidency. March 1989 geomagnetic storm cuts power in Quebec. Tiananmen protests. Communists lose power in Poland, fall of Berlin Wall. US invades Panama. Launch of Hubble Space Telescope. First Gulf War. AOL. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, End of USSR. Black Wednesday attack on British pound. Halloween massacre (Angola). Beginning of Clinton presidency. First Pentium.

28 y – 22 y 1994–2000

Bosnian War. End of apartheid. 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. Rwandan Massacre. Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Rising use of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Start of World Trade Organization. Kobe earthquake. Windows 95, Java programming language. Rwanda invades ZaireFirst Congo War. Tony Blair becomes PM of the UK. North Korean famine. Asian financial crisis. Eritrean–Ethiopian War. Good Friday Agreement. Discovery of the acceleration of the universe. Beginning of Second Congo War. Kosovo War. 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. Beginning of Second Chechen War. Vladimir Putin president of Russia. end of Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Y2K scare.

22 y – 18 y 2000–2004

Human genome sequenced. Start of al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada). George W. Bush becomes president of US, Introduction of Wikipedia, 2001 Gujarat earthquake, Mac OS X, September 11 attacks, US invasion of Afghanistan, Windows XP. Columbia disaster. Darfur conflict begins. 2003 Iraq War, European heat wave of 2003. Bam earthquake. Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars.

18 years ago to presentEdit

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
18 y – 14 y 2004–2008

Yassir Arafat dies. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Assassination of Rafic Hariri and Cedar Revolution. John Paul II dies. Gaza pullout by Israel, Great Flood of New Orleans (Hurricane Katrina), Kashmir earthquake. 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 2006 North Korean nuclear test. Nicolas Sarkozy becomes president of France. Battle of Gaza (2007). iPhone. Gordon Brown becomes PM of UK. World population becomes more than 50% urban. Cyclone Sidr,

14 y – 11 y 2008–2011

Cyclone Nargis. 2008 Sichuan earthquake. 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Financial crisis of 2007–2008. 2008 Mumbai attacks. Android (operating system). 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict. Barack Obama president of US. Introduction of Bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Northwest Passage opens for first time in recorded history. 2009 swine flu pandemic. 2010 Haiti earthquake. 2010 Chile earthquake. iPad. 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. 2010 United Kingdom general election brings David Cameron to power. 2010 Gaza flotilla clash. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. 2010 Pakistan floods. WikiLeaks publishes US diplomatic cables. 2010–11 Queensland floods.

11 y – 9 y 2011–2013

2010–2011 Tunisian revolution. Egyptian Revolution of 2011. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Fukushima nuclear accident. Beginning of Syrian Civil War. Killing of Osama bin Laden. Last Space Shuttle flight. 2011 North American heat wave, 2011 Norway attacks. United States debt-ceiling crisis. 2011 England riots. 2011 Libyan civil war ends rule of Mu`ammar al-Qaddhafi, 2011 Thailand floods. Largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.[203]François Hollande becomes president of France. Discovery of the Higgs boson. Curiosity rover lands on Mars. Hurricane Sandy. November 2012 Gaza conflict. Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. France intervenes in the Northern Mali conflict.

9 y – 7 y 2013–2015

Chelyabinsk meteor. Hugo Chavez dies. Benedict XVI resigns, Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis. Cyprus bailout. 2013 Korean crisis. 2013 protests in Turkey. 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. 2013 NSA surveillance scandal. Ghouta chemical attack. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), one of most powerful on record. Central African Republic conflict (2013–2014), beginning of South Sudanese Civil War. Early 2014 North American cold wave. Belgium legalises euthanasia. 2014 Ukrainian revolution and Russian annexation of Crimea. Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant launches 2014 Northern Iraq offensive and announces caliphate. 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. West African Ebola virus epidemic, Rosetta mission arrives at Comet 67P. 2014 Peshawar school massacre. United States–Cuban thaw.

