Edward IV of England

Summary

Edward IV
King Edward IV.jpg
King of England
First reign4 March 1461 – 3 October 1470
Coronation28 June 1461
PredecessorHenry VI
SuccessorHenry VI
Second reign11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483
PredecessorHenry VI
SuccessorEdward V
Born28 April 1442
Rouen, Normandy, France
Died9 April 1483 (aged 40)
Westminster, Middlesex, England
Burial18 April 1483
Spouse
Issue
among others
HouseYork
FatherRichard, Duke of York
MotherCecily Neville
SignatureEdward IV's signature

Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470,[1] and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England fought between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions between 1455 and 1487. Edward was the eldest son of Richard, Duke of York, a rival claimant to the throne and the leader of the opposition to King Henry VI. When Richard was killed in battle in December 1460, Edward inherited his claim to the throne. In the first few months of 1461 he commanded victorious forces in the battles of Mortimer's Cross and Towton, and became king.

Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in 1464 led to his falling out with his mentor, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as the "Kingmaker". Edward's reign was interrupted by a revolt in 1470–1471, led by Warwick and backed by the French, which briefly re-installed Henry VI as king. Edward regained the throne after finding refuge and funds in Flanders, winning the Battle of Barnet and entering London. He quickly consolidated his position by defeating the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury, following which Henry was found dead in the Tower of London.

Edward reigned twelve more years. In 1475 he invaded France, but the campaign was short-lived and resulted in the Treaty of Picquigny. Eight years later, he died suddenly. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward V. Since his son was still a minor, Edward IV named his brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as Lord Protector. After Edward IV's death, his children were declared illegitimate by Gloucester, who then ascended the throne as Richard III before himself being killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field by King Henry VII. Edward became an ancestor of all English monarchs after Henry, who married Edward's daughter, Elizabeth of York.

Birth and heredity

Edward was born on 28 April 1442, at Rouen in Normandy, eldest surviving son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York and his duchess, Cecily Neville.[2]

When the Duke of Gloucester died in 1447, Richard became heir to the childless Henry VI, making his eldest son a potential future king, reinforced by Cecily's descent from King Edward III.[3] [a] Allegations of illegitimacy made both during, and after Edward's lifetime, were discounted at the time, and have generally been dismissed by historians; a 2004 television documentary using circumstantial evidence to support such claims was subsequently discredited.[4] Edward and his siblings George and Margaret were physically very similar, all three being tall and blonde, in contrast to their short, dark, father.[5] His younger brother Richard of Gloucester most closely resembled their father; when declaring his nephews illegitimate in 1485, he did so on the grounds Edward's marriage to their mother was invalid.[6]

Early life

Rouen was the place of Edward's birth because his father, Duke Richard, was serving there as the King's Lieutenant of France. Richard's appointment ended in 1445, at which time he returned to England. Edward with his younger brother Edmund probably began living at Ludlow Castle, in the Welsh Marches where Richard was the dominant landowner.[7] Richard had inherited these lands along with title Earl of March in 1425. It appears that this Earldom was officially transferred to Edward when a child.[8] Edward and Edmund were in the care first of a Norman nurse, and then an English governor.[9]

Edward's childhood was lived amid an intensifying struggle for power in the kingdom in which Duke Richard was a prime protagonist. Henry VI's reign was seeing a long economic slump and gradual defeat at the end of the Hundred Years War, the English crown losing almost all its territories in France. While Henry himself suffered mental illness and breakdowns, much of the blame for England's decline was laid on his advisors and agents: most notably the Duke of Suffolk, the Duke of Somerset and Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou. Richard increasingly tried to wrest control from these agents, and eventually claimed the throne itself. His party, known as “Yorkists”, thus set itself against the “Lancastrians” of the king.

