Detransition

Summary

Detransition is the cessation or reversal of a transgender identification or gender transition, whether by social, legal, or medical means. Some individuals detransition on a temporary basis.

Estimates of the rate at which detransitioning occurs vary. Reasons for detransitioning also vary, and may include health-related concerns, finding that transition did not alleviate gender dysphoria, an unaffirming social environment, financial concerns, the realization that the individual's gender dysphoria was a manifestation of another condition, or political, religious, or philosophical disagreements with the transgender movement.

Academic research into detransition is underdeveloped. Professional interest in the phenomenon has been met with contention, and some scholars have argued there is censorship around the topic.[1] In politics and popular culture, detransitioning is a contentious topic. Some who detransition report feeling a loss of support by their LGBT friends and family.[2] Various sides in the debate over detransitioning have reported harassment from other individuals.[3]

Background and terminologyEdit

Transition is the process of a transgender person changing their gender presentation and/or sex characteristics to accord with their internal sense of gender identity.[4] Transition commonly involves social changes (such as clothing, personal name, and pronouns), legal changes (such as legal name and legal gender), and medical/physical changes (such as hormone replacement therapy and sex reassignment surgery).

Detransition (sometimes called retransition) is the process of halting or reverting a transgender identification or gender transition.[5] Like transition, detransition is not a single event. Methods of detransitioning can vary greatly among individuals, and can involve changes to one's gender expression, social identity, legal identity documents, and/or anatomy.[6] Desistance is a general term for any cessation,[7] and it is commonly applied specifically to the cessation of transgender identity or gender dysphoria.[8] Those who undertake detransition are known as detransitioners.[9] Detransition is commonly associated with transition regret, but regret and detransition do not always coincide.[10]

The term detransition is controversial within the transgender community. According to Turban et al., this is because, as with the word transition, it carries an "incorrect implication that gender identity is contingent upon gender affirmation processes". The term has also been conflated with transition regret, and thereby become associated with a politically motivated push to restrict the access of transgender people to transition-related healthcare.[11]

OccurrenceEdit

Formal studies of detransition have been few in number,[12] of disputed quality,[13] and politically controversial.[14] Frequency estimates for detransition and desistance vary greatly, with notable differences in terminology and methodology.[15][16] Detransition is more common in the earlier stages of transition, particularly before surgeries.[17] The number of detransitioners is unknown, with estimates ranging from less than 1% to as many as 8%.[15][18]

Studies have reported higher rates of desistance among prepubertal children. A 2016 review of 10 prospective follow-up studies from childhood to adolescence found desistance rates ranging from 61% to 98%, with evidence suggesting that they might be less than 85% more generally.[19][20] These studies have been criticized on the grounds that they count as 'desistance' cases where the child met the criteria for gender identity disorder as defined in the DSM-III or DSM-IV, but would likely not have met the updated criteria for gender dysphoria in the DSM-5, established in 2013.[21] Prior to the DSM-III in 1980, there was no diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria, so research on desistance rates published prior to 2000 might report inflated numbers of desistance, as gender-nonconforming children without gender dysphoria were included in studies.[22] Additionally, the evidence offered has been criticized for citing studies which have been labelled conversion therapy for discouraging social transition and trying to prevent a transgender outcome. The diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria used in the studies only required gender-nonconformity, and did not require a child to state a transgender identity or a desire for medical or social transition.[23][24][25] Most childhood desisters go on to identify as cisgender and gay or lesbian.[22]

A 2019 poster presentation examined the records of 3398 patients who attended a UK gender identity clinic between August 2016 and August 2017. Davies and colleagues searched for assessment reports with keywords related to regret or detransition. They identified 16 individuals (0.47%) who expressed regret or had detransitioned. Of those 16, 3 (0.09%) had detransitioned permanently.[26] 10 (0.29%) had detransitioned temporarily, to later retransition.[26] A 2019 clinical assessment found that 9.4% of patients with adolescent-emerging gender dysphoria either ceased wishing to pursue medical interventions or no longer felt that their gender identity was incongruent with their assigned sex at birth within an eighteen-month period.[27] A 2021 study examining the case notes of 175 adults discharged from a UK gender identity clinic between September 2017 and August 2018 found that 12 (6.9%) met the researchers' criteria for detransitioning—that is, they returned to living as their assigned gender. Six individuals were found to have experiences that "overlap" with detransitioners, but were not counted as such for this study due to displaying "gender identity confusion" during treatment.[28]

Those who undergo sex reassignment surgery have very low rates of detransition or regret. A 2005 Dutch study included 162 adults who received sex reassignment surgery, 126 of whom participated in follow-up assessments one to four years after surgery. Two individuals expressed regret at follow-up, only one of whom said that they would not transition again if given the opportunity. 98.4% expressed no regrets about transitioning.[29] A 2021 meta-analysis of 27 studies concluded that "there is an extremely low prevalence of regret in transgender patients after [gender-affirmation surgery]".[30]

