Elgin (// EL-jin) is a city in Cook and Kane counties in the northern part of the U.S. state of Illinois. Elgin is located 35 mi (56 km) northwest of Chicago, along the Fox River. As of the 2020 Census, the city had a population of 114,797, the seventh-largest city in Illinois.
|City of Elgin|
The City in the Suburbs
The Jewel of the Midwest
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Townships||Elgin, Dundee, Rutland, Plato, Campton, Hanover|
|Incorporated (city)||April 24, 1854|
|• Type||Home Rule, Council–manager|
|• Mayor||Dave Kaptain|
|• City Manager||Rick Kozal|
|• Total||38.60 sq mi (99.97 km2)|
|• Land||38.03 sq mi (98.49 km2)|
|• Water||0.57 sq mi (1.49 km2) 1.43%|
|Elevation||810 ft (250 m)|
|• Density||3,018.83/sq mi (1,165.59/km2)|
|Standard of living (2011)|
|• Median household income||$56,091|
|• Median home value||$209,800|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (Central)|
|Area code(s)||331, 847 and 224|
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the Black Hawk Indian War of 1832 led to the expulsion of the Native Americans who had settlements and burial mounds in the area and set the stage for the founding of Elgin. Thousands of militiamen and soldiers of Gen. Winfield Scott's army marched through the Fox River valley during the war, and accounts of the area's fertile soils and flowing springs soon filtered east.
In New York, James T. Gifford and his brother Hezekiah Gifford heard tales of this area ripe for settlement, and they travelled west. Looking for a site on the stagecoach route from Chicago to Galena, Illinois, they eventually settled on a spot where the Fox River could be bridged. In April 1835, they established the city, naming it after the Scottish tune "Elgin".
Early Elgin achieved fame for the butter and dairy goods it sold to the city of Chicago. Gail Borden established a condensed milk factory here in 1866, and the local library was named in his honor. The dairy industry became less important with the arrival of the Elgin Watch Company. The watch factory employed three generations of Elginites from the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, when it was the largest producer of fine watches in the United States (the factory ceased production in 1965 and was torn down in the summer of 1966) and the operator of the largest watchmaking complex in the world. Today, the clocks at Chicago's Union Station still bear the Elgin name.
Elgin has a long tradition of education and invention. Elgin is home to the Elgin Academy, the oldest coeducational, non-sectarian college preparatory school west of the Allegheny Mountains. Elgin High School boasts five Navy admirals, a Nobel Prize winner, a Pulitzer Prize winner, a Tony Award winner, two Academy Award-winning producers, Olympic athletes and a General Motors CEO among its alumni. Elgin resident John Murphy invented the motorized streetsweeper in 1914 and later formed the Elgin Sweeper Corporation. Pioneering African-American chemist Lloyd Hall was an Elgin native, as was the legendary marketer and car stereo pioneer Earl "Madman" Muntz and Max Adler, founder of the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, America's first planetarium.
Elgin is located at (42.0384225, −88.3226510).
According to the 2010 census, Elgin has a total area of 37.704 square miles (97.65 km2), of which 37.16 square miles (96.24 km2), or 98.56%, is land and 0.544 square miles (1.41 km2), or 1.44%, is water.
|Climate data for Elgin, Illinois (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1983–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||63
|Average high °F (°C)||30.1
|Daily mean °F (°C)||22.1
|Average low °F (°C)||14.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−27
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.02
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||9.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.0||7.9||9.6||12.5||13.1||11.1||9.4||10.1||9.1||10.8||9.9||10.4||123.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||7.1||5.1||2.7||0.7||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.1||5.2||21.9|
On March 28, 1920, Elgin was struck by several tornadoes along the Fox River that caused significant damage to Chicago and several western suburbs. Twenty-three people were killed and several businesses and homes were destroyed, including the Opera House and Grant Theater.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Race / Ethnicity||Pop 2010||Pop 2020||% 2010||% 2020|
|White alone (NH)||46,089||42,261||42.60%||36.81%|
|Black or African American alone (NH)||7,467||7,207||6.90%||6.28%|
|Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)||144||150||0.13%||0.13%|
|Asian alone (NH)||5,675||7,285||5.25%||6.35%|
|Pacific Islander alone (NH)||19||27||0.02%||0.02%|
|Some Other Race alone (NH)||115||392||0.11%||0.34%|
|Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)||1,558||3,015||1.44%||2.63%|
|Hispanic or Latino (any race)||47,121||54,460||43.55%||47.44%|
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
As of the census of 2010, there were 108,188 people, and 37,848 households. The population density was 2,911.2 people per square mile. There were 37,848 housing units at an average density of 1,306.5 per square mile (504.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 65.9% White, 7.4% African American, 1.40% Native American, 5.4% Asian, 16.3% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 43.6% of the population. A significant portion of Elgin's Asian population was of Laotian origin.