Edward was groomed and publicly presented as a future leader from a young age. In 1452, when he was ten, a force reportedly in his name was despatched from the Welsh Marches to make the King release Duke Richard after the latter had been arrested. Certainly Edward accompanied his father in January 1454 when Richard rode into London for Great Council business.[8]

By the age of 17, Edward of March was seen as a political and military leader in his own capacity. In 1459, after the Battle of Ludford Bridge when Duke Richard fled to Ireland, Edward escaped in a different direction along with the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick. They went via Devon to Calais, still an English possession, where Warwick, the official Captain of Calais, commanded troops. There they prepared a new attack. Edward's name appears alongside those of his father, Warwick and Salisbury in the manifesto they issued declaring that their struggle was against the King's evil councillors.

In the military campaign that followed in the summer of 1460 – crossing the Channel with Warwick and Salisbury, marching to London and thence to a battle at Northampton, where they defeated their enemies and captured King Henry – Edward was a secondary commander, under Warwick, and led one of the Yorkists’ three divisions in the battle.[10] Duke Richard then crossed from Ireland to England and, in a change of approach, claimed to be the rightful king. His immediate claim was rejected by the lords assembled in London, but in an Act of Accord Richard and his descendants were designated as Henry's heirs to the throne, cutting out Henry's own son.[11]

The Lancastrians nevertheless mobilized again in late 1460. Edward was sent on his first independent military commission, to deal with a Lancastrian insurgency in Wales. At the same time, while Warwick remained in London, York, Salisbury, and Edmund marched north to suppress another in Yorkshire. Defeated at Wakefield on 30 December, all three were killed. [12] His father's death made Edward leader of the Yorkist faction and a direct claimant to the throne.

Reign

Accession to the throne

A stone post, topped with a cross, stands next to a bush in a field. An inscription on its base reads, "Battle of Towton Palm Sunday 1461"
Towton Cross, commemorating Edward's victory at the Battle of Towton

At this stage of his career, contemporaries like Philippe de Commines described him as handsome, affable, and energetic.[13] Unusually tall for the period at 6 feet 4 inches (193 centimetres), he was an impressive sight in armour, and took care to wear splendid clothes. This was done deliberately to contrast him with Henry, whose physical and mental frailties undermined his position.[14]

On 2 February 1461, [b] Edward won a hard-fought victory at Mortimer's Cross. The battle was preceded by a meteorological phenomenon known as parhelion, or three suns, which he took as his emblem, the "Sun in splendour.[15] However, this was offset by Warwick's defeat at the Second Battle of St Albans on 17 February, the Lancastrians regaining custody of Henry VI. The two met in London, where Edward was hastily crowned king, before marching north, where the two sides met at the Battle of Towton. Fought on 29 March in the middle of a snowstorm, it was the bloodiest battle ever to take place on English soil, and ended in a decisive Yorkist victory.[16]

Estimates of the dead range from 9,000 to 20,000; figures are uncertain, as most of the mass graves were emptied or moved over the centuries, while corpses were generally stripped of clothing or armour before burial. Nevertheless, casualties among the Lancastrian nobility were enormous, and explains the enduring bitterness among those who survived. Since 1996, excavations have uncovered over 50 skeletons from the battle; an analysis of their injuries shows the brutality of the contest, including extensive post-mortem mutilations.[17]

Margaret fled to Scotland with Edward of Westminster, while Edward returned to London for his coronation.[18] Henry VI remained at large for over a year, but was caught and imprisoned in the Tower of London. There was little point in killing him while his son remained alive, since this would have transferred the Lancastrian claim from a frail captive to one who was young and free.[19]

1461 to 1470

Rose Noble coin of Edward IV, minted in 1464

Most of the nobility had either remained loyal to Henry or stayed neutral, forcing Edward to rely heavily on the Nevilles. Consolidating the regime initially took precedence, but John Neville's victory at the 1464 Battle of Hexham seemed to end the Lancastrian threat.[20] This exposed internal divisions, some over policy, but more significantly Warwick's encouragement of the perception he was the senior partner.[21]

Although Edward preferred Burgundy as an ally, he allowed Warwick to negotiate a treaty with Louis XI of France; it included a suggested marriage between Edward and Anne of France or Bona of Savoy, daughter and sister-in-law of the French king respectively.[22] In October 1464, Warwick was enraged to discover that on 1 May, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, a widow with two sons, whose Lancastrian husband, John Grey of Groby, died at Towton.[23] If nothing else, it was a clear demonstration he was not in control of Edward, despite suggestions to the contrary.[24]