Studies of regret or detransition in different populations have found different (average or median) elapsed times before these occurred: a 2018 study found 10 years and 10 months on average to regret (but not necessarily detransition) from start of hormonal therapy,[31] and a 2014 study of those who had surgery found a median lag of 8 years before requesting a reversal of legal gender status.[15] A 2021 UK study found evidence that supports detransitioning occurring on average 4–8 years after transitioning.[28]

Informed consent and affirmation of self-diagnosis (both newer but increasingly employed models for transgender healthcare) have been criticized for failing to meet the needs of those who eventually detransition.[32]

Criticisms have been made regarding the "persistence-desistance" dichotomy as ignoring reasons why a person's gender identity may desist outside of simply being cisgender in the first place. For example, an assertion of a cisgender identity may be treated with validity and as an invalidation of a previously stated transgender identity; however, an assertion of a transgender identity may only be treated with the same validity if it is held throughout one's life. An individual may repress or realize their identity at any point in their life for a variety of reasons; some individuals' gender identities are fluid and/or may change throughout their lifetime, and some individuals whose identities are non-binary are effectively excluded due to a study's assumption of a gender binary.[21][25]

ReasonsEdit

The 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey collected responses from individuals who identified as transgender at the time of the survey. 8% of respondents reported having ever detransitioned; 62% of that group were living as a gender other than the one assigned to them at birth at the time of the survey.[33] About 36% reported having detransitioned due to pressure from parent, 33% because it was too difficult, 31% due to discrimination, 29% due to difficulty getting a job, 26% pressure from family members, 18% pressure from a spouse, and 17% due to pressure from an employer.[34]

In a 2021 study of 237 detransitioners, recruited via online detransitioner communities and who no longer identify as transgender, the most prevalent reasons to detransition were the realization that gender dysphoria was related to other issues (70%), health concerns (for 62%), and that transitioning didn’t help their gender dysphoria (50%).[35] In a 2021 study of 2,242 individuals recruited via community outreach organizations who detransitioned and who continue to identify as transgender or gender diverse, the vast majority said detransition was in part due to external factors, such as pressure from family, sexual assault, and nonaffirming school environments; another highly cited factor was "it was just too hard for me."[36] Motives for detransitioning commonly include financial barriers to transition, social rejection in transition, depression or suicidality due to transition, and discomfort with sexual characteristics developed during transition. Additional motives include concern for lack of data on long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy, concern for loss of fertility, complications from surgery, and changes in gender identity.[37] Some people detransition on a temporary basis, in order to accomplish a particular aim, such as having biologically related children, or until barriers to transition have been resolved or removed.[38] Transgender elders may also detransition out of concern for whether they can receive adequate or respectful care in later life.[39] A qualitative study comparing child desisters to persisters (those with persisting gender dysphoria) found that while persisters related their dysphoria primarily to a mismatch between their bodies and their identity, desisters' dysphoria was more likely to be, at least retroactively, related to a desire to fulfill the other gender role.[40]

Cultural and political impactEdit

There are no legal, medical, and psychological guidelines on the topic of detransition.[41] The Standards of Care by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) do not mention detransition,[42] though 37 WPATH surgeons have expressed a desire for detransition guidelines to be included,[43] and former WPATH president and longtime chair of WPATH's SOC revision team, Eli Coleman, has listed detransition among the topics that he would like to see included in the eighth edition.[44]

Some researchers perceive there to be an atmosphere of censorship around studying the phenomenon.[1] Various sides involved in the dispute over detransitioning say they have been harassed and have described each other as threats to transgender rights.[3][45] A study in 2021 involving detransitioners found that many of them felt they lost support from the LGBT+ community and friends.[2]

Controversy surrounding detransition within trans activism primarily arises from how the subject is framed as a subject of moral panic in mainstream media and right-wing politics.[46] Detransition has attracted interest from both social conservatives on the political right and radical feminists on the political left. Activists on the right have been accused of using detransitioners' stories to further their work against trans rights.[47] On the left, some radical feminists see detransitioners' experiences as further proof of patriarchal enforcement of gender roles and medicalized erasure of gays and lesbians.[48] Other feminists have expressed disagreement with this opinion, referring to those who hold these beliefs as trans-exclusionary radical feminists.[49] This attention has elicited in detransitioners mixed feelings of both exploitation and support.[48][50]

