Ernakulam

Summary

Ernakulam (Malayalam: [erɐɳɐːkuɭɐm] (listen)) is the central portion of the city of Kochi in Kerala, India and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district.[1] Many major establishments, including the Kerala High Court, the office of the Kochi Municipal Corporation and the Cochin Shipyard are situated here.

Ernakulam
Downtown (CBD) of Kochi city
Cochin Shipyard in the Ernakulam Side of Kochi
Cochin Shipyard in the Ernakulam Side of Kochi
Ernakulam is located in Kerala
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Location in Kerala, India
Ernakulam is located in India
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Ernakulam (India)
Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28
Country India
City UAKochi
DistrictErnakulam
StateKerala
Government
 • BodyKochi Municipal Corporation Ernakulam District Panchayath
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Downtown (CBD) of Kochi city200,000
 • Metro
550,000
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0484
Vehicle registrationKL-07
Lok Sabha constituencyErnakulam
Websitewww.ernakulam.nic.in

Initially, Ernakulam was the headquarters of the Ernakulam District but was later shifted to Kakkanad, an eastern region in Kochi.[citation needed] Ernakulam was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin.

HistoryEdit

Pre-historyEdit

Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement.[citation needed] Monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulam.[citation needed]

Classical historyEdit

The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period.[2] The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam).[3]

Princely State of CochinEdit

Although under British suzerainty, specifically the East India Company, since the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814,[4] Rama Varma XII of the Kingdom of Cochin, about 1840, moved their capital from Mattancherry to Tripunithura.[5] Fort Cochin Municipality was established in 1866 under the Madras Town Improvement Act of 1865, and municipal elections were first held in 1883.[5] Ernakulam became a municipality in 1910.[5] In the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901; 11,197 Hindus, 9,357 Christians, 935 Muslims, and 412 Jews.[6]

GeographyEdit

The Ernakulam District is situated in Central Kerala in India. Ernakulam is located at 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28.[7] It has an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft).

ClimateEdit

Under the Köppen climate classification, the city of Kochi features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats.

The city is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3,000 mm (120 in). The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year. The maximum average temperature of the city in the summer season is 33 °C (91 °F) while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 °C (72.5 °F). The winter season records a maximum average of 29 °C (84 °F) and a minimum average of 20 °C (68 °F).

Climate DataEdit

Below is the climate data for Kochi Naval Base, which is situated nearby to Ernakulam.

Climate data for Kochi (Kochi Naval Base) 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
36.0
(96.8)
36.5
(97.7)
35.2
(95.4)
34.2
(93.6)
33.1
(91.6)
32.5
(90.5)
34.2
(93.6)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95.0)
35.2
(95.4)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
(89.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
32.4
(90.3)
30.3
(86.5)
29.6
(85.3)
29.5
(85.1)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
31.3
(88.3)
31.9
(89.4)
31.3
(88.3)
Average low °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
24.2
(75.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.2
(75.6)
24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
23.2
(73.8)
24.3
(75.7)
Record low °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
16.3
(61.3)
21.6
(70.9)
21.2
(70.2)
21.1
(70.0)
20.4
(68.7)
17.6
(63.7)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70.0)
19.2
(66.6)
19.2
(66.6)
17.7
(63.9)
16.3
(61.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 24.3
(0.96)
27.1
(1.07)
45.0
(1.77)
113.1
(4.45)
284.5
(11.20)
700.3
(27.57)
575.5
(22.66)
378.8
(14.91)
310.3
(12.22)
366.6
(14.43)
150.4
(5.92)
39.0
(1.54)
3,014.8
(118.69)
Average rainy days 1.1 1.2 2.6 6.9 11.0 23.0 22.8 19.0 13.4 14.2 7.2 1.8 124.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 61 65 68 70 73 82 83 82 79 77 72 64 73
Source: India Meteorological Department[8][9]