Edward's motives have been widely discussed by contemporaries and historians alike. Elizabeth's mother, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, came from the upper nobility, but her father, Richard Woodville, was a middle ranking provincial knight. Edward's Privy Council told him with unusual frankness, "she was no wife for a prince such as himself, for she was not the daughter of a duke or earl."[25]

The marriage was certainly unwise and unusual, although not unknown; Henry VI's mother, Catherine of Valois, married her chamberlain, Owen Tudor, while Edward's grandson Henry VIII created the Church of England to marry Anne Boleyn. By all accounts, Elizabeth possessed considerable charm of person and intellect, while Edward was used to getting what he wanted.[26] Historians generally accept the marriage was an impulsive decision, but differ on whether it was also a "calculated political move". One view is the low status of the Woodvilles was part of the attraction, since unlike the Nevilles, they were reliant on Edward and thus more likely to remain loyal.[27] Others argue if this was his purpose, there were far better options available; all agree it had significant political implications that impacted the rest of Edward's reign.[28]

Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, from the illuminated manuscript Anciennes Chroniques d'Angleterre, by Jean de Wavrin. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.

Unusually for the period, 12 of the new queen's siblings survived into adulthood, creating a large pool of competitors for offices and estates, as well as in the matrimony market. Her sisters made a series of advantageous unions, including that of Catherine Woodville to Henry Stafford, later Duke of Buckingham, Anne Woodville to William, heir to the Earl of Essex, and Eleanor Woodville with Anthony Grey, heir to the Earl of Kent.[29]

In 1467, Edward dismissed his Lord Chancellor, Warwick's brother George Neville, Archbishop of York. Warwick responded by building an alliance with Edward's disaffected younger brother and current heir, George, Duke of Clarence, who held estates adjacent to the Neville heartland in the north. Concerned by this, Edward blocked a proposed marriage between Clarence and Warwick's eldest daughter Isabel.[30]

In early July, Clarence travelled to Calais, where he married Isabel in a ceremony conducted by George Neville and overseen by Warwick. The three men issued a 'remonstrance', listing alleged abuses by the Woodvilles and other advisors close to Edward. They returned to London, where they assembled an army to remove these 'evil councillors' and establish good government.[31]

With Edward still in the north, the royal army was defeated by a Neville force at Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469. After the battle, Edward was held in Middleham Castle; on 12 August, Earl Rivers and his younger son John Woodville were executed at Kenilworth. However, it soon became clear there was little support for Warwick or Clarence; Edward was released in September and resumed the throne.[32]

Outwardly, the situation remained unchanged, but tensions persisted and Edward did nothing to reduce the Nevilles' sense of vulnerability. The Percys, traditional rivals of the Neville family in the North, fought for Lancaster at Towton; their titles and estates were confiscated and given to Warwick's brother John Neville. In early 1470, Edward reinstated Henry Percy as Earl of Northumberland; John was compensated with the title Marquess of Montagu, but this was a significant demotion for a key supporter.[33]

In March 1470, Warwick and Clarence exploited a private feud to initiate a full-scale revolt; when it was defeated, the two fled to France in May 1470.[34] Seeing an opportunity, Louis persuaded Warwick to negotiate with his long-time enemy, Margaret of Anjou; she eventually agreed, first making him kneel before her in silence for fifteen minutes.[35] With French support, Warwick landed in England on 9 September 1470 and announced his intention to restore Henry.[36] By now, the Yorkist regime was deeply unpopular and the Lancastrians rapidly assembled an army of over 30,000; when John Neville switched sides, Edward was forced into exile in Bruges.[37]

Exile and restoration

Edward IV (left) watching the execution of Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset at Tewkesbury, 1471

Edward took refuge in Flanders, part of the Duchy of Burgundy, accompanied by a few hundred men, including his younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Anthony Woodville and William Hastings.[38] The Duchy was ruled by Charles the Bold, husband of his sister Margaret; he provided minimal help, something Edward never forgot.[39]