In August 2017, the Mazzoni Center's Philadelphia Trans Health Conference, which is an annual meeting of transgender people, advocates, and healthcare providers, canceled two panel discussions on detransition and alternate methods of working with gender dysphoria.[51] The conference organizers said, "When a topic becomes controversial, such as this one has turned on social media, there is a duty to make sure that the debate does not get out of control at the conference itself. After several days of considerations and reviewing feedback, the planning committee voted that the workshops, while valid, cannot be presented at the conference as planned."[52]

In September 2017, Bath Spa University revoked permission for James Caspian, a Jungian psychotherapist who works with transgender people and is a trustee of the Beaumont Trust, to research regret of gender-reassignment procedures and pursuit of detransition.[53] Caspian alleged the reason for the university's refusal was that it was "a potentially politically incorrect piece of research, [which] carries a risk to the university. Attacks on social media may not be confined to the researcher, but may involve the university. The posting of unpleasant material on blogs or social media may be detrimental to the reputation of the university."[54] The university stated that Caspian's proposal "was not refused because of the subject matter, but rather because of his proposed methodological approach. The university was not satisfied this approach would guarantee the anonymity of his participants or the confidentiality of the data."[55] In May 2017, he took the matter to the High Court, which concluded his application for a judicial review was "totally without merit".[55] The outcome was also considered by the Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education, who determined the university's conclusion was reasonable.[55] Caspian appealed to the High Court for judicial review again in 2019; the judge ruled against him, saying, "I entirely accept that there are important issues of freedom of expression. I just do not accept that, on the facts of this particular case, there is an arguable case made out," and adding that the application was too late.[56] Caspian claimed that he was "refused permission for a Judicial Review on points of procedure" and that the judge "was clearly sympathetic to the case but felt that his hands were tied by legal procedure;"[55] in February 2021, he appealed to the European Court of Human Rights.[57]

Ky Schevers, whose detransition was prominently profiled by Katie Herzog[3] and The Outline,[58] spoke about her experiences in a community of radical feminist detransitioned women, drawing parallels to the ex-gay movement and conversion therapy.[50] Parallels drawn include suppressing rather than addressing or removing the underlying dysphoria, stating that not only their gender dysphoria but everyone's dysphoria was a result of internalized sexism and trauma, and language from the twelve-step program being used to describe the desire to transition.[50]

