Eurostar (satellite bus)

Summary

Eurostar is a satellite bus made by Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Astrium, and before 1994, British Aerospace, and Matra Marconi Space (the former Marconi Space having been merged with Matra's former "Matra Espace" division) which has been used for a series of spacecraft providing telecommunications services in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). More than 70 Eurostar satellites have been ordered to date, of which more than 55 have been successfully launched since October 1990 and have proven highly reliable in operational service. In December 2013, the Eurostar satellites accumulated 500 years of successful operations in orbit.[1] The Eurostar spacecraft series is designed for a variety of telecommunications needs including fixed services and broadcast, mobile services, broadband and secured communications.

Development

Eurostar was designed in the mid 1980s jointly by Matra Marconi Space and BAe (now integrated within Airbus Defence and Space) to Inmarsat specifications,[2] for a market which at the time had a design envelope of 1.8-2.5 Tons on the proposed launch vehicles (STS PAM D2 and Ariane 4). Satellite payload power was from 1300 to 2600 W. This was the first commercial satellite to have a digital avionics system modular in concept. With this system architecture, all key satellite parameters are in software, which permits mission specific requirements to be implemented without hardware changes. The initial satellite structure and configuration designed to early requirements had significant growth potential, which subsequently allowed the payload capability (mass and power) to be more than quadrupled between 1987 and 1992, with a minimum of re qualification. Airbus DS has since developed further the product line in a staged process which mainly increases the satellite power and propulsion capability and real estate for accommodation of equipment and antennas. The overall configuration of Eurostar satellites has essentially not changed in 20 years through the successive generations Eurostar E1000, E2000, E2000+ and E3000. They have just become larger, more powerful, with implementation costs reduced through longer orbit manoeuvring lifetime, and more efficient and powerful payloads. Nowadays the Eurostar E3000 series has been considerably enhanced and updated with the latest technologies, still maintaining the basic proven configuration. A new version E3000e introduced in 2014 uses electric propulsion for orbit raising.

Range

Eurostar E1000

The original Eurostar E1000 satellite was designed for the Inmarsat-2 fleet requirements by an international team led by Matra Marconi Space and British Aerospace Space Systems (BAe Dynamics), the former of which would ultimately acquire BAe Dynamics to eventually become Astrium and eventually merge with Airbus Military to form the present Airbus Defence and Space. Three-axis stabilized, and designed for a 10-year service life, the Inmarsat-2 had 4 (+2) L-band transponders and 1 (+1) C-Band transponders. The satellite featured a launch mass of 1.31 t (2,900 lb), however, the satellite bus was designed to weigh up to 2.5 t (5,500 lb) to accommodate future customer requirements. Subsequently, the spacecraft also came with different payload power options ranging from 1300 W to 3000 W. This degree of customization was the result of a highly modular design that would carry over onto the upgraded variants.[3][4]

A total of four satellites based on the E1000 bus have been built and launched, all of which were for Inmarsat.

Eurostar E2000/E2000+

The Eurostar E2000, which debuted with France Telecom as the launch customer in December of 1991, was a larger and more capable upgrade of the E1000. It was developed from a set of requirements by the French Space Agency (CNES) and the French Ministry of Armed Forces via the Directorate-General for Armaments (DGA). The DGA had decided to repartner with CNES in order to add X-Band capabilities to the mission to enable the creation of their Syracuse II military ground-based telecommunications network, and to replace and enhance the role of the Syracuse I systems aboard the aging Telecom-1 fleet. The first of the satellites to be launched would be the Telecom 2A. Each of the four Telecom-2 satellites in the constellation had 10 x C-Band transponders, 14 x Ku-Band transponders and 5 x X-Band transponders. Despite the increase in capabilities, the E2000 bus used for Telecom-2 was only slightly heavier than the E1000, with an on-orbit mass of 1.38 t (3,000 lb) and a dry weight of 700 kilograms (1,500 lb), however, like its predecessor, was also designed to accommodate larger payloads with a total launch mass of up to 2.5 t (5,500 lb), should the customer require it. The E2000’s operational/maneuverability life varied by customer, but ranged from 7 to 10 years. The E2000’s main power comes from two swivelling solar arrays, with later models capable of producing up to 3600W per array, or 6200 W total with an optional array spanning 22 m (72 ft).[5][4]