7 y – 0 y 2015–2022

January 2015 Paris attacks. Assassination of Boris Nemtsov. Dawn spacecraft arrives at Ceres. 2015 military intervention in Yemen, Garissa University College attack. April 2015 Nepal earthquake, FIFA crisis. 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. US Supreme Court allows same-sex marriage. Greek bailout referendum, Iran nuclear deal, Turkey-PKK conflict restarts, New Horizons flies by Pluto, Beginning of European refugee crisis. Windows 10. Volkswagen emissions scandal. Mecca crane collapse and Mina stampede. Evidence of saltwater flows found on Mars. Russian intervention in Syria. Knife Intifada. Metrojet Flight 9268 brought down near Sharm el-Sheikh. November 2015 Paris attacks. Mauricio Macri President in Argentina, opposition wins 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election. 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany.

Saudi Arabia executes Nimr al-Nimr. January 2016 North Korean nuclear test and satellite launch. LIGO announces discovery of gravitational waves. Zika fever outbreak, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter launched. 2016 Brussels bombings. Panama Papers. 2016 Ecuador earthquake. 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire. Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff. Britain votes to leave the EU. Panama Canal widened. Atatürk Airport attack. July 2016 Baghdad bombings. 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers. 2016 Nice truck attack. Turkish coup d'état attempt. July 2016 Kabul bombing. 2016 Louisiana floods. 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquakes. Hurricane Matthew. Colombian peace agreement referendum. Paris climate agreement becomes law. Donald Trump elected. Fidel Castro dies. 2016 Italian constitutional referendum. Impeachment of Park Geun-hye. Berlin Christmas market truck attack. Syrian Army and Russia win the battle over Ḥalab (Aleppo).

WikiLeaks publishes Vault 7. 2017 Shayrat missile strike. 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum. WannaCry ransomware attack. Emmanuel Macron president of France. Manchester Arena bombing. May 2017 Kabul attack. United States withdrawal from the Paris Agreement 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis. 2017 United Kingdom general election. North Korea tests ICBMs. Mawsil recaptured from IS. Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville. 2017 Barcelona attacks. Hurricanes Harvey and Irma hit the Caribbean and the US. Northern Rakhine State clashes. 2017 South Asian floods. Cassini–Huygens plunges into Saturn. 2017 Central Mexico earthquake. Hurricane Maria devastates Dominica and Puerto Rico. 2017 Las Vegas shooting. 2017 Catalan independence referendum. October 2017 Northern California wildfires. October 2017 Mogadishu bombings. Iraqi government forces take Kirkuk Lebanese PM Sa`ad Hariri resigns in Saudi Arabia. Robert Mugabe resigns. U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as Israeli capital. Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo. December 2017 California wildfires.

2018 Southern California mudflows. Hawaii missile panic. Turkish invasion of Afrin. 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea. Jacob Zuma resigns. Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal. 2018 Venezuelan presidential election widely condemned. Kim Jong-un meets Moon Jae-in. 2018 Kilauea eruption. US withdraws from Iran deal. 2018 Italian election brings to power a coalition of the Five Star Movement and the Lega Nord. Socialist Pedro Sánchez becomes PM of Spain. Peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Kim meets Donald Trump. Trump tariffs. 2018 Mexican general election brings López Obrador to presidency. France wins 2018 World Cup. Venezuelan refugee crisis. Hurricane Florence. 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami. Brett Kavanaugh confirmed as US Supreme Court justice. Murder of Jamal Khashoggi. Hurricane Michael. Hurricane Leslie hits Iberia. 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism. Bolsonaro elected president of Brazil. Fire destroys Paradise, California. Gilets jaunes riots in Paris. 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami (Anak Krakatau). Longest US government shutdown.