Many ex-gay and Christian Right affiliated organizations also offer services to transgender people, either through themselves or partner organizations. A key characteristic of these organizations are the construction of "transgenderism" as a sin against God or the natural order. In the 1970's, Exodus International platformed Perry Desmond, an "ex-transsexual" who evangelized throughout the US and supported Anita Bryant's Save Our Children campaign. Another prominent characteristic is ex-transgender testimonials, which depict "the transgender lifestyle" as destructive as opposed to contemplation of God and encourage other transgender people to join them. These organizations portray "gender ideology" and "transgender ideology" as a social contagion threatening to the natural order.[59]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Shute 2017; BBC 2017; Borreli 2017; Stein 2009; Veissière 2018
  2. ^ a b Vandenbussche, Elie (2021-04-30). "Detransition-Related Needs and Support: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey". Journal of Homosexuality: 1–19. doi:10.1080/00918369.2021.1919479. ISSN 0091-8369. PMID 33929297. S2CID 233459164.
  3. ^ a b c "This has ignited a contentious debate both in and outside the trans community, with various sides accusing each other of bigotry, harassment, censorship, and damaging the fight for trans rights. It's such a fraught issue that many people I interviewed requested anonymity. (All the names of detransitioners have been changed.) Others refused to speak on the record, afraid of the potential fallout." Herzog 2017a
  4. ^ Fenway Health 2010; Human Rights Campaign n.d.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Clark-Flory 2015; Herzog 2017a; Graham 2017; Tobia 2018
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster n.d.; Collins n.d.
  8. ^ Marchiano 2017; Steensma et al. 2013; Wallien and Cohen-Kettenis 2008
  9. ^ Herzog 2017a; Graham 2017; Singal 2018
  10. ^
    • "Not everyone who detransitions regrets transitioning in the first place, and, like transitioning, the process of deciding to detransition is a very individual and personal choice." Yarbrough 2018, p. 130. See also Graham 2017; Herzog 2017a.
  11. ^ Turban, Jack L.; Loo, Stephanie S.; Almazan, Anthony N.; Keuroghlian, Alex S. (2021-06-01). "Factors Leading to "Detransition" Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis". LGBT Health. 8 (4): 273–280. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2020.0437. ISSN 2325-8292. PMC 8213007. PMID 33794108.
  12. ^
    • "There is a paucity of literature." Danker et al. 2018
    • "We urgently need systematic data on this point in order to inform best practice clinical care." Zucker 2019
  13. ^ "The research on outcomes post-transition is mixed at best." Marchiano 2017
  14. ^ "[R]esearch in this field is extremely controversial." Danker et al. 2018
  15. ^ a b c Detransition estimates:
    • "Detransitioning after surgical interventions ... is exceedingly rare. Research has often put the percentage of regret between 1 and 2% ... Detransitioning is actually far more common in the stages before surgery, when people are still exploring their options. 'There are people who take hormones and then decide to go off hormones,' says Randi Ettner, a therapist who has served on the board of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health. 'That is not uncommon.'" Clark-Flory 2015
    • "There were 15 (5 [female-to-male] and 10 [male-to-female]) regret applications corresponding to a 2.2% regret rate for both sexes. There was a significant decline of regrets over the time period." (Dhejne et al. define "regret" as "application for reversal of the legal gender status among those who were sex reassigned" which "gives the person the right to treatment to reverse the body as much as possible."), "the median time lag until applying for a reversal was 8 years." Dhejne et al. 2014
  16. ^ Desistance estimates:
    • "There is a wealth of replicated research that tells us that 80–95% of children who experience a cross-sex identification in childhood will eventually desist and come to identify with their natal sex as adults." Marchiano 2017
    • "Only very few trans- kids still want to transition by the time they are adults. Instead, they generally turn out to be regular gay or lesbian folks. The exact number varies by study, but roughly 60–90% of trans- kids turn out no longer to be trans by adulthood." Cantor 2016
  17. ^ "Detransitioning after surgical interventions ... is exceedingly rare....Detransitioning is actually far more common in the stages before surgery, when people are still exploring their options." Clark-Flory 2015
  18. ^ Hall, R.; Mitchell, L.; Sachdeva, J. (1 October 2021). "Access to care and frequency of detransition among a cohort discharged by a UK national adult gender identity clinic: retrospective case-note review". BJPsych Open. 7 (6). doi:10.1192/bjo.2021.1022. ISSN 2056-4724 – via Cambridge University Press. Rates of detransitioning are unknown, with estimates ranging from less than 1% to 8%.
  19. ^ Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Bergman, Hannah; Työläjärvi, Marja; Frisén, Louise (2018-03-02). "Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives". Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics. 9: 31–41. doi:10.2147/AHMT.S135432. ISSN 1179-318X. PMC 5841333. PMID 29535563. Evidence from the 10 available prospective follow-up studies from childhood to adolescence (reviewed in the study by Ristori and Steensma 28) indicates that for ~80% of children who meet the criteria for GDC, the GD recedes with puberty. Instead, many of these adolescents will identify as non-heterosexual.
  20. ^ Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D. (2016). "Gender dysphoria in childhood". International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 28 (1): 13–20. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1115754. ISSN 1369-1627. PMID 26754056. S2CID 5461482. As is shown in Table 1 there is much variation in the reported persistence rates between the studies, ranging from 2% to 39%. ", " Based on this information, it seems reasonable to conclude that the persistence of GD may well be higher than 15%. However, desistence of GD still seems to be the case in the majority of children with GD.
  21. ^ a b Temple Newhook, Julia; Pyne, Jake; Winters, Kelley; Feder, Stephen; Holmes, Cindy; Tosh, Jemma; Sinnott, Mari-Lynne; Jamieson, Ally; Pickett, Sarah (2018-04-03). "A critical commentary on follow-up studies and "desistance" theories about transgender and gender-nonconforming children". International Journal of Transgenderism. 19 (2): 212–224. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1456390. ISSN 1553-2739. S2CID 150338824. Due to such shifting diagnostic categories and inclusion criteria over time, these studies included children who, by current DSM-5 standards, would not likely have been categorized as transgender (i.e., they would not meet the criteria for gender dysphoria) and therefore, it is not surprising that they would not iden- tify as transgender at follow-up. Current criteria require identification with a gender other than what was assigned at birth, which was not a necessity in prior versions of the diagnosis.
  22. ^ a b Butler, Catherine; Hutchinson, Anna (2020). "Debate: The pressing need for research and services for gender desisters/Detransitioners". Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 25 (1): 45–47. doi:10.1111/camh.12361. PMID 32285632. S2CID 210484832.
