Elastic pendulum

Summary

2D spring Pendulum.gif

In physics and mathematics, in the area of dynamical systems, an elastic pendulum[1][2] (also called spring pendulum[3][4] or swinging spring) is a physical system where a piece of mass is connected to a spring so that the resulting motion contains elements of both a simple pendulum and a one-dimensional spring-mass system.[2] The system exhibits chaotic behaviour and is sensitive to initial conditions.[2] The motion of an elastic pendulum is governed by a set of coupled ordinary differential equations.

Analysis and interpretation

2 DOF elastic pendulum with polar coordinate plots. [5]

The system is much more complex than a simple pendulum, as the properties of the spring add an extra dimension of freedom to the system. For example, when the spring compresses, the shorter radius causes the spring to move faster due to the conservation of angular momentum. It is also possible that the spring has a range that is overtaken by the motion of the pendulum, making it practically neutral to the motion of the pendulum.

Lagrangian

The spring has the rest length and can be stretched to length . The angle of oscillation of the pendulum is .

The Lagrangian is:

where is the kinetic energy and is the potential energy.

See. Hooke's law is the potential energy of the spring itself:

where is the spring constant.

The potential energy from gravity, on the other hand, is determined by the height of the mass. For a given angle and displacement, the potential energy is:

where is the gravitational acceleration.

The kinetic energy is given by:

where is the velocity of the mass. To relate to the other variables, the velocity is written as a combination of a movement along and perpendicular to the spring:

So the Lagrangian becomes:[1]

Equations of motion

With two degrees of freedom, for and , the equations of motion can be found using two Euler-Lagrange equations:

For :[1]

isolated:

And for :[1]

isolated:

The elastic pendulum is now described with two coupled ordinary differential equations. These can be solved numerically. Furthermore, one can use analytical methods to study the intriguing phenomenon of order-chaos-order[6] in this system.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Xiao, Qisong; et al. "Dynamics of the Elastic Pendulum" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b c Pokorny, Pavel (2008). "Stability Condition for Vertical Oscillation of 3-dim Heavy Spring Elastic Pendulum" (PDF). Regular and Chaotic Dynamics. 13 (3): 155–165. Bibcode:2008RCD....13..155P. doi:10.1134/S1560354708030027.
  3. ^ Sivasrinivas, Kolukula. "Spring Pendulum".
  4. ^ Hill, Christian (19 July 2017). "The spring pendulum".
  5. ^ Simionescu, P.A. (2014). Computer Aided Graphing and Simulation Tools for AutoCAD Users (1st ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4822-5290-3.
  6. ^ Anurag, Anurag; Basudeb, Mondal; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta Kumar; Chakraborty, Sagar (2020). "Understanding the order-chaos-order transition in the planar elastic pendulum". Physica D. 402: 132256. doi:10.1016/j.physd.2019.132256.

Further reading

  • Pokorny, Pavel (2008). "Stability Condition for Vertical Oscillation of 3-dim Heavy Spring Elastic Pendulum" (PDF). Regular and Chaotic Dynamics. 13 (3): 155–165. Bibcode:2008RCD....13..155P. doi:10.1134/S1560354708030027.
  • Pokorny, Pavel (2009). "Continuation of Periodic Solutions of Dissipative and Conservative Systems: Application to Elastic Pendulum" (PDF). Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2009: 1–15. doi:10.1155/2009/104547.

External links

  • Holovatsky V., Holovatska Y. (2019) "Oscillations of an elastic pendulum" (interactive animation), Wolfram Demonstrations Project, published February 19, 2019.