The E2000+ satellite bus offered a series of significant upgrades, in addition to being slightly larger than the E2000. Upgrades included:[4]

  • Increased efficiency in its ability to operate over 40 transponders
  • Increased maximum launch mass of up to 3.4 t (7,500 lb)
  • Increased payload power up to 6.2 kW (6,200 W)
  • Capability to carry up to 48 high powered amplifiers in addition to large multiple antenna configurations
  • Increased maneuverability life to 15 years
  • Integration of CCSDS telemetry and telecommand protocols.

The first E2000+ customer was Eutelsat’s Hot Bird 2. At least 23 E2000 and E2000+ satellite busses were built, with a total of 22 launches.

Eurostar E3000 & Eurostar Neo

The Eurostar E3000 satellite bus was first launched in 2004[6] with Eutesat’s Eutelsat W3A payload. Building upon the idea of modularity, the satellite itself can be built with several modules to serve different missions, all based around a common service module, communications module with 1,2, or 3 floors, a chemical or chemical-electric propulsion module, and scalable payload power options. Satellite power can be up to 16 kW (16,000 W) stored in either NiH2 or Lithium-Ion batteries. The solar array’s wingspan is also scalable, and capable of deploying to be up to 45 m (148 ft) wide. The spacecraft’s maximum launch mass has increased to 6.4 t (14,000 lb), while its telecommunications payload capacity has been increased to up to 120 installed high-power amplifiers/transponders. In 2018, Airbus D&S launched the first E3000e - a modified E3000 with all-electric propulsion, removing the standard propulsion module and over 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) of excess mass with it. SES-12 for SES S.A. was the first customer for the E3000e in June of 2018. At least 48 x E3000 and E3000e satellite busses had been built and launched by the end of 2018.

An improved model based on the E3000e called the Eurostar Neo was announced in 2017, and offers electric, hybrid, or chemical propulsion, in addition to a scalable power range of 7 kW to 25 kW. As of 2020, a total of 84 Eurostar satellites had been ordered, with 6 E3000e satellites already in operation.[7]

Modularity

The Eurostar satellite structures are modular with a separate Service-Propulsion module and Communications module.[citation needed]

Satellite orders

Eurostar-1000

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Inmarsat-2 F1 International Inmarsat Communications 4 L-band, 1 C-band 30 October 1990 Delta II 6925 Retired
Inmarsat-2 F2 International Inmarsat Communications 4 L-band, 1 C-band 8 March 1991 Delta II 6925 Retired
Inmarsat-2 F3 International Inmarsat Communications 4 L-band, 1 C-band 16 December 1991 Ariane-44L Retired
Inmarsat-2 F2 International Inmarsat Communications 4 L-band, 1 C-band 15 April 1992 Ariane-44L Retired

Eurostar-2000

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Hispasat 1A Spain Hispasat Communications & military communications 12 Ku-band, 3 X-band 10 September 1992 Ariane-44L Retired
Hispasat 1B Spain Hispasat Communications & military communications 12 Ku-band, 3 X-band 22 July 1993 Ariane-44L Active
Nilesat 101 Eygpt Nilesat Television broadcasting 12 Ku-band 28 April 1998 Ariane-44P Retired
Nilesat 102 Eygpt Nilesat Television broadcasting 12 Ku-band 28 April 1998 Ariane-44P Retired
Orion 1 United States Orion Network Systems Television broadcasting & satellite internet 34 Ku-band 28 April 1998 Atlas IIA Known as Telstar 11 Retired
Telecom 2A France France Telecom Communications & military communications 10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band 16 December 1991 Ariane-44L Retired
Telecom 2B France France Telecom Communications & military communications 10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band 15 April 1992 Ariane-44L Retired
Telecom 2C France France Telecom Communications & military communications 10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band 6 December 1995 Ariane-44L Retired
Telecom 2D France France Telecom Communications & military communications 10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band 8 August 1996 Ariane-44L Retired