EconomyEdit

 
A view of Ernakulam from a Kochi Marina

As of November 2012, Ernakulam was on target to become the first district in the nation of India to have 100% banking, ensuring that all families, except for voluntary exclusions, hold bank accounts. [10]

Ernakulam, aka the CBD (Central Business District) of Kochi, has seen high urbanisation in the past few decades, thus turning it into an economic hub of the city. The first traces of this transformation were seen after the MG Road connecting Ravipuram and Kacherippady was opened in 1972. The development took a new shape after the Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) built the Marine Drive to the West of MG Road, in the late 70s. Marine Drive and MG Road thus became the backbone of Kochi's economic activities, and acted as the base for the city to expand in all directions thereafter. Although the current bypass of Kochi is quickly becoming the new,[11]


TransportEdit

RoadEdit

Kochi is a city that is connected to the North-South Corridor National Highway System via the four-laned National Highway 66 as well as National Highway 544.The MC Road starting from Thiruvananthapuram ends in Angamaly. The highway traverses through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access to the nearby cities such as Thrissur, Palakkad, Salem and Coimbatore. NH 66 was supposed to be acting as the bypass for Kochi city, but the fast-paced urban expansion of Kochi has meant that the bypass quickly became a city road passing through the middle of it, thereby forcing the NHAI to propose a new bypass for the city.[12]

The state-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs inter-state, inter-district and city services, mostly from the Ernakulam KSRTC bus stand which is the busiest bus stand in Kochi after the Vytilla Mobility Hub. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation also operates two other bus stations in Ernakulam region of Kochi city, called as "Ernakulam Jetty" and "Thevara Depot".

RailwayEdit

The Ernakulam railway station is located close to the city's main shopping area situated on MG Road, and is connected by metro.[13][better source needed] The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in Kochi.

The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is a junction and departing station of passengers and express trains, and is the stopping point for trains going towards the south side Alappuzha. Both the North and South railway stations have been selected by the Ministry of Railways to be upgraded to airport-like ones. The redevelopment of the Ernakulam Junction railway station has recently gotten underway.[14]

AirEdit

The Cochin International Airport (in Nedumbassery, Kochi) is about 27 kilometers away from Ernakulam.

The old civilian airport of Kochi was situated much closer to Ernakulam, at Willingdon Island. It is now formally known as INS Garuda, and is a part of the Southern Naval Command HQ.

MetroEdit

Ernakulam region is connected with the other parts of Kochi city with the Kochi Metro, which was opened in July 2017. The first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of 51.81 billion (US$680 million),[15] and has a length of over 28 kilometres stretching from Aluva in the north to Tripunithura railway station in the southeast, passing through Ernakulam. Currently 25.6 km of phase 1 from Aluva to Pettah is open to public while the remaining 2.7 km from Pettah to Tripunithura is under construction. Currently over 70% of the construction of phase 1A to SN Junction has been completed and the stretch is expected to be commissioned by March 2022.[16]

WaterEdit

Ernakulam has a number of jetties where passengers can embark and disembark from ferries. Ferry services connect with Willingdon Island, Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Mulavukadu, at intervals of 20 minutes.[17][18]

SWTD (Govt. of Kerala Department) offers cheap ferry service on the following routes:

Ferry Services in the vicinity of Ernakulam
Source Destination Route via Comments
Ernakulam Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi Embarkation(Willingdon Island)
Fort Kochi (Kamalakadavu Jetty) Embarkation(Willingdon Island) SuperFast with AC & non-AC seating
Mattancherry Fort Kochi, Terminals(Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Mattancherry Embarkation(Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi, Terminals(Willingdon Island) Services temporarily suspended between Terminals and Mattancherry
Vypeen Embarkation(Willingdon Island)
Vypeen Embarkation(Willingdon Island), Fort Kochi
Varapuzha
Vaikom
High Court Mulavukadu Panchayat
Vytilla Kakkanad(near Rajagiri Campus)
Chittoor Kadamakkudy

MediaEdit

PrintEdit

Major Malayalam newspapers published in Ernakulam include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Janmabhoomi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi, Thejas, Metro Vartha, Siraj Daily, Varthamanam, Janayugam, Kochi Vartha and Veekshanam.