The restored Lancastrian regime faced the same issue that dominated Henry's previous reign. Mental and physical frailties made him incapable of ruling and resulted in an internal struggle for control, made worse because the coalition that put him back on the throne consisted of bitter enemies. Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, held Warwick responsible for his fathers death in 1455, while he had executed his elder brother in 1464; Warwick and Clarence quickly found themselves isolated by the new regime.[40]

Backed by wealthy Flemish merchants, in March 1471 Edward landed near Hull, close to his estates in Yorkshire. Supporters were initially reluctant to commit; the key northern city of York opened its gates only when he claimed to be seeking the return of his dukedom, like Henry IV seventy years earlier. The first significant contingent to join was a group of 600 men under Sir William Parr and Sir James Harrington.[41] Parr fought against the Yorkists at Edgecote in 1469 and his defection confirmed Clarence's decision to switch sides; as they marched south, more recruits came in, including 3,000 at Leicester.[42]

Edward entered London unopposed and took Henry prisoner; Warwick was defeated and killed at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April, while a second Lancastrian army was destroyed at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May. 16 year old Edward of Westminster died on the battlefield, with surviving leaders like Somerset executed shortly afterwards. This was followed by Henry's death a few days later; a contemporary chronicle claimed this was due to "melancholy," but it is generally assumed he was killed on Edward's orders.[43]

Although the Lancastrian cause seemed at an end, the regime was destabilised by an ongoing quarrel between Clarence and his brother Gloucester. The two were married to Isabel Neville and Anne Neville respectively, Warwick's daughters by Anne Beauchamp and heirs to their mother's considerable inheritance.[44] Many of the estates held by the brothers had been granted by Edward, who could also remove them, making them dependent on his favour. This was not the case with property acquired through marriage and explains the importance of this dispute.[45]

1471 to 1483

Edward IV c.1520, posthumous portrait from original c. 1470–75; it shows signs of the corpulence that affected him in later life

The last significant rebellion ended in March 1474 with the surrender of the Earl of Oxford, who survived to command the Lancastrian army at Bosworth in 1485. Clarence was widely suspected of involvement, a factor in his eventual death in the Tower on 18 February 1478; claims he "drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine", appear to have been a joke by Edward, referring to his favourite drink.[46]

In 1475, Edward allied with Burgundy, and declared war on France. However, with Duke Charles focused on besieging Neuss, Louis opened negotiations and soon after Edward landed at Calais, the two signed the Treaty of Picquigny.[47] Edward received an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns, plus a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to recoup the costs of his army.[48]

In 1482, he backed an attempt to usurp the Scottish throne by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, brother of James III of Scotland. Gloucester invaded Scotland and took the town of Edinburgh, but not the far more formidable castle, where James was being held by his own nobles. Albany switched sides and without siege equipment, the English army was forced to withdraw, with little to show for an expensive campaign, apart from the capture of Berwick Castle.[49]

Edward's health began to fail, and he became subject to an increasing number of ailments; his physicians attributed this in part to a habitual use of emetics, which allowed him to gorge himself at meals, then return after vomiting to start again.[50] He fell fatally ill at Easter 1483, but survived long enough to add codicils to his will, the most important naming his brother as Protector after his death. He died on 9 April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. His twelve-year-old son, Edward V of England, was never crowned, Gloucester becoming Richard III in July.[51]

The cause of Edward's death is uncertain; allegations of poison were common in an era when lack of medical knowledge meant death often had no obvious explanation. Other suggestions include pneumonia or malaria, although both were well-known and easy to describe. One contemporary attributed it to apoplexy brought on by excess, which fits with what is known of his physical habits.[52]

While the War of the Roses has been documented by numerous historians, Edward as an individual is less well known; 19th century historians like William Stubbs generally dismissed him as a bloodthirsty nonentity. The most comprehensive modern biography was written by Charles Ross in 1974, who concluded that Edward's greatest apparent achievement – the peace and stability of his latter years – was squandered in short-term aggrandisement.[53] Ross states Edward ’remains the only king in English history since 1066 in active possession of his throne who failed to secure the safe succession of his son. His lack of political foresight is largely to blame for the unhappy aftermath of his early death.’[54]