There were 35,094 households, out of which 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals 65 years and older, and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.56.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.4% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. 50.2% of the population was female.
The median income for a household in the city was $56,337, and the median income for a family was $68,740. Males had a median income of $39,581 versus $28,488 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,478. About 6.4% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.
In 2013, Elgin ranked number one in the Chicago metropolitan area in new home starts while ranking second in new home closings. Elgin's downtown has also been the center of city renovations and new developments. New townhouses, condo towers, loft spaces, and art galleries have opened in the last decade. In October 2003 the Gail Borden Public Library moved into a new $30 million, 139,980 square foot, 460,000 volume-capacity building, and in August 2009 opened its first-ever satellite branch. The 10,000 square foot Rakow Branch, situated on Elgin's West Side, was LEED registered, and was designed to be expandable up to 30,000 square feet. Elgin opened the 185,000 sq. ft. Centre of Elgin recreation facility across the street from the library. In 2009, Gail Borden was one of five libraries to receive the National Medal for Museum and Library Service issued by the Institute of Museum and Library Services in Washington D.C. In 2014, Elgin completed the Central Business District Streetscape Improvement Project and the Riverside Drive Promenade.
In the 1990s, Elgin became one of the few cities in northern Illinois to host a riverboat casino. The Grand Victoria Casino initially generated controversy, but went on to be a significant source of income for the city. Drawing nearly four million people annually, as of March 2005 it was the fifth most popular tourist attraction in Illinois. The Grand Victoria Foundation, to which the casino had contributed an amount in excess of $116 million, provides community grants to nonprofits in the city. In the years since, more casinos have opened in the area and the Grand Victoria Casino had seen attendance and revenue decline.
A significant Laotian American community calls Elgin home. Elgin has been a sister city of Vientiane, the capital of Laos, since 1967. Some Laotian Americans have opened stores and restaurants, contributing to the city's cultural diversity.
Elgin is also home to a sizeable Latino population, contributing to 45.7% of the population in 2020. Because of this, Elgin is home to many restaurants and businesses of Mexican origin, including multiple Helados La Michoacana ice-cream shops, Elgin Fresh Market grocery stores, and a multitude of taquerias.
Elgin's civic society is characterized by a large, diverse, and effective group of grassroots organizations, a sense of community pride and a spirit of volunteerism and participation. In recognition of this, for the second time, Elgin won the National Civic League's prestigious All-America City Award in 2002.
Elgin was chartered as a city by the State of Illinois in 1854, and 100 years later it became the first city in Illinois to adopt a council-manager form of government. Residents elect eight at-large council members and a mayor, who serve on a part-time basis. The city manager, a full-time professional, serves at the pleasure of the mayor and city council.
The current council members are Corey Dixon, Dustin Good, Rosamaria Martinez, Tish S. Powell, Carol J. Rauschenberger, Toby Shaw, F. John Steffen and Steven Thoren. Elgin's current mayor is David Kaptain and city manager is Rick Kozal.
The city council meets the second and fourth Wednesday of each month at 6:00 p.m. in the council chambers, located on the second floor of City Hall. Agenda and minutes are available on the city's website. Residents may attend in person at City Hall, watch the live video stream from the online newsroom, or view the replays on cable Channel 17.