Chang'e 4 lands on far side of the moon. Félix Tshisekedi controversially declared president of the DRC. Protests in Sudan and Zimbabwe. Juan Guaidó recognized by many countries as interim president of Venezuela. Cyclone Idai, possibly the worst weather-related natural disaster in history in the southern hemisphere. Christchurch mosque shootings. Boeing 737 MAX groundings. Beginning of 2019–20 Hong Kong protests. Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigns. 2019 Western Libya offensive Omar al-Bashir removed from power. Notre-Dame de Paris fire. Redacted Mueller Report released. 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings. Escalating tension between US and Iran. Beginning of 2019–20 locust infestation around horn of Africa. Boris Johnson becomes prime minister of UK. 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires. Hurricane Dorian devastates areas of the Bahamas. 2019 Papua protests. Attacks on two Saudi oil facilities. 2019 Egyptian protests. 2019 Indonesian protests and riots. Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump opens. September 2019 climate strikes. Riots in Iraq 2019 Ecuadorian protests 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria. Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall in Japan, the biggest storm to hit the region in decades. 2019 Catalan protests. 2019–20 Lebanese protests and 2019 Chilean protests. Death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Alberto Fernández wins presidential election in Argentina. 2019 California wildfires. 2019 Bolivian protests and resignation of Evo Morales. Protests in the Czech Republic. Beginning of 2019–2020 Iranian protests. 2019 Georgian protests. Chaos in Haiti. 2019 Maltese protests. 2019 United Kingdom general election won by Tories. Protests in India over citizenship act. In general, protests of 2019. Congress votes for the impeachment of Donald Trump.

2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis, killing of Qasem Soleimani, downing of UIA 752 near Tehran. COVID-19 pandemic. Police arrest 15 pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong. Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan, costliest cyclone in Indian Ocean. China proposes amending the Hong Kong Basic Law. George Floyd protests. Hong Kong national security law imposed. 2020 deployment of federal forces in the United States. 2020 Beirut explosions. 2020–21 Belarusian protests. Israel-United Arab Emirates accord. 2020 Thai protests. 2020 Malian coup. Poisoning of Alexei Navalny. 2020 Western United States wildfire season worst in many years. Hurricane Laura. Hurricane Sally. Signing of the "Abraham Accords". 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. "End SARS" protests in Nigeria. 2020 Aegean Sea earthquake. Super Typhoon Goni hits Catanduanes Island in the Philippines with wind speeds up to 315 km/hr, a record for a landfalling tropical cyclone. Joe Biden wins 2020 United States presidential election. Start of Tigray War in Ethiopia. Hurricane Iota ends the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season with a record 28 storms. Assassination of Mohsen Fakhrizadeh. Kent variant of the COVID-19 virus. EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement.

2021 storming of the United States Capitol. Inauguration of Joe Biden. Alexei Navalny releases video about Putin's Palace, returns to Russia and is imprisoned. 2021 Myanmar coup d'état and 2021 Myanmar protests. Mario Draghi becomes PM of Italy. Perseverance lands on Mars. 2021 Bata explosions in Equatorial Guinea. Number of displaced persons from Islamist insurgency in Mozambique exceeds half a million.[204]2021 Suez Canal blockage. Ingenuity is deployed from Perseverance. 2021 eruption of La Soufrière on Saint Vincent (Antilles). Natanz uranium enrichment facility sabotaged. Russian troops deploy around Ukraine. Chadian president Idriss Déby killed. Derek Chauvin convicted for the murder of George Floyd. 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis. Ryanair forced landing in Belarus. 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption. Naftali Bennett replaces Binyamin Netanyahu as PM of Israel. Ebrahim Raisi wins 2021 Iranian presidential election. Surfside condominium building collapse. Tigray Defense Forces retake Mekelle. 2021 Western North America heat wave sets records. U.S. abandons Bagram Air Base and Taliban take over much of Afghanistan. Increasing ransomware attacks. Spate of kidnapping in Nigeria. Assassination of Jovenel Moïse, president of Haiti. Delta variant of the coronavirus spreads worldwide. 2021 Cuban protests. 2021 South African unrest 2021 European floods. China blamed for the 2021 Microsoft Exchange Server data breach. 2021 Henan floods. 2021 Tunisian political crisis. Pedro Castillo becomes President of Peru. 2021 Haiti earthquake. Fall of Kabul (2021). Hurricane Ida, flooding in New York. 2021 Sudanese coup d'état. COP26 climate conference. 2021 Belarus–European Union border crisis. November 2021 riots in the Netherlands. Omicron variant. Olaf Scholz becomes chancellor of Germany. Largest tornado outbreak on record in December. Typhoon Rai. Launch of James Webb Space Telescope.