Assessment

Presentation miniature from a copy of Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers, one of the first books printed in England (by William Caxton initially in 1477). Edward is here shown receiving a manuscript copy from Woodville and the scribe. With Edward are depicted his wife Elizabeth, the Prince of Wales, and Richard of Gloucester

Economic, Political, Diplomatic

Commentators observe a marked difference between his first period as king, and the second. The failure of attempts to reconcile former enemies like Somerset meant he was noticeably more ruthless after 1471, including the execution of his brother Clarence.[55] In his youth, Edward was a capable and charismatic military commander, who led from the front, but as he grew older, the energy noted by contemporaries became less apparent.[56]

One effect of this was that Parliament became increasingly reluctant to approve taxes for wars which he failed to prosecute, then used the funds instead to finance his household expenditures. Under his rule, ownership of the Duchy of Lancaster was transferred to the Crown, where it remains today. In 1478, his staff prepared the so-called 'Black Book', a comprehensive review of government finances, still in use a century later.[57] He invested heavily in business ventures with the City of London, which he used as an additional source of funding.[58]

Although the economy recovered from the depression of 1450 to 1470, Edward's spending habitually exceeded income; on his death in 1483, the Crown had less than £1,200 in cash. His close relationship with the London branch of the Medici Bank ended in its bankruptcy; in 1517, the Medicis were still seeking repayment of Edward's debts.[59]

Economics was closely linked to foreign policy; Edward's reign was dominated by the three sided diplomatic contest between England, France, and Burgundy, with two of the three seeking to ally against the third.[c] As Flemish merchants were the largest buyers of English wool, Edward was generally pro-Burgundian, although Duke Charles' reluctance to support him in 1471 impacted their relationship. The death of Charles in 1477 led to the 1482 Treaty of Arras; Flanders, along with the lands known as the Burgundian Netherlands, became part of the Holy Roman Empire, and France acquired the rest. Edward and his successors lost much of their leverage as a result.[60]

Cultural

Edward's Great Hall, Eltham Palace, ca 2018

Edward's court was described by a visitor from Europe as "the most splendid ... in all Christendom".[61] He spent large amounts on expensive status symbols to show off his power and wealth as king of England, while his collecting habits show an eye for style and an interest in scholarship, particularly history. He acquired fine clothes, jewels, and furnishings, as well as a collection of beautifully illuminated historical and literary manuscripts, many made specially for him by craftsmen in Bruges.[62] [63]

These included books for both entertainment and instruction, whose contents reveal his interests. They focus on the lives of great rulers, including Julius Caesar,[64] historical chronicles,[65] and instructional and religious works.[66] In 1476, William Caxton established the first English printing press in the outbuildings of Westminster Abbey; on 18 November 1477, he produced Sayengis of the Philosophres, translated into English for Edward by Anthony Woodville.[67]

It is not known where or how Edward's library was stored, but it is recorded that he transferred volumes from the Great Wardrobe to Eltham Palace and that he had a yeoman "to kepe the king's bookes".[68] [69] More than forty of his books survive intact from the 15th century, which suggests they were carefully stored, and are now included in the Royal Collection of manuscripts, held by the British Library.[70]

Edward spent large sums on Eltham Palace, including the still-extant Great Hall, site of a feast for 2,000 people in December 1482, shortly before his death in April.[71] He also began a major upgrade of St George's Chapel, Windsor, where he was buried in 1483; later completed by Henry VII, it was badly damaged during the First English Civil War, and little of the original work remains.[72]

Marriage and children

Edward had ten children by Elizabeth Woodville, seven of whom survived him; they were declared illegitimate under the 1483 Titulus Regius, an act repealed by Henry VII, who married his eldest daughter, Elizabeth.[73]

Edward had numerous mistresses, including Lady Eleanor Talbot and Elizabeth Lucy, possibly daughter of Thomas Waite (or Wayte), of Southampton. The most famous was Jane Shore, later compelled by Richard to perform public penance at Paul's Cross; Sir Thomas More claimed this backfired, since "albeit she were out of al array save her kyrtle only: yet went she so fair & lovely … that her great shame wan her much praise."[74]

