Eduard Schwartz (22 August 1858 – 13 February 1940) was a German classical philologist.
Born in Kiel, he studied under Hermann Sauppe in Göttingen, under Hermann Usener and Franz Bücheler in Bonn, under Theodor Mommsen in Berlin and under Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Greifswald. In 1880 he obtained his doctorate from the University of Bonn.
In 1884, he became a lecturer in Bonn, afterwards being appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Rostock (1887). This was followed by professorships at the Universities of Giessen (1893), Strasbourg (1897), Göttingen (1902) and Freiburg (1909). In 1914 he returned to Strasbourg, where he served as university rector in 1915/16. In 1919 he was a successor to Otto Crusius at the University of Munich.
He published numerous articles and works in the area of Greek and Roman history, including on the Catilinarian conspiracy. His magnum opus was a publication of the acts of oecumenical councils (ACO) from Ephesus (431) onwards. He also started the edition of Eusebius' works in the GCS series, editing the Ecclesiastical History with the facing edition of Rufinus' translation by Theodor Mommsen, and the ancient and Byzantine scholia to Euripides' tragedies.
A friend of the Italian philologist Giorgio Pasquali (met in Gottingen in 1909), Schwartz asserted that the ecclesiastical history was part of the material history of human kind and therefore [clarify] within German universities.
Schwartz died in Munich in 1940.