2022 Kazakh protests. 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai eruption and tsunami. Canada convoy protests. 2022 Burkina Faso coup d'état. 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Gabriel Boric becomes president of Chile. 2022 monkeypox outbreak. Bongbong Marcos is elected president of the Philippines. 2022 Buffalo shooting. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is elected president of Somalia. Anthony Albanese elected prime minister of Australia. Robb Elementary School shooting. Tulsa hospital shooting. June 2022 Afghanistan earthquake. Yair Lapid replaces Naftali Bennett as prime minister of Israel. 2022 Karakalpak protests. 2022 Highland Park parade shooting.


A logarithmic timeline can also be devised for events which should occur in the future, barring unforeseen circumstances and assuming that we can extrapolate into the future based on our science.

Time interval Event
1 – 10 years

Scheduled launch of the KPLO. 2022 Kenyan general election. Planned launch of Artemis 1, and OMOTENASHI. 2022 Swedish general election. Planned launch of Janus. Planned launch of the Next Mars Orbiter. Planned launch of Luna 25. 2022 Brazilian general election. Planned launch of the Emirates Lunar Mission. 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar. Planned launch of Nova-C. Planned launches of SLIM, Nano-JASMINE, and XRISM. 2022 Chuukese independence referendum.

Uzbekistan fully adopts the Latin alphabet. Croatia expected to adopt the euro. Planned launch of the ISRO's Aditya-L1. 2023 Nigerian general election. Planned maiden voyage of the Dream Chaser. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory sees first light. Planned launch of Boeing Starliner-1. Scheduled launch of JUICE. Scheduled launch of Psyche. 2023 Turkish general election. 2023 Guatemalan general election. 2023 Sudanese general election. Planned launch of the ESA's BIOMASS satellite. Planned launch of EarthCARE. Next Pakistani general election, if not sooner. 2023 Polish parliamentary election, if not sooner. Next Spanish general election, if not sooner. Next Bangladeshi general election, if not sooner. Expected establishment of the East African Confederation. Planned launches of Chandrayaan-3, Euclid, and Türksat 6A. #dearMoon project proposal.

Bulgaria expected to adopt the euro. 2024 Finnish presidential election. 2024 Indonesian general election. 2024 Russian presidential election. Next Indian general election, if not sooner. Planned launch of NASA's Artemis 2. Proposed launch of the CNSA's Interstellar Express. Planned launch of NASA's SPHEREx probe. 2024 Mexican presidential election. 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris. Planned launch of the MMX space probe. Planned launch of the Europa Clipper. 2024 Uruguayan general election. 2024 United States presidential election. Planned launch of the SMILE spacecraft. Planned launches of Chang'e 6, Chang'e 7, Luna 26, and ZhengHe. Proposed launch of FIRE.

Planned launch of the IMAP. Planned launches of the Solar Cruiser, SWFO-L1, and the Lunar Trailblazer. Expo 2025 in Osaka, Japan. 2025 Polish presidential election. Planned launch of Luna 27. Planned launch of Spektr-UV. Proposed launch of the Trident spacecraft, assuming no delays. Next Israeli legislative election, if not sooner. Planned launches of Artemis 3, ALTIUS, FLEX, and LUPEX. Proposed launches of ISOCHRON and the Moon Diver. ITER expected to be completed. Kazakhstan gradually transitions to the Latin alphabet.

2026 Winter Olympics in Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. 2026 FIFA World Cup in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. 250th anniversary of the United States Declaration of Independence. Proposed launch of the MUSE mission, assuming no delays. Planned launches of FORUM, NEO Surveyor, and PLATO. Proposed launches of Icebreaker Life and Laplace-P.