Popular English newspapers include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu, and The New Indian Express. A number of evening papers are also published from the city.[19]

Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.

Being the seat of the Cochin Stock Exchange, a number of financial publications are also published in the city. These include The Economic Times, Business Line, The Business Standard and The Financial Express.

Prominent magazines and religious publications like the Sathyadeepam and The Week are also published.

BroadcastingEdit

TelevisionEdit

Television stations in Ernakulam include Asianet, Asianet Plus, Asianet News, Zee Keralam, Surya TV, Surya Movies, Surya Music, Surya Comedy Channel, Amrita TV, Media One, Twentyfour News, Jeevan TV, Manorama news, Mathrubhumi News, Janam TV, WE TV, Flowers TV and Reporter TV. DTH services are available through DD Free Dish, airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Sun Direct, Tata Sky, Independent TV (India) and Videocon d2h . The cable operators in Ernakulam are Asianet Digital TV, Siti Cable, Kerala Vision, DEN Networks. The local channels are Asianet Cable Vision, Ernakulam cable TV and Den mtn

RadioEdit

All India Radio has two FM stations in the city, operating at 102.3  MHz AIR Kochi FM and 107.5 MHz. AIR Rainbow FM Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9, Red FM 93.5, 94.3 Club FM and 104.0 Radio Mirchi. These operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week.

EducationEdit

Ernakulam is also the regional (Kerala) headquarters of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha.

PoliticsEdit

Ernakulam assembly constituency is part of Ernakulam (Lok Sabha constituency).[21]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Manorama Online | Kochi Beaches". Week.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  2. ^ "History of Ernakulam, Background Details of Ernakulam". www.ernakulamonline.in. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  3. ^ Menon, Anasuya (18 April 2013). "The quaint Ernakulam bazaar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  4. ^ Maloni, Ruby (2021). "Indian Maritime Centres: Foreland and Hinterland". The Route to European Hegemony: India's Intra-Asian Trade in the Early Modern Period (Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries). Abingdon, England: Routledge. pp. 41–105, page 77. ISBN 978-0-367-75642-0.
  5. ^ a b c Pradeep, K. (24 October 2013). "A system in place". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  6. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Madras II: The Southern and West Coast Districts, Native States, and French Possessions. 1908. p. 454.
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ernakulam". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Station: Cochin (N.A.S) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 201–202. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M107. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Business Line : Industry & Economy / Banking : Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking". 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  11. ^ "MG Road losing its prime position: MG Road losing its prime position as central business district | Kochi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  12. ^ "DPR for Kundannoor-Angamaly bypass project suffers delay". The Hindu. 9 February 2021.
  13. ^ Kochi- Ernakulam Travel Guide, How to reach Kochi by air, bus, train, local transport, Getting around in Kochi City. Webindia123.com. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  14. ^ "Ernakulam Junction railway station development a step closer to reality | Kochi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  15. ^ "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompthanding over of land, funds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  16. ^ Paul, John L. (12 May 2021). "Pettah-S.N. Junction metro stretch to be commissioned in March 2022". The Hindu.
  17. ^ Boat Service from Ernakulam – Boat Schedules – State Water Transport Department, Government of Kerala, India. Swtd.kerala.gov.in (25 July 2016). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  18. ^ "Passenger ferry services find many takers in Ernakulam - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Keeping Kochi updated". The Hindu. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2006.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  20. ^ Colleges of Ernakulam. Ernakulam.nic.in. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  21. ^ "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.

External linksEdit

  • Government Portal for Ernakulam City
  • Government Portal for the district of Ernakulam
  • Ernakulam is India's first smoke-free tourist spot