KNOWPIA
WELCOME TO KNOWPIA

The **Dirac Medal** is the name of four awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by different organizations, named in honour of Professor Paul Dirac, one of the great theoretical physicists of the 20th century.

The first-established prize is the Dirac Medal for the Advancement of Theoretical Physics, awarded by the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, jointly with the Australian Institute of Physics on the occasion of the public Dirac Lecture.^{[1]} The Lecture and the Medal commemorate the visit to the university in 1975 of Professor Dirac, who gave five lectures there. The lectures were subsequently published as a book *Directions of Physics* (Wiley, 1978 – H. Hora and J. Shepanski, eds.). Professor Dirac donated the royalties from this book to the University for the establishment of the Dirac Lecture series. The prize includes a silver medal and honorarium. It was first awarded in 1979.

- 1979: Hannes Alfvén
- 1981: John Clive Ward
- 1983: Nicolaas Bloembergen
- 1985: David Pines
- 1987: Robert Hofstadter
- 1988: Klaus von Klitzing
- 1989: Carlo Rubbia & Kenneth G. Wilson
- 1990: Norman F. Ramsey
- 1991: Herbert A. Hauptman
- 1992: Wolfgang Paul
- 1996: Edwin Salpeter
- 1998: David Deutsch
- 2002: Heinrich Hora
- 2003: Edward Shuryak
- 2004: Iosif Khriplovich
- 2006: Sir Roger Penrose
- 2007: John Iliopoulos
- 2008: Harald Fritzsch
- 2010: E. C. George Sudarshan
- 2011: Lord May of Oxford
- 2012: Brian Schmidt
- 2013: Sir Michael Pepper
- 2014: Serge Haroche
^{[2]} - 2015: Subir Sachdev
^{[1]} - 2016: Kenneth Freeman
- 2017: Boris Altshuler
- 2019: Lene Hau
- 2020: Susan Scott

The **Dirac Medal of the ICTP** is given each year by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in honour of physicist Paul Dirac. The award, announced each year on 8 August (Dirac's birthday), was first awarded in 1985.^{[3]}

An international committee of distinguished scientists selects the winners from a list of nominated candidates. The Committee invites nominations from scientists working in the fields of theoretical physics or mathematics.

The Dirac Medal of the ICTP is not awarded to Nobel Laureates, Fields Medalists, or Wolf Prize winners.^{[3]}
However, several Dirac Medallists have subsequently won one of these awards.^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}

The medallists receive a prize of US$5,000.

- 1985: Edward Witten, Yakov Zel'dovich
^{[3]} - 1986: Alexander Polyakov, Yoichiro Nambu
^{[3]} - 1987: Bruno Zumino, Bryce DeWitt
- 1988: David J. Gross, Efim S. Fradkin
- 1989: John H. Schwarz, Michael Green
- 1990: Ludwig Faddeev, Sidney R. Coleman
- 1991: Jeffrey Goldstone, Stanley Mandelstam
^{[8]} - 1992: Nikolai Bogoliubov, Yakov G. Sinai
^{[8]} - 1993: Daniel Z. Freedman, Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, Sergio Ferrara
- 1994: Frank Wilczek
- 1995: Michael Berry
- 1996: Martinus J.G. Veltman, Tullio Regge
- 1997: David Olive, Peter Goddard
- 1998: Roman Jackiw, Stephen L. Adler
- 1999: Giorgio Parisi
- 2000: Helen Quinn, Howard Georgi, Jogesh Pati
- 2001: John Hopfield
- 2002: Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt
- 2003: Robert Kraichnan, Vladimir E. Zakharov
- 2004: Curtis Callan, James Bjorken
- 2005: Patrick A. Lee, Sir Samuel Frederick Edwards
- 2006: Peter Zoller
- 2007: Jean Iliopoulos, Luciano Maiani
- 2008: Joe Polchinski, Juan Maldacena, Cumrun Vafa
- 2009: Roberto Car, Michele Parrinello
- 2010: Nicola Cabibbo, George Sudarshan
- 2011: Édouard Brézin, John Cardy, Alexander Zamolodchikov
- 2012: Duncan Haldane, Charles Kane, Shoucheng Zhang
- 2013: Tom W. B. Kibble, Jim Peebles, Martin John Rees
^{[9]} - 2014: Ashoke Sen, Andrew Strominger, Gabriele Veneziano
^{[9]} - 2015: Alexei Kitaev, Greg Moore, Nicholas Read
^{[9]} - 2016: Nathan Seiberg, Mikhail Shifman, Arkady Vainshtein
- 2017: Charles H. Bennett, David Deutsch, Peter W. Shor
^{[10]} - 2018: Subir Sachdev, Dam Thanh Son, Xiao-Gang Wen
^{[11]} - 2019: Viatcheslav Mukhanov, Alexei Starobinsky, Rashid Sunyaev
^{[12]} - 2020: André Neveu, Pierre Ramond, Miguel Virasoro
^{[13]} - 2021: Alessandra Buonanno, Thibault Damour, Frans Pretorius, Saul Teukolsky
^{[14]}