Scheduled launch of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, if not sooner. Planned launch of NASA's Dragonfly. Asteroid (137108) 1999 AN10 passes within 388,960 km (0.0026 AU) of Earth. Planned launches of NASA's Artemis 4 and Artemis 5 and Roscosmos' Luna 28. Anticipated release of the autopsy report for Elvis Presley and the FBI archived records of Martin Luther King Jr. USS Enterprise (CVN-80) to be commissioned. Expected first light of the Thirty Meter Telescope and the Extremely Large Telescope. Independence of Bougainville.

2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Asteroid (35396) 1997 XF11 passes 930,000 km (0.0062 AU) from the Earth. Romania expected to adopt the euro. Scheduled establishment of the African Monetary Union. Planned launches of ARIEL, LiteBIRD, Rosalind Franklin, and VERITAS.

Proposed launch of the Io Volcano Observer. Proposed launch of Gan De. Planned launch of Venera-D. The digital time capsule "A Message from Earth" reaches Gliese 581 c. Planned launch of the Comet Interceptor. Expected first light of the Giant Magellan Telescope. Planned launch of NASA's DAVINCI.

Expected completion of Masdar City. Planned launch of Spektr-M. Suggested launch of OCEANUS.

Planned deorbit of the International Space Station.

10 – 100 years

Global warming.

2032 Summer Olympics in Brisbane, Australia. Proposed launch of the THESEUS space telescope. Proposed launch of Neptune Odyssey. Planned launch of the Athena telescope. Proposed launch of the ODINUS mission. Near-Earth object 2002 AY1 makes a close approach to Earth. ITER expected to achieve full fusion. Expected completion of the International Lunar Research Station. Proposed launch of Interstellar, assuming no delays. Planned launch of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Year 2038 problem. Proposed launch of Zephyr. The Antarctic treaty is scheduled to come under review.

A Nickelodeon time capsule, sealed in April 1992, is expected to be opened. The "one country, two systems" agreements for Hong Kong and Macau expire. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is scheduled to come up for review. Scheduled completion of the Belt and Road Initiative. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program is expected to be completed. The B-52 Bomber is set to be retired from service.

Cosmic Call 1 reaches 15 Sagittae. The Teen Age Message reaches HD 76151, 37 Geminorum, HD 126053, and HD 193664. Halley's comet is expected to be visible for the first time since the perihelion was last reached in 1986. The Singapore-Malaysia Water Agreement expires.

Venus occults Jupiter. Mercury occults Neptune One of four time capsules at the Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument is scheduled to be opened.

On January 1, 2073, assuming no further extensions to the term of copyrights, all media published before 1978 is set to fall into the public domain in the United States; works published after 1977 will generally fall into the public domain after 70 years post mortem auctoris. For computer software using unsigned 16-bit binary day counts and an epoch of 1 January 1900, the counts will overflow after 65,536 (216) days.

Insect Magicicada broods X (17-year) and XIX (13-year) will emerge simultaneously for the first time since 1868. The 9/11 Victims Compensation Fund is set to expire.

Mercury transits Jupiter. The difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar reaches 14 days.

The jacket Jackie Kennedy wore on the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated cannot be displayed in public until 2103. Year 2106 problem.

Scheduled release of 100 Years. The first book from the Future Library project is planned to be published.

100 – 1,000 years

All Bitcoins are expected to be mined. The asteroid 101955 Bennu has a 1-in-2,700 chance of impacting Earth. Pluto will be closer to the Sun than Neptune. Year 6000 on the Hebrew calendar. Return of the Great Comet of 1861. The 639-year-long performance of As Slow as Possible (begun in 2001) is scheduled to finish. 1950 DA has a 1 in 8,300 (0.012%) chance of colliding with the Earth. The last time capsule out of four at the Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument is scheduled to be opened. The Longplayer composition is set to finish. Consumption of fossil fuels much lower than at present.