The city is represented in the Illinois legislature by Representatives Anna Moeller (D), Dan Ugaste (R), and Fred Crespo (D) and Senators Cristina Castro (D) and Don DeWitte (R). In the US House of Representatives, Elgin is represented by Lauren Underwood (D), Sean Casten (D), and Raja Krishnamoorthi (D).
Elgin includes portions of Hanover Township in Cook County and Elgin Township, Plato Township, Rutland Township, Dundee Township, and Campton Township in Kane County. Elgin Township is governed by a supervisor (Kenneth C. Bruderle), highway commissioner (Jason Krabbe), assessor (Steven P. Surnicki), clerk (Karen Dowling) and four trustees (Mark Bialek, Alejandro Lopez, Janet Rogalla and Eric Stare) elected to four-year terms.
Elgin Fire Department has 133 sworn firefighters and seven fire stations. The front-line fire apparatus consists of six Advanced Life Support (ALS) fire engines, one quint, two part-time trucks, five ALS ambulances, two boats, and a rescue raft, along with several vehicles used for inspections and other official business. Two of the ladder truck companies are part-time that double as part-time engines.
Elgin is home to the Elgin Symphony Orchestra. Other classical music groups include the Elgin Youth Symphony Orchestra, the Elgin Master Chorale, and the Elgin Children's Chorus. Outdoor music can be heard at the Wing Park Bandshell. Theatre groups include the Janus Theatre Company, Elgin Theatre Company, the Independent Players, Children's Theatre of Elgin, Fox Valley Youth Theatre, and Nothing Special Productions. Together, The Hemmens Cultural Center and Elgin Community College's Visual & Performing Arts Center host dozens of performances a year by performers ranging from Chicago's Hubbard Street Dance Company to comedian Bill Maher.
After losing many landmark businesses in the 1980s, downtown Elgin experienced a renaissance in the 1990s with the arrival of the Grand Victoria riverboat casino and improvement in the local economy. Many historic buildings have been transformed into stylish clubs and restaurants.
Elgin's city parks include 112-acre (45 ha) Lords Park, which features the Elgin Public Museum and a small zoo featuring a herd of American bison, and 121-acre (49 ha) Wing Park, which includes a golf course and outdoor swimming pool. Other golf courses within Elgin include the Highlands of Elgin, the Elgin Country Club, and Bowes Creek Country Club. The Centre of Elgin, which among other features includes an aquatic park and a climbing wall, remains one of the largest municipal recreation centers in the United States. The Elgin Sports Complex on the city's southwest side offers ten lighted ballfields, ten soccer fields and The Hill BMX track. The complex hosts several local, regional and national tournaments every year. Elgin connects to Algonquin and Dundee to the north, and St. Charles, Geneva, and Batavia to the south by the Fox River Trail bike path.
Although one of the largest and fastest-growing cities in Illinois, Elgin still retains some of the natural habitat diversity that first brought settlers to this area. On the east, the city borders the 4,200-acre (1,700 ha) Poplar Creek Preserve, maintained by the Cook County Forest Preserves, which includes bike trails, hiking trails and equestrian trails. The Shoe Factory Road Prairie located in the preserve provides an example of the hill prairies that once dotted the region. Poplar Creek Preserves connects to the 4,000-acre (1,600 ha) Spring Creek Valley Forest Preserve via a conservation easement covering parts of the Sears campus.
Elgin boasts two highly protected nature preserves, the Bluff Spring Fen and Trout Park. For its size, Bluff Spring Fen has a remarkable number of distinct plant communities, including a hill prairie and a fen, or alkaline spring marshland, which is home to several rare orchids. Trout Park also includes a similar calcareous seep community, with the addition of a unique forest community of oaks, ashes, maples, and uncommon species such as arborvitae and witch-hazel. When the park was created in the 1920s, the local newspaper ran a lengthy front-page story with lists of the plant species of Trout Park, reflecting both the great variety of plants present and the interest Elginites had in conservation. In the 1960s, the Northwest Tollway bisected the site and reduced it in size.
In recent years, Elgin has increased its efforts to be more environmentally sustainable. In 2017, the city introduced free curbside textile recycling to residents, and it is the first city in Illinois to do so. Additionally, Elgin encourages its residents to compost and use rain barrels, which it sometimes subsidizes for residents to purchase. The city also has a proposed Sustainability Action Plan that includes plans for creating renewable sources of energy for the city, a curbside organics/composting pilot-program, and information about community gardens.
