Erik Ivar Fredholm


Erik Ivar Fredholm (7 April 1866 – 17 August 1927) was a Swedish mathematician whose work on integral equations and operator theory foreshadowed the theory of Hilbert spaces.

Erik Ivar Fredholm
Fredholm 2.jpeg
Erik Ivar Fredholm
Born7 April 1866
Died17 August 1927 (1927-08-18) (aged 61)
Mörby (near Stockholm)
Known forAnalytic Fredholm theorem
Fredholm alternative
Fredholm determinant
Fredholm equation
Fredholm kernel
Fredholm module
Fredholm operator
Fredholm solvability
Fredholm's theorem
Fredholm theory
Resolvent formalism
AwardsBjörkénska priset (1910)
Scientific career
Doctoral advisorGösta Mittag-Leffler
Doctoral studentsCarl-Gustaf Rossby[1]
Nils Zeilon


Fredholm was born in Stockholm in 1866. He obtained his PhD at Uppsala University in 1898, under the supervision of Gösta Mittag-Leffler. He was docent at Stockholm University from 1898 to 1906 and professor from 1906 until his death.[2] In 1914 he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Beside his academic career he was recruited to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency when it was founded in 1902. He later served as an actuary at the insurance company Skandia (1904-1927), where his Fredholm equation was used to calculate buyback-prices.[3]

From 1911, he was married to Agnes Maria Liljeblad, the secretary of Mittag-Leffler.[4]

Mathematical workEdit

In (Fredholm 1900, 1903), Fredholm introduced and analysed a class of integral equations now called Fredholm equations. His analysis included the construction of Fredholm determinants, and the proof of the Fredholm theorems.


Fredholm was a member of the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters and of the Accademia dei Lincei; he was awarded the Poncelet Prize for 1908.[5][6]

The lunar crater Fredholm is named after him as is the asteroid 21659 Fredholm.


  • Fredholm, I. (1900). "Sur une nouvelle méthode pour la résolution du problème de Dirichlet". Kong. Vetenskaps-Akademiens FBRH. Stockholm (in French): 39–46. JFM 32.0435.02.
  • Fredholm, E.I. (1903). "Sur une classe d'équations fonctionnelles" (PDF). Acta Math. 27: 365–390. doi:10.1007/bf02421317. JFM 34.0422.02.
  • Fredholm, I. (1955). Oeuvres complètes. Malmd: Litos Reprotryck.


  1. ^ Bolin, Bert (1959). The Atmosphere and the Sea in Motion: Scientific Contributions to the Rossby Memorial Volume. Rockefeller Univ. Press. p. 54 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ Nörlund & Carleman (1928)
  3. ^ Grenholm (1955)
  4. ^ Stubhaug (2010)
  5. ^ Nörlund & Carleman (1928)
  6. ^ "Séance du 7 décembre". Le Moniteur Scientifique du Docteur Quesneville: 134. February 1909. Archived from the original on 2014-10-21.


  • Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří (1977). "Ivar Fredholm and the origins of functional analysis". Pokroky Matematiky, Fyziky a Astronomie (in Czech). 22 (1): 10–21. hdl:10338.dmlcz/137665. MR 0532508. Zbl 0445.01009.
  • Nörlund, N.E.; Carleman, Torsten (1928). "Nous avons le devoir douloureux d'annoncer la mort de notre collaborateur Erik Ivar Fredholm décédé à Mörby le 17 août 1927". Acta Math (in French). 51 (1): i–ii. doi:10.1007/bf02545657. MR 1555258.
  • Zeilon, Nils (1930). "Ivar Fredholm". Acta Math (in French). 54 (1): I–XVI. doi:10.1007/bf02547515. MR 1555300.
  • Stubhaug, Arild (2010). "The Big Poincaré Campaign". Gösta Mittag-Leffler. pp. 543–552. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11672-8_66. ISBN 978-3-642-11671-1.
  • Grenholm, Åke (1955). Försäkringsaktiebolaget Skandia 1855-1955. pp. 186–188.

External linksEdit