1,000 – 10 ka

Completion of the Time Pyramid in Wemding, Germany. Gamma Cephei replaces Polaris as the North Star. The Westinghouse Time Capsules from the years 1939 and 1964 are scheduled to be opened. The last Expo '70 Time Capsule from the year 1970, buried under a monument near Osaka Castle, Japan is scheduled to be opened. Opening of the Crypt of Civilization. Summer and winter constellations switch, north celestial pole moves far from present North Star.

10 – 100 ka

Antares likely goes supernova. Vega becomes the northern pole star. Earth's axial tilt reverses, causing summer and winter to occur on opposite sides of Earth's orbit. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone returns to normal levels of radiation. The Arecibo message reaches its destination. Ross 248 passes within 3.024 light-years of Earth, becoming the closest star to the Sun. Expected descent of the KEO time capsule, assuming it is launched. The length of the day increases by one SI second. Presently used Computus will give Paschal Full Moon at new moon. Alpha Centauri passes the sun and continues toward Lynx. Present constellations become unrecognizable. The Hebrew calendar is out of sync with the seasons.

100 ka – 1 Ma

The Gregorian Calendar is out of sync with the seasons. Lōʻihi becomes a new volcanic island. WR 104 likely explodes, if not sooner. Badlands National Park erodes completely. Several supervolcanoes erupt. The Strait of Gibraltar closes. The Mediterranean Sea dries up.

1 – 10 Ma

Technetium-99 produced today ceases to be a danger. Betelgeuse goes supernova, if not sooner. Meteor Crater wears away. Gliese 710 passes through the Oort Cloud. A day on Earth is one minute longer than it is today. Several kilometre-size asteroids or comets are on a collision course with Earth. The Afar Depression and the East African Rift become a new sea, splitting Africa.

10 – 100 Ma

Phobos collides with Mars, if not sooner. The Mediterranean Basin closes. The island of Hawaii submerges. Iodine-129 and Neptunium-237 in nuclear waste decay away.

100 Ma – 1 gigaannum

A day on Earth is one hour longer than it is today. Different continents from today due to splitting and coalescence. Possible new supercontinent.[205] The Sun completes several orbits around the Milky Way.

1 – 10 Ga

The atmosphere becomes a "moist greenhouse", resulting in a runaway evaporation of the oceans, causing plate tectonics to stop completely, if not already stopped sooner. Eukaryotic life dies out on Earth due to carbon dioxide starvation. The Moon is moved too far away from Earth to stabilize its axial tilt. The Earth's oceans evaporate. All unicellular life goes extinct. Triton falls through Neptune's Roche limit. Andromeda–Milky Way collision. The Sun exhausts its hydrogen supply and becomes a red giant. The Sun achieves its maximum radius 256 times its present-day value.

10 – 100 Ga

The Sun becomes a white dwarf. Presently existing uranium and rhenium-187 decay away.

100 Ga – 1 teraannum

The white dwarf Sun fades away. The Local Group coalesces. Presently existing thorium decays away.

1 – 10 Ta

Galaxies outside Local Supercluster no longer visible (if dark energy prevails). Proxima Centauri ceases to be a main-sequence star.

10 – 100 Ta

Star formation ends. The Degenerate Era starts.

100 Ta – 1 petaannum

Nuclear fusion ceases (if not sooner). The Sun becomes a black dwarf.

1 – 10 Pa Planets fall or are flung away from their stars.
10 – 100 Pa
100 Pa – 1 exaannum

Vanadium-50 decays.

1 – 10 Ea

Tungsten-180, Europium-151, Molybdenum-100, Neodymium-150, and Tellurium-130 decay.

10 – 100 Ea

Zirconium-96, Bismuth (209), Calcium-48, and Cadmium-116 decay.

100 Ea – 1 zettaannum

Selenium-82 decays.

1 – 10 Za

Barium-130, Germanium-78, Xenon-136, and Krypton-78 decay.

10 – 100 Za

Xenon-124 decays.

100 Za – 1 yottaannum
1 – 10 Ya

Tellurium-128 decays.

10 – 100 Ya

See alsoEdit


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External linksEdit

  • Interview with Heinz von Foerster
  • Detailed logarithmic timeline of the Universe