The city was known for its historic architecture and landmarks from the Victorian era, including some fine examples of homes in the Queen Anne style. Many of the most remarkable homes once belonged to National Watch Company executives. Many interesting Sears Catalog Homes arrived in Elgin as kits from 1908 to 1940. The Elgin Tower Building and the Elgin Professional Building are two large towers constructed in Elgin's heyday, before the Great Depression. The Tower Building was recently renovated, converting it to residential apartments.
Predating Victorian homes were homes made of native cobblestone. It was believed that Elgin had at one time the largest concentration of cobblestone homes outside of Rochester, New York. Several such homes built by the earliest settlers still stand. They can be seen in Elgin's historic districts, two of which are recognized by the National Register of Historic Places.
The Elgin Public Museum at Lords Park was the oldest building in Illinois built expressly as a museum that was still serving that purpose.
Open Elgin is a free, self guided tour of downtown Elgin's architecture. Each April, over two dozen buildings are accessible on the tour, though the event has been postponed due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The nine-member Elgin Heritage Commission promotes historic preservation activity. The Gifford Park Association was also active in historic preservation, and conducts a popular annual house tour.
According to Elgin's 2018 Comprehensive Plan, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Elgin Area School District U46||4,329|
|2||J.P. Morgan Chase||2,500|
|3||Advocate Sherman Hospital||2,094|
|4||John B. Sanfilippo (Fisher Nuts)||1,742|
|5||Provena Saint Joseph Hospital||1,349|
|6||Elgin Community College||1,064|
|7||Grand Victoria Casino||800|
|8||Elgin Mental Health Center||750|
|9||American NTN Bearing||675|
|10||City of Elgin||659|
|12||Communication Test Design Inc||312|
Elgin has three stations on Metra's Milwaukee District/West Line, which provides daily rail service between Elgin and Chicago Union Station): National Street, Elgin, and Big Timber Road. Big Timber Road is the western terminus of this service, however it is not serviced by the Metra on weekends or major U.S. holidays as trains terminate in Elgin on those days.
Elgin used to have a streetcar system, operated by the Aurora, Elgin and Fox River Electric Company. Additionally, Elgin was served by several interurban lines. The most prominent of these was the Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad which provided frequent service into Chicago.
Local bus service is provided by PACE (the Suburban bus provider of the Northeastern Illinois Regional Transportation Authority). PACE operates about a dozen bus routes in the city with service running Monday through Saturday. Most of the routes terminate at the Elgin Transportation Center located at 102 West Chicago Street in downtown. Routes generally run every half hour and meet up at the terminal at the same time to provide convenient transferring. Several routes also travel out of Elgin to other nearby suburbs, such as Carpentersville, West Dundee (Spring Hill Mall), Schaumburg (Woodfield Mall), and St. Charles (and connecting bus service to Aurora and Geneva).
Pace operates an express route between Elgin and the Rosemont station on the Blue Line. The service operates along I-90. Access to the bus route is via the Elgin Transportation Center, the Randall Road park and ride lot, and the IL-25 park and ride lot.
Major highways in Elgin include:
Four public school districts and 18 private schools serve Elgin.
Private schools include:
In 1936, a commemorative silver half dollar was issued by the United States Mint commemorating the centennial of Elgin. The coin was meant to raise money for the pioneer family memorial proposed by Elgin sculptor Trygve Rovelstad, and sold for $1.50. The obverse features the profile of a pioneer with the dates 1673 * 1936, while the reverse features a pioneer family; both images are based on a centennial "Pioneer Medal" made by Rovelstad. The date 1673 was in reference to the expedition of Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette, despite the fact that their journey took them nowhere near the future site of Elgin.
The coin did not prove to be a popular success, probably because of the Great Depression and the great variety of commemorative coins being issued at the time. Five thousand of the 25,000 coins initially minted were unsold and melted down by the mint. Rovelstad's pioneer statue was not installed until 2001.
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