The **Dirac Medal** is a gold medal awarded annually by the Institute of Physics (Britain's and Ireland's main professional body for physicists) for "outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics".^{[15]} The award, which includes a £1000 prize, was decided upon by the Institute of Physics in 1985, and first granted in 1987.

- 1987: Stephen Hawking
- 1988: John Stewart Bell
- 1989: Roger Penrose
- 1990: Michael Berry
- 1991: Rudolf Peierls
- 1992: Anthony Leggett
- 1993: David Thouless
- 1994: Volker Heine
- 1995: Daniel Walls
- 1996: John Pendry
- 1997: Peter Higgs
- 1998: David Deutsch
- 1999: Ian Percival
- 2000: John Cardy
- 2001: Brian Ridley
- 2002: John Hannay
^{[16]} - 2003: Christopher Hull
- 2004: Michael Green
- 2005: John Ellis (CERN)

*For his highly influential work on particle physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark.*^{[17]} - 2006: Mike GillanUniversity College London)
*For his contributions to the development of atomic-scale computer simulations, which have greatly extended their power and effectiveness across an immense range of applications.*^{[18]}
( - 2007: David Sherrington (University of Oxford)

*For his pioneering work in spin glasses.* - 2008: Bryan Webber (University of Cambridge)

*For his pioneering work in understanding and applying quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interaction which is one of the three fundamental forces of Nature.* - 2009: Michael Cates (University of Edinburgh)

*For pioneering work in the theoretical physics of soft materials, particularly in relation to their flow behaviour.* - 2010: James Binney (University of Oxford)

*For his contribution to our understanding of how galaxies are constituted, how they work and how they were formed.* - 2011: Christopher Isham (Imperial College London)

*For his major contributions to the search for a consistent quantum theory of gravity and to the foundations of quantum mechanics.* - 2012: Graham Garland Ross
^{[19]}(University of Oxford)

*For his theoretical work in developing both the Standard Model of fundamental particles and forces and theories beyond the Standard Model that have led to many new insights into the origins and nature of the universe.* - 2013: Stephen M. BarnettUniversity of Strathclyde)

*For his wide ranging contributions throughout optics research, which both inspire and lead experimental endeavours.*
( - 2014: Tim Palmer
^{[20]}(University of Oxford)

*For the development of probabilistic weather and climate prediction systems.* - 2015: John Barrow (University of Cambridge)

*For his combination of mathematical and physical reasoning to increase our understanding of the evolution of the universe, and his use of cosmology to increase our understanding of fundamental physics.* - 2016: Sandu Popescu (University of Bristol)
^{[21]}

*For his fundamental and influential research into nonlocality and his contribution to the foundations of quantum physics.* - 2017: Michael Duff
^{[22]}(Imperial College London and Oxford University)

*For sustained groundbreaking contributions to theoretical physics including the discovery of Weyl anomalies, for having pioneered Kaluza-Klein supergravity, and for recognising that superstrings in 10 dimensions are merely a special case of membranes in an 11-dimensional M-theory.* - 2018: John ChalkerUniversity of Oxford for "his pioneering, deep, and distinctive contributions to condensed-matter theory, particularly in the quantum Hall effect, and to geometrically frustrated magnets." ,
- 2019: Richard Keith Ellis, University of Durham for "his seminal work in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) where he performed many of the key calculations that led to the acceptance of QCD as the correct theory of the strong interaction."
- 2020: Carlos Frenk, University of Durham for "outstanding contributions to establishing the current standard model for the formation of all cosmic structure, and for leading computational cosmology within the UK for more than three decades."
^{[23]} - 2021: Steven Balbus, University of Oxford for "fundamental contributions to the theory of accretion-disc turbulence and the dynamical stability of astrophysical fluids, breaking new ground by establishing the critical role played by weak magnetic fields."