  23. ^ Ashley, Florence (2021-09-02). "The clinical irrelevance of "desistance" research for transgender and gender creative youth". Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. doi:10.1037/sgd0000504. ISSN 2329-0390. S2CID 239099559. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  24. ^ Newhook, Julia Temple; Pyne, Jake; Winters, Kelley; Feder, Stephen; Holmes, Cindy; Tosh, Jemma; Sinnott, Mari-Lynne; Jamieson, Ally; Pickett, Sarah (2018-04-03). "A critical commentary on follow-up studies and "desistance" theories about transgender and gender-nonconforming children". International Journal of Transgenderism. 19 (2): 212–224. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1456390. ISSN 1553-2739. S2CID 150338824.
  25. ^ a b Steensma, Thomas (2018). "A critical commentary on "A critical commentary on follow-up studies and "desistence" theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children"". International Journal of Transgenderism. 19 (2): 225–230. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1468292. S2CID 150062632 – via Taylor & Francis Online.
  26. ^ a b Davies, Skye; McIntyre, Stephen; Rypma, Craig (April 2019). Detransition rates in a national UK Gender Identity Clinic (PDF). 3rd Biennial EPATH Conference: Inside Matters, On Law, Ethics and Religion. p. 118.
  27. ^ Churcher Clarke & Spiliadis 2019
  28. ^ a b Hall 2021
  29. ^ Smith, Yolanda L. S.; Goozen, Stephanie H. M. Van; Kuiper, Abraham J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T. (January 2005). "Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals". Psychological Medicine. 35 (1): 89–99. doi:10.1017/S0033291704002776. ISSN 1469-8978. PMID 15842032.
  30. ^ Bustos, Valeria P.; Bustos, Samyd S.; Mascaro, Andres; Del Corral, Gabriel; Forte, Antonio J.; Ciudad, Pedro; Kim, Esther A.; Langstein, Howard N.; Manrique, Oscar J. (2021-03-19). "Regret after Gender-affirmation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open. 9 (3): e3477. doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000003477. ISSN 2169-7574. PMC 8099405. PMID 33968550.
  31. ^ Wiepjes, Chantal M.; Nota, Nienke M.; de Blok, Christel J. M.; Klaver, Maartje; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Wensing-Kruger, S. Annelijn; de Jongh, Renate T.; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Gooren, Louis J. G. (April 2018). "The Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria Study (1972-2015): Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Regrets". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 15 (4): 582–590. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.01.016. ISSN 1743-6109. PMID 29463477. In addition, in our population the average time to regret was 130 months, so it might be too early to examine regret rates in people who started with HT in the past 10 years.
  32. ^ Graham 2017; Marchiano 2017; Yoo 2018
  33. ^ Boslaugh 2018, p. 43; James et al. 2016, pp. 111, 292–294
  34. ^ Boslaugh, Sarah (2018-08-03). Transgender Health Issues. ABC-CLIO. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-4408-5888-8.
  35. ^ Vandenbussche, Elie (2021-04-30). "Detransition-Related Needs and Support: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey". Journal of Homosexuality: 1–19. doi:10.1080/00918369.2021.1919479. ISSN 1540-3602. PMID 33929297. S2CID 233459164. “The most common reported reason for detransitioning was realized that my gender dysphoria was related to other issues (70%). The second one was health concerns (62%), followed by transition did not help my dysphoria (50%), found alternatives to deal with my dysphoria (45%), unhappy with the social changes (44%), and change in political views (43%). At the very bottom of the list are: lack of support from social surroundings (13%), financial concerns (12%) and discrimination (10%) (see Figure 1).”
  36. ^ Turban, Jack L.; Loo, Stephanie S.; Almazan, Anthony N.; Keuroghlian, Alex S. (May 2021). "Factors Leading to "Detransition" Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis". LGBT Health. 8 (4): 273–280. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2020.0437. ISSN 2325-8306. PMC 8213007. PMID 33794108. "Because the USTS only surveyed currently TGD-identified people, our study does not offer insights into reasons for detransition in previously TGD-identified people who currently identify as cisgender." "The vast majority of participants reported detransition due at least in part to external factors, such as pressure from family, nonaffirming school environments, and sexual assault." "iIt was just too hard for me" is shown in table 2.
  37. ^ * "Six persons clearly ventilated their feelings of regret about the decision; three of them accused their clinician of incompetence. Four others respectively gave as primary reasons: social isolation, disappointing surgical results and a sudden vanishing of the urge to live as a woman." Kuiper and Cohen-Kettenis 1998. See also Bowen 2007; Clark-Flory 2015; Danker et al. 2018; Herzog 2017a; McFadden 2017; Sarner 2017; Turban et al. 2018a.
  38. ^ Americo 2018; Kanner 2018
  39. ^ Witten 2015
  40. ^ Steensma, Thomas D.; Biemond, Roeline; De Boer, Fijgje; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T. (2011). "Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: A qualitative follow-up study". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 16 (4): 499–516. doi:10.1177/1359104510378303. PMID 21216800. S2CID 1789558.
  41. ^ Graham 2017
  42. ^ "There are currently no professional guidelines or resources for providers who encounter patients who experience regret and/or seek detransition." Danker et al. 2018
  43. ^ "88% of respondents feel that WPATH SOC 8 should include a chapter on detransition" Danker et al. 2018
  44. ^ "Miscellaneous suggestions ... detransition." Coleman 2017
  45. ^ ""[T]he trans community does our best to pretend that retransitioning never happens ... trans people who have retransitioned are often treated as outcasts, as aberrations or as an embarrassment to our community's goals. They are assumed to be failures, traitors to the cause of trans liberation." Tobia 2018
  46. ^ Slothouber, Van (2020). "(De)trans visibility: Moral panic in mainstream media reports on de/Retransition". European Journal of English Studies. 24: 89–99. doi:10.1080/13825577.2020.1730052. S2CID 219079388.
  47. ^ Ford 2018; Herzog 2017a; Bowen 2007; Tobia 2018
  48. ^ a b Herzog 2017a; Bowen 2007
  49. ^ Parker, Charlie. "JK Rowling compares trans treatment to gay conversion therapy". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  50. ^ a b c Urquhart, Evan (2021-02-01). "An "Ex-Detransitioner" Disavows the Anti-Trans Movement She Helped Spark". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  51. ^ Rodriguez 2017; Herzog 2017b
  52. ^ Mazzoni Center 2017
  53. ^ Caspian
  54. ^ BBC 2017; Weale 2017; Hurst 2017
  55. ^ a b c d Petherick, Sam (February 20, 2019). "Ex-Bath Spa student James Caspian fails in court fight against university". Somerset Live. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  56. ^ Johnson, Jamie (February 19, 2019). "Proposal to research 'trans regret' rejected by university for fear of backlash, claims psychotherapist". The Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  57. ^ Swerling, Gabriella (February 5, 2021). "Psychotherapist blocked from studying 'trans regret' takes case to the European Court". The Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  58. ^ Monroe, Rachel (4 December 2016). "Detransitioning: a story about discovery". The Outline. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  59. ^ Robinson, Christine M.; Spivey, Sue E. (2019-06-19). "Ungodly Genders: Deconstructing Ex-Gay Movement Discourses of "Transgenderism" in the US". Social Sciences. 8 (6): 191. doi:10.3390/socsci8060191. ISSN 2076-0760.

SourcesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Anderson, Ryan T. (2018). When Harry Became Sally: Responding to the Transgender Moment. Encounter Books. pp. 32–46. ISBN 9781594039621. OCLC 975124456.
  • Belovitch, Brian (2018-09-25). Trans Figured: My Journey from Boy to Girl to Woman to Man. ISBN 9781978648593. OCLC 1088892758.
  • Boslaugh, Sarah (2018). "Transitioning". Transgender Health Issues. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440858888. OCLC 1031429228.
  • Dzurick, Alex (16 February 2018). "Social Media, iPhones, iPads, and Identity: Media Impact on the Coming-Out Process for LGBT Youths". In Stewart, Chuck (ed.). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Americans at Risk: Problems and Solutions. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3236-9. OCLC 1002302935.
  • James, Sandy E.; Herman, Jody L.; Rankin, Susan; Keisling, Mara; Mottet, Lisa; Anafi, Ma'ayan (2016). "De-Transitioning" (PDF). The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (Report). Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality.
  • Robinson, Max (2021). Detransition: Beyond Before and After. Spinifex Press. pp. 1–100. ISBN 9781925950403.
  • Stewart, Chuck (16 February 2018). "Introduction". In Stewart, Chuck (ed.). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Americans at Risk: Problems and Solutions. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3236-9. OCLC 1002302935.
  • Yarbrough, Eric (8 March 2018). "Transitions and Detransitions". Transgender Mental Health. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 978-1-61537-113-6. OCLC 1035850780.
  • Yoo, Alexander (16 February 2018). "Transition Regret and Detransition". In Stewart, Chuck (ed.). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Americans at Risk: Problems and Solutions. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. pp. 181–191. ISBN 978-1-4408-3236-9. OCLC 1002302935.