Eurostar-2000+

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
AfriStar United States 1worldspace Communications 3 L-band 28 October 1998 Ariane-44L Known as Spectrum 1 Retired
AsiaStar United States 1worldspace Communications 3 L-band 21 March 2000 Ariane 5G Known as Spectrum 2 Active
Arabsat 4A Saudi Arabia Arabsat Communications 24 C-band, 16 Ku-band 28 February 2006 Proton-M Known as Badr 1 Launch failure
Arabsat 4B Saudi Arabia Arabsat Communications 28 Ku-band 8 November 2006 Proton-M Known as Badr 4 Active
Arabsat 4AR Saudi Arabia Arabsat Communications 24 C-band, 20 Ku-band 7 July 2008 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Badr 6 Active
Astra 2B Luxembourg SES S.A. Communications 30 Ku-band 14 September 2000 Ariane 5G Active
Eutelsat W1 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting & satellite internet 28 Ku-band 6 September 2000 Ariane-44P Known as Eutelsat 4A Retired
Hotbird 2 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 20 Ku-band 21 November 1996 Atlas IIA Known as Eutelsat 48A Retired
Hotbird 3 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 20 Ku-band 2 September 1997 Ariane-44LP Known as Eutelsat W75/ABS 1B Active
Hotbird 4 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 20 Ku-band 27 February 1998 Ariane-44P Known as Eutelsat 16B Retired
Hotbird 5 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 20 Ku-band 9 October 1998 Atlas IIA Known as Eutelsat 4B Retired
Hotbird 7 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 40 Ku-band 11 December 2002 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Eutelsat 4B Launch failure
ST-1 Singapore, Taiwan Singtel Television broadcasting 16 Ku-band, 14 C-band 25 August 1998 Ariane-44P Retired