He had several acknowledged illegitimate children;

  • Elizabeth Plantagenet (born circa 1464), possibly daughter of Elizabeth Lucy, who married Thomas, son of George Lumley, Baron Lumley[75][76] [77]
  • Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle (1460s/1470s – 3 March 1542), author of the Lisle Papers, an important historical source for the Tudor period. From his first marriage to Elizabeth Grey, he had three daughters, Frances, Elizabeth and Bridget Plantagenet.
  • Grace Plantagenet, recorded as attending the funeral of Elizabeth Woodville in 1492;[78]

There are claims for many others, including Mary, second wife of Henry Harman of Ellam, and Isabel Mylbery (born circa 1470), who married John Tuchet, son of John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley. However, the evidence for these is circumstantial.[79]

Aftermath

Cardinal Reginald Pole, (1500–1558), last legitimate male Yorkist heir

His eldest son Edward was made Prince of Wales when he was seven months old and given his own household at the age of three. Based in Ludlow Castle, he was supervised by his uncle, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, who also acted as his regent for the Council of Wales and the Marches.[80] The historical consensus is Edward and Richard were killed, probably between July to September 1483; debate on who gave the orders, and why, continues, although their uncle Richard was the beneficiary.[81]

By mid-August, Elizabeth Woodville was certain of their death; after her initial grief turned to fury, she opened secret talks with Margaret Beaufort. She promised her support in return for Henry's agreement to marry her eldest daughter Elizabeth of York.[6] In December 1483, Henry swore an oath to do so, which he duly carried out after his coronation in October 1485.[82]

Prior to his succession, Richard III declared Edward and Richard illegitimate, on the grounds his brother's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid.[6] The Titulus Regius argued Edward had agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Talbot, rendering his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville void. Both parties were dead, but Robert Stillington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, claimed to have carried out the ceremony. The Titulus was annulled by Henry VII, since his marriage to her daughter Elizabeth added legitimacy to his claim; Stillington died in prison in 1491.[83]

Despite this apparent resolution, the Yorkist cause continued well into the 16th century. The most famous are the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck but Yorkist challengers remained a concern for Henry VII and his son. In 1541, Henry VIII executed Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, daughter of the Duke of Clarence, while a number of attempts were made on the life of her son, the last legitimate direct heir, Cardinal Reginald Pole, who died in 1558.[84]

Ancestry

References

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  2. ^ Penn 2019, p. 8.
  3. ^ a b Ross 1974, pp. 3–7.
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  27. ^ Wilkinson 1964, p. 146.
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Notes

  1. ^ Henry's grandfather was Henry IV of England, whose father John of Gaunt was Edward III's third surviving son. Henry IV had deposed Richard II from the senior line. York's claim derived from Edward III's fourth son, Edmund, 1st Duke of York, but his mother Anne de Mortimer was the senior descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp. By modern standards, York was the senior heir, although this was less clear at the time. In practical terms, it meant both he and Edward had a legitimate claim to the throne.[3]
  2. ^ Now the generally accepted date, although others suggest it was fought on 3 February
  3. ^ This resurfaced in the 17th century contest between England, the Dutch Republic, and France under Louis XIV

