Exercise Red Flag

Summary

Exercise Red Flag is a two-week advanced aerial combat training exercise held several times a year by the United States Air Force. It aims to offer realistic air-combat training for military pilots and other flight crew members from the United States and allied countries.

Exercise Red Flag
Located near: Las Vegas
Red Flag Logo med.jpg
Exercise Red Flag insignia
Nellis AFB is located in the United States
Nellis AFB
Nellis AFB
Shown in United States
Coordinates36°14′57″N 114°59′46″W / 36.24917°N 114.99611°W / 36.24917; -114.99611Coordinates: 36°14′57″N 114°59′46″W / 36.24917°N 114.99611°W / 36.24917; -114.99611
Site information
Controlled by United States Air Force
Site history
Built1941
In use1941 – present
Garrison information
GarrisonUSAF 57th Wing shield.svg 57th Wing
F-16C aggressor aircraft during Red Flag 06-1

Each year, four to six Red Flag exercises are held at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, while up to four more, dubbed Red Flag – Alaska, are held at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska.

First held in 1975, Red Flag exercises bring together aircrews from the United States Air Force (USAF), United States Navy (USN), United States Marine Corps (USMC), United States Army (USA) and numerous NATO and allied nations' air forces.

Red Flag exercises are conducted under the control of the United States Air Force Warfare Center (USAFWC) at Nellis. They are run by the 414th Combat Training Squadron (414 CTS) of the 57th Wing (57 WG). They use "enemy" hardware and live ammunition for bombing exercises within the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR).[1][2]

OrganizationEdit

The 414 CTS mission is to maximize the combat readiness and survivability of participants by providing a realistic training environment and a pre-flight and post-flight training forum that encourages a free exchange of ideas.[3] To accomplish this, combat units from the United States and its allied countries engage in realistic combat training scenarios carefully conducted within the Nellis Range Complex. The Nellis Range complex is located northwest of Las Vegas and covers an area of 60 nautical miles (111 km) by 100 nautical miles (190 km), about half the area of Switzerland. This space allows the exercises to be on an enormous scale.[3]

 
A F-22 Raptor during Red Flag 10–2 with Las Vegas in the background

In a typical Red Flag exercise, Blue Forces (friendly) engage Red Forces (hostile) in realistic combat situations.

Blue Forces are made up of units from the Air Combat Command (ACC), Air Mobility Command (AMC), Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC), Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), United States Air Forces Europe (USAFE), Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), Air National Guard (ANG), Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), aviation units of the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Army, the Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, and Royal Australian Air Force, as well as other allied air forces and fleet air arms. They are led by a Blue Forces commander, who coordinates the units in an "employment plan" scheme of operation.

Red Forces (adversary forces) are composed of the 57th Wing's 57th Adversary Tactics Group (57 ATG), flying F-16s from the 64th Aggressor Squadron (64 AGRS)[4] and F-15s from the 65th Aggressor Squadron (65 AGRS)[5] to provide realistic air threats through the emulation of opposition tactics. The Red Forces are also augmented by other U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marine Corps units flying in concert with the 507th Air Defense Aggressor Squadron's (507 ADAS) electronic ground defenses and communications, and radar jamming equipment. The 527th Space Aggressor Squadron (527 SAS), an Active Duty unit, and the 26th Space Aggressor Squadron (26 SAS), an Air Force Reserve Command unit, also provide GPS jamming. Additionally, the Red Force command and control organization simulates a realistic enemy integrated air defense system (IADS).

 
Two Israeli Air Force F-15 Ra'ams practicing air defense maneuvers at Red Flag 2004

A key element of Red Flag operations is the Red Flag Measurement and Debriefing System (RFMDS). RFMDS is a computer hardware