The **Dirac Medal** is awarded annually by The World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists "for the outstanding computational chemist in the world under the age of 40". The award was first granted in 1998.

Source: WATOC

- 1998: Timothy J. Lee
- 1999: Peter M. W. Gill
- 2000: Jiali Gao
- 2001: Martin Kaupp
- 2002: Jerzy Cioslowski
- 2003: Peter Schreiner
- 2004: Jan Martin
- 2005: Ursula Röthlisberger
- 2006: Lucas Visscher
- 2007: Anna Krylov
- 2008: Kenneth Ruud
- 2009: Jeremy Harvey
- 2010: Daniel Crawford
- 2011: Leticia González
- 2012: Paul Ayers
- 2013: Filipp Furche
- 2014: Denis Jacquemin
- 2015: Edward Valeev
- 2016: Johannes Neugebauer
- 2017: Francesco Evangelista
- 2018: Erin Johnson
- 2019: Satoshi Maeda

- ^
^{a}^{b}"Dirac Medal awarded to Professor Subir Sachdev". 2015-09-08. Archived from the original on 2020-10-21. Retrieved 2017-09-03. **^**"Dirac Public Lecture: Nobel Laureate Professor Serge Haroche". 2014-12-09. Archived from the original on 2021-03-16. Retrieved 2017-09-03.- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}"ICTP honors four with Dirac Medals".*Physics Today*.**40**(5): 107–108. 1987. Bibcode:1987PhT....40e.107.. doi:10.1063/1.2820038. **^**"Witten and Jones receive Fields Medals for physics-related work".*Physics Today*.**44**(2): 111–112. 1991. Bibcode:1991PhT....44b.111.. doi:10.1063/1.2810004.**^**"Wolf Prizes go to Ginzburg, Nambu and Moser".*Physics Today*.**48**(1): 66. 1995. Bibcode:1995PhT....48Q..66.. doi:10.1063/1.2807883.**^**Schwarzschild, Bertram (2008). "Physics Nobel Prize to Nambu, Kobayashi, and Maskawa for theories of symmetry breaking".*Physics Today*.**61**(12): 16–20. Bibcode:2008PhT....61l..16S. doi:10.1063/1.3047652.**^**"Wolf Foundation honors Wheeler for physics, Keller and Sinai for mathematics".*Physics Today*.**50**(2): 85. 1997. Bibcode:1997PhT....50Q..85.. doi:10.1063/1.2806531.- ^
^{a}^{b}"ICTP awards Dirac Medals for work in theoretical physics".*Physics Today*.**46**(3): 99–100. 1993. Bibcode:1993PhT....46c..99.. doi:10.1063/1.2808851. - ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}"ICTP - The Medallists".*www.ictp.it*. **^**"ICTP - Dirac Medallists 2017".*www.ictp.it*.**^**"ICTP - Dirac Medallists 2018".*www.ictp.it*.**^**"ICTP - Dirac Medallists 2019".*www.ictp.it*.**^**"ICTP - Dirac Medallists 2020"**^**"ICTP - Dirac Medallists 2021"**^**"Paul Dirac Medal and Prize". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 19 December 2019.**^**"Eighteen Scientists Garner IOP Prizes".*Physics Today*.**55**(3): 83. January 12, 2007. doi:10.1063/1.2408468 – via physicstoday.scitation.org.**^**"IoP rewards top British physicists". September 1, 2004 – via www.theguardian.com.**^**"Britain's top prizes for physics announced".*phys.org*.**^**"Dirac medal recipients".*www.iop.org*.**^**"2014 Dirac medal". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 2014-12-07.**^**"Non-locality bags Dirac Medal" (PDF).*CERN Courier*. Vol. 56, no. 7. 2016-09-01. p. 45.**^**"2017 Dirac medal". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 30 June 2017.**^**"2020 Paul Dirac Medal and Prize". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 2020-10-31.