Eurostar-3000

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
ANASIS-II South Korea ADD Military communications 20 July 2020 Falcon 9 Known as Koreasat 116 Active
Amazonas 2 Spain Hispasat Communications 54 Ku-band, 10 C-band 20 July 2020 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Arabsat-5A Saudi Arabia Arabsat Television broadcasting & satellite internet 16 C-band, 24 Ku-band 26 June 2010 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Arabsat-5B Saudi Arabia Arabsat Television broadcasting & satellite internet 56 Ku-band, 56 Ka-band 3 June 2010 Proton-M Known as Badr 5 Active
Arabsat-5C Saudi Arabia Arabsat Communications 26 C-band, 12 Ka-band 21 September 2011 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Arabsat-6B Saudi Arabia Arabsat Communications 24 Ku-band, 27 Ka-band 10 November 2015 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Astra 1M Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting & satellite internet 32 Ku-band 5 November 2008 Proton-M Active
Astra 1N Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 55 Ku-band 6 August 2011 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Astra 1N Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 55 Ku-band 6 August 2011 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Astra 2E Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 60 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band 29 September 2013 Proton-M Known as Eutelsat 28E Active
Astra 2F Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 60 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band 28 September 2012 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Eutelsat 28F Active
Astra 2G Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 62 Ku-band, 4 Ka-band 27 December 2014 Proton-M Known as Eutelsat 28G Active
Astra 3B Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 52 Ku-band, 4 Ka-band 21 May 2010 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Astra 5B Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 40 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band, L-band 22 March 2014 Ariane 5 ECA Active
AT&T T-16 United States DirecTV Television broadcasting 30 Ku-band, 24 Ka-band, 18 Reverse band 20 June 2019 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Atlantic Bird 7 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 56 Ku-band 24 September 2011 Zenit-3SL Known as Eutelsat 7 West A Active
DirecTV 15 United States DirecTV Television broadcasting 30 Ku-band, 24 Ka-band, 18 Reverse band 27 May 2015 Ariane 5 ECA Active
EchoStar 105 / SES 11 Luxembourg, United States SES S.A., EchoStar Television broadcasting 24 Ku-band, 24 C-band 11 October 2017 Falcon 9 Active
Ekspress AM4 Russia RSCC Communications 30 C-band, 2 Ka-band, 3 L-band 17 August 2011 Proton-M Launch failure
Ekspress AM4R Russia RSCC Communications 30 C-band, 2 Ka-band, 3 L-band 15 May 2014 Proton-M Launch failure
Ekspress AM7 Russia RSCC Communications 24 C-band, 36 Ku-band, 2 L-band 18 March 2015 Proton-M Active
Ekspress-AMU1 Russia RSCC Communications 70 Ku-band, 70 Ka-band 24 December 2015 Proton-M Active
Eutelsat 3B International Eutelsat Television broadcasting & satellite internet 51 C-band, 51 Ku band, 51 Ka-band 26 May 2014 Zenit-3SL Active
Eutelsat 9B / EDRS A International Eutelsat Television broadcasting & satellite relay 66 Ku-band, EDRS payload 29 January 2016 Proton-M Active
Eutelsat 70B International Eutelsat Communications 48 Ku-band 3 December 2012 Zenit-3SL Active
Hotbird 8 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band 4 August 2006 Proton-M Known as Hotbird 13B Active
Hotbird 9 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band 20 December 2008 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Hotbird 13C Active
Hotbird 10 International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band 12 February 2009 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Eutelsat 33E Active
Intelsat 10-02 International Intelsat Communications 45 C-band, 16 Ku-band 16 June 2004 Proton-M Known as Thor 10-02 Active
Intelsat 32e International Intelsat Television broadcasting 81 Ku-band, 21 Ka-band 14 February 2017 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Sky-Brasil 1 Active
KA-SAT International Eutelsat Television broadcasting Ka-band 26 December 2010 Proton-M Known as Eutelsat KA-SAT 9A Active
MEASAT-3b Malaysia MEASAT Satellite Systems Communications 48 Ku-band 11 September 2014 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Jabiru 2 Active
MEASAT-3d Malaysia MEASAT Satellite Systems Television broadcasting & satellite internet C-band, Ku-band, L-band 2021 Ariane 5 ECA Awaiting launch
SES-6 Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 38 C-band, 36 Ku-band 3 June 2013 Proton-M Active
SES-10 Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting 50 Ku-band 30 March 2017 Falcon 9 Active
Telstar 12V United States Telesat Communications 52 Ku-band 24 November 2015 H-IIA 204 Active
Tiba 1 Eygpt Government of Eygpt Communications Ka-band 26 November 2019 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Yahsat 1A United Arab Emirates Al Yah Communications 14 C-band, 25 Ku-band, 21 Ka-band 22 April 2011 Ariane 5 ECA Known as Al Yah 1 Active
Yahsat 1B United Arab Emirates Al Yah Communications 25 Ka-band, 21 secure Ka-band 23 April 2012 Proton-M Known as Al Yah 2 Active

Eurostar-3000EOR

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Eutelsat 172B International Eutelsat Communications 14 C-band, 36 Ku-band 1 June 2017 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Inmarsat-6 F1 International Inmarsat Communications L-band, Ka-band 2021 H-IIA 204 Known as GX 6A Awaiting launch
Inmarsat-6 F2 International Inmarsat Communications L-band, Ka-band Known as GX 6B Awaiting launch
SES-12 Luxembourg SES S.A. Communications 68 Ku-band, 8 Ka-band 4 June 2018 Falcon 9 Active
SES-14 / GOLD Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting C-band, Ku-band, GOLD 25 January 2018 Ariane 5 ECA Active
SES-14 / GOLD Luxembourg SES S.A. Television broadcasting C-band, Ku-band, GOLD 25 January 2018 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Syracuse 4B France DGA Military communications X-band, Ka-band 2021 Ariane 5 ECA Awaiting launch
Türksat 5A Turkey Türksat Communications Ku-band 8 January 2021 Falcon 9 Active
Türksat 5B Turkey Türksat Communications Ku-band, Ka-band 2021 Falcon 9 Awaiting launch

Eurostar-3000GM

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Inmarsat-4 F1 International Inmarsat Mobile communications L-band 11 March 2005 Atlas V 431 Active
Inmarsat-4 F2 International Inmarsat Mobile communications L-band 8 November 2005 Zenit-3SL Active
Inmarsat-4 F3 International Inmarsat Mobile communications L-band 18 August 2008 Proton-M Active
SatKomHan 1 Indonesia Ministry of Defense (Indonesia) Military communications L-band, MSS 2021 Awaiting launch