Sources

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  • Chibnall, Marjorie (1960). "Review; The Household of Edward IV: The Black Book and the Ordinance of 1478, by A. R. Myers". The Journal of Economic History. 20 (2).
  • Corbet, Anthony, Dr (2015). Edward IV, England's Forgotten Warrior King: His Life, His People, and His Legacy. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4917-4635-6.
  • Crawford, Anne (2008). The Yorkists: The History of a Dynasty. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-84725-197-8.
  • Doyle, Kathleen (2011). McKendrick, Scot; Lowden, John; Doyle, Kathleen (eds.). The Old Royal Library. Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination. British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-5816-3.
  • Gillingham, John (1990) [1982]. The Wars of the Roses. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297820161.
  • Given-Wilson, Chris; Curteis, Alice (1984). The Royal Bastards of Medieval England. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7102-0025-9.
  • Harris, Nicholas (1830). Privy Purse expenses of Elizabeth of York: Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV. London: William Pickering.
  • Hicks, Michael (2011). Richard III. History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-7326-0.
  • Horrox, Rosemary (1989). Richard III: A Study of Service. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40726-7.
  • Horrox, Rosemary (2004). "Shore [née Lambert], Elizabeth [Jane]". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford DNB. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25451. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Kendall, Paul Murray (1970). Louis XI, the Universal Spider. Norton.
  • Kerling, Nelly Johanna (1954). Commercial Relations of Holland and Zeeland with England from the Late 13th century to the Close of the Middle Ages. University of Leiden–Brill.
  • Kleiman, Irit Ruth (2013). Philippe de Commynes: Memory, Betrayal, Text. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-6324-4.
  • Mackenzie, Eneas (1825). An Historical, Topographical, and Descriptive View of the County of Northumberland... Mackenzie and Dent.
  • McKendrick, Scot (2011). McKendrick, Scot; Lowden, John; Doyle, Kathleen (eds.). A European Heritage, Books of Continental Origin. Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination. British Library. ISBN 978-0-7123-5816-3.
  • Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810857797.
  • Parry, Edward (1851). Royal visits and progresses to Wales, and the border counties.
  • Penn, Thomas (2019). The Brothers York. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1846146909.
  • Rorke, Martin (2006). "English and Scottish Overseas Trade, 1300–1600". The Economic History Review. 59 (2): 265–288. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2006.00346.x. JSTOR 3805936.
  • Ross, Charles (1974). Edward IV. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520027817.
  • Ross, Charles (1981). Richard III. Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0413295309.
  • Seward, Desmond (1997). Wars of the Roses. Constable. ISBN 978-0-09-477300-4.
  • Seward, Desmond (2014). Richard III: England's Black Legend. Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-60598-603-6.
  • Sutherland, TL; Schmidt, A (2003). "The Towton Battlefield Archaeological Survey Project:An Integrated Approach to Battlefield Archaeology". Landscapes. 4 (2). JSTOR 3805936.
  • Thurley, Simon (1993). The Royal Palaces of Tudor England: A Social and Architectural History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-3000-5420-0.
  • Timbs, John (1855). Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis. D. Bogue.
  • Whittle, Andrew (2017). The Historical Reputation of Edward IV 1461–1725 (PDF). University of East Anglia, School of History PHD.
  • Wilkinson, Bertie (1964). Constitutional History of England in the Fifteenth Century (1399–1485): With Illustrative Documents. Longmans.
  • Williams, Neville (1973). The Life and Times of Henry VII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-76517-2.
  • Wilson, Trish. "Was Edward IV Illegitimate?: The Case for the Defence". History Files. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  • Wolfe, Bertram (1981). Henry VI (The English Monarchs Series). Methuen. ISBN 978-0413320803.

Further reading

  • Cokayne, G.E. (2000). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. Alan Sutton.
  • Gravett, Christopher (2003). Towton 1461: England's Bloodiest Battle. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-513-6.
  • Hankinson, C.F.J., ed. (1949). DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th Year. London: Odhams Press.
  • Mount, Toni (2014). Everyday Life in Medieval London: From the Anglo-Saxons to the Tudors. Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-4456-1564-6.
  • Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage. III (107th ed.). Burke's Peerage.
  • Weir, Alison (1999). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: The Bodley Head.

External links

  • "Eltham Palace and Gardens". English Heritage. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  • Edward IV at BBC History
  • Portraits of King Edward IV at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata
  • British Library Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts (SEARCH: Keyword Edward IV, Start year 1470, End year 1480 for details and images of Edward IV's manuscripts).
Edward IV of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 28 April 1442 Died: 9 April 1483
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry VI
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1461–1470
Succeeded by
Henry VI
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1471–1483
Succeeded by
Edward V
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Richard Plantagenet
Duke of York
Earl of Cambridge
Earl of March

1460–1461
Merged in Crown
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Richard Plantagenet
Earl of Ulster
1460–1461
Merged in Crown