Journal articlesEdit

  • Bosinski, H.A.G. (2003-04-03). "Diagnostische und arztrechtliche Probleme bei transsexuellen Geschlechtsidentitätsstörungen". Der Urologe (in German). 42 (5): 709–721. doi:10.1007/s00120-003-0337-0. ISSN 0340-2592. PMID 12858867. S2CID 11431107.
  • Churcher Clarke, Anna; Spiliadis, Anastassis (6 February 2019). "'Taking the lid off the box': The value of extended clinical assessment for adolescents presenting with gender identity difficulties". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 24 (2): 338–352. doi:10.1177/1359104518825288. ISSN 1359-1045. PMID 30722669. S2CID 73415946.
  • Danker, Sara; Narayan, Sasha K.; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Schechter, Loren S.; Berli, Jens U. (August 2018). "A Survey Study of Surgeons' Experience with Regret and/or Reversal of Gender-Confirmation Surgeries". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery – Global Open. 6: 189. doi:10.1097/01.GOX.0000547077.23299.00. ISSN 2169-7574.
  • Dhejne, Cecilia; Öberg, Katarina; Arver, Stefan; Landén, Mikael (November 2014). "An Analysis of All Applications for Sex Reassignment Surgery in Sweden, 1960–2010: Prevalence, Incidence, and Regrets". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (8): 1535–45. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0300-8. PMID 24872188. S2CID 24755434.
  • Hall, R.; Mitchell, L.; Sachdeva, J. (November 2021). "Access to care and frequency of detransition among a cohort discharged by a UK national adult gender identity clinic: retrospective case-note review". BJPsych Open. 7 (6): e184. doi:10.1192/bjo.2021.1022. ISSN 2056-4724. PMC 8503911. PMID 34593070.</ref>
  • Kuiper, A.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (July–September 1998). "Gender Role Reversal among Postoperative Transsexuals". International Journal of Transgenderism. 2 (3). Archived from the original on 5 July 2007.
  • Marchiano, Lisa (6 Oct 2017). "Outbreak: On Transgender Teens and Psychic Epidemics". Psychological Perspectives. 60 (3): 345–366. doi:10.1080/00332925.2017.1350804.
  • Steensma, Thomas D; McGuire, Jenifer K; Kreukels, Baudewijntje PC; Beekman, Anneke J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T (June 2013). "Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 52 (6): 582–590. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.03.016. PMID 23702447. S2CID 205497921.
  • Pieper, Lindsay Parks (March 2015). "Mike Penner 'or' Christine Daniels: the US media and the fractured representation of a transgender sportswriter". Sport in Society. 18 (2, Gender, Media, Sport): 186–201. doi:10.1080/17430437.2013.854472. ISBN 978-1-138-93639-3. S2CID 144594618.
  • Stein, Martin T. (28 January 2009). "Does Gender Dysphoria in Young Children Persist?". jwatch.org. NEJM Journal Watch. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  • Turban, Jack L.; Keuroghlian, Alex S. (July 2018). "Dynamic Gender Presentations: Understanding Transition and "De-Transition" Among Transgender Youth". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 57 (7): 451–453. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.016. PMID 29960687. S2CID 49645550.
  • Turban, Jack L.; Carswell, Jeremi; Keuroghlian, Alex (October 2018). "Understanding Pediatric Patients Who Discontinue Gender-Affirming Hormonal Interventions". JAMA Pediatrics. 172 (10): 903–904. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1817. PMID 30178056. S2CID 52147320.
  • Wallien, Madeleine S.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T. (December 2008). "Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 47 (12): 1413–1423. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31818956b9. PMID 18981931. S2CID 38185390.
  • Witten, Tarynn (November 2015). "When My Past Returns: Loss of Self and Personhood - Dementia and the Trans-Person". Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans* Individuals Living with Dementia. Unpublished. doi:10.13140/rg.2.1.1867.4641.
  • Zucker, Kenneth J. (2019). "Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 48 (7): 1983–1992. doi:10.1007/s10508-019-01518-8. PMID 31321594. S2CID 197663705.

NewsEdit

  • Americo, Lara (13 May 2018). "I'm a Trans Woman Who Detransitioned to Become a Mom". Them. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  • "Bath Spa University 'blocks transgender research'". BBC. 25 September 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Borreli, Lizette (3 October 2017). "Transgender surgery: regret rates highest in male-to-female reassignment operations". Newsweek. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  • Bowen, Innes (1 August 2007). "Are sex change operations justified?". BBC. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  • Brooks, Jon (23 May 2018). "The Controversial Research on 'Desistance' in Transgender Youth". KQED. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  • Cantor, James (11 January 2016). "Do trans- kids stay trans- when they grow up?". Sexology Today!. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  • Clark-Flory, Tracy (15 June 2015). "Detransitioning: Going From Male To Female To Male Again". Vocativ. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  • Dumas, Daisy (31 July 2015). "The in-betweeners". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  • Ford, Zack (25 January 2018). "Conservative book 'When Harry Became Sally' attacks trans people while conveniently leaving them out". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  • Friess, Joanne (24 February 2009). "For some, shadow of regret cast over gender switch". USA Today. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  • Herman, Joanne (17 November 2011). "More on Transgender Regret". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  • Herzog, Katie (28 June 2017a). "The Detransitioners: They Were Transgender, Until They Weren't". The Stranger. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  • Herzog, Katie (30 August 2017b). "Philly Trans Health Conference Cancels Sessions on Detransitioning". The Stranger. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  • Hurst, Greg (23 September 2017). "Bath Spa university bars research into transgender surgery regrets". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  • Kanner, Robyn (22 June 2018). "I Detransitioned. But Not Because I Wasn't Trans". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  • McFadden, Joan (16 September 2017). "Transition caused more problems than it solved". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Pollock, Nicolas (18 June 2018). "'I Wanted to Take My Body Off': Detransitioned". The Atlantic (Documentary notes). Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  • Rodriguez, Jeremy (7 September 2017). "Trans Health Conference returns with new initiatives, future goals". Philadelphia Gay News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  • Sarner, Moya (4 February 2017). "Experience: I regret transitioning". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Schipp, Debbie (8 September 2017). "Patrick's pain: 'I didn't know who the person staring back at me was'". news.com.au. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Seleh, Pardes (19 September 2017). "Ex-Trans Woman: 'Transition Caused More Problems Than It Solved'". Independent Journal Review. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  • Shute, Joe (2 October 2017). "The new taboo: More people regret sex change and want to 'detransition', surgeon says". National Post. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  • Singal, Jesse (7 February 2016). "How the Fight Over Transgender Kids Got a Leading Sex Researcher Fired". The Cut. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  • Singal, Jesse (July–August 2018). "When Children Say They're Trans". The Atlantic. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  • Tobia, Jacob (3 April 2018). "Inside One Person's Journey From Man to Woman and Back Again". Paper. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  • Weale, Sally (26 September 2017). "University 'turned down politically incorrect transgender research'". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Young, Sarah (7 September 2017). "12-Year-Old Boy Who Transitioned to Female Changes His Mind Two Years Later". The Independent. Retrieved 19 March 2019.

Online sourcesEdit

  • "Catalogue of Walt Heyer's works". WorldCat. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  • Coleman, Eli (28 February 2017). "The WPATH Standards of Care: What it really says and looking forward to Version 8" (PDF). Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  • "Definition of 'desist'". Collins English Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  • "Definition of desist". Merriam-Webster. n.d. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  • "Glossary of Gender and Transgender Terms" (PDF). Fenway Health. 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  • "Glossary of Terms". Human Rights Campaign. n.d. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  • Graham, Julie (14 October 2017). Detransition, Retransition: What Providers Need to Know (PDF) (Presentation slides). Fenway Health. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  • Graham, Julie (9 January 2018). Detransition and Retransition: What Do We need to Know? (Presentation). National LGBT Health Education Center. Retrieved 29 January 2019 – via Vimeo.
  • Graham, Julie; Callahan, Carrie; Lepovic, Elan; Nowak, Joel (2017). "Exploring Core Competencies for Mental Health Providers for Detransitioning Clients". WPATH. Archived from the original on 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  • Murphy, Meghan (19 June 2018). "Why must trans activists smear those who put forth inconvenient narratives about 'gender identity'?". Feminist Current. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  • "Response to the cancellation of workshops". Mazzoni Center. 29 August 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  • Veissière, Samuel (2 December 2018). "The Debate on Trans Teens: Compassion Is Needed on All Sides". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  • Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and GenderNonconforming People. WPATH. 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  • Caspian, James. "Psychotherapy & Counselling". James Caspian: Psychotherapy, Counselling and Hypnotherapy. Retrieved 2020-05-13.

Further readingEdit

  • Callahan, Carey Maria Catt (2018). "Unheard Voices of Detransitioners". In Brunskell-Evans, Heather; Moore, Michele (eds.). Transgender Children and Young People: Born in Your Own Body. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781527510364. OCLC 1020030833.
  • Dubreuil, Émilie (13 May 2019). "Je pensais que j'étais transgenre". Radio-Canada (in French). Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  • Goldberg, Michelle (4 August 2014). "What Is a Woman? The dispute between radical feminism and transgenderism". The New Yorker. Vol. 90, no. 22. pp. 24+. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  • Johnston, Kirsty (29 April 2017). "From girl to boy and back again, Zahra Cooper shares her journey: 'Everyone is different'". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  • Landén, M.; Wålinder, J.; Hambert, G.; Lundström, B. (1998). "Factors predictive of regret in sex reassignment". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 97 (4): 284–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb10001.x. PMID 9570489. S2CID 19652697.
  • McCann, Charlie (October–November 2017). "When girls won't be girls". 1843. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  • McGoogan, Cara (20 November 2018). "I transitioned from female to male, then realised I had made a mistake". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  • Monroe, Rachel (4 December 2016). "Detransitioning: a story about discovery". The Outline. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  • "Pique Resilience Project". Pique Resilience Project. 2019.
  • Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D. (February 2016). Bouman, Walter Pierre; de Vries, Annelou LC; T'Sjoen, Guy (eds.). "Gender dysphoria in childhood". International Review of Psychiatry. 28 (1): 13–20. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1115754. ISBN 9781315446783. PMID 26754056. S2CID 5461482.
  • White, Jess (8 January 2019). "Whiteboard". In Sikk, Helis; Meyer, Leisa (eds.). The Legacies of Matthew Shepard: Twenty Years Later. Routledge. ISBN 9780429620522.