Eurostar-3000S

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Amazonas 1 Spain Hispasat Television broadcasting 36 Ku-band, 27 C-band 4 August 2004 Proton-M Retired
Anik F1 Canada Telesat Communications 24 C-band, 32 Ku-band 8 September 2005 Proton-M Active
Anik F3 Canada Telesat Communications 24 C-band, 32 Ku-band, 2 Ka-band 9 April 2007 Proton-M Active
Eutelsat W3A International Eutelsat Communications 38 Ku-band, 2 Ka-band 15 March 2004 Proton-M Known as Eutelsat 7A Active
Nimiq-4 Canada Telesat Communications 32 Ku-band, 8 Ka-band 19 September 2008 Proton-M Active
Skynet 5A United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) Military communications 11 March 2007 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Skynet 5B United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) Military communications 14 November 2007 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Skynet 5C United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) Military communications 12 June 2008 Ariane 5 ECA Active
Skynet 5D United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) Military communications 19 December 2012 Ariane 5 ECA Active

AstroBus-G

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Chollian South Korea KARI Meteorology 26 June 2010 Ariane 5 ECA Known as GEO-Kompsat 1 Active

Eurostar-Neo

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Arabsat 7B Saudi Arabia Arabsat Comunications C-band, Ku-band, TELEO 2023 Known as Badr 8 Awaiting launch
Eutelsat 36D International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 70 Ku-band 2024 Awaiting launch
Hotbird 13F International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 80 Ku-band 2021 Ariane 64 Awaiting launch
Hotbird 13G International Eutelsat Television broadcasting 80 Ku-band 2021 Ariane 64 Awaiting launch
Skynet 6A United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) Military communications 2025 Awaiting launch
Spainsat NG I Spain Hispasat Military communications X-band, Ka-band, UHF 2025 Awaiting launch
Spainsat NG II Spain Hispasat Military communications X-band, Ka-band, UHF 202x Awaiting launch
Thuraya 4 United Arab Emirates Thuraya Mobile communications L-band 2024 Awaiting launch
Thuraya 5 United Arab Emirates Thuraya Mobile communications L-band 202x Awaiting launch

OneSat

Satellite Country Operator Type Coverage Launch date (GMT) Rocket Changes Status
Inmarsat-7 F1 International Inmarsat Communications Ka-band 2023 Known as GX7 Awaiting launch
Inmarsat-7 F2 International Inmarsat Communications Ka-band 202x Known as GX8 Awaiting launch
Inmarsat-7 F3 International Inmarsat Communications Ka-band 202x Known as GX9 Awaiting launch
Intelsat TBD International Intelsat Communications Reconfigurable multiband 2023 Awaiting launch
Intelsat TBD International Intelsat Communications Reconfigurable multiband 2023 Awaiting launch
Optus 11 Australia Optus Communications Ku-band 2023 Awaiting launch
Superbird-9 Japan SKY Perfect JSAT Communications Ka-band, Ku-band 2024 Awaiting launch

References

  1. ^ Astrium celebrates 500 years of successful Eurostar satellite operation in orbit, UKspace, 27.12.2013 [1]
  2. ^ Eurostar E3000 Three-Year Flight Experience and Perspective, Jean-François Poussin and Gerard Berger, EADS Astrium, Toulouse, AIAA-2007-3124, 25th AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Seoul, South Korea, Apr. 10-13, 2007 [2][permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Inmarsat-2 F1, 2, 3, 4". space.skyrocket.de. 2017-12-11. Archived from the original on 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2020-10-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b c Breton, D.; Rossignol, A. (2006-01-27), "HAL Archives", Eurostar E3000 Satellite On-Board Software Development of a product line towards multiple system needs (PDF), Toulouse, France: HAL Archives and EAD Astrium, p. 3, retrieved 2020-10-09 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ "La deuxième génération Telecom" [The second generation Telecom] (in French). Eurespace. Retrieved 2020-10-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Eurostar 3000". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  7. ^ "Eurostar". Airbus Defence & Space. Archived from the original on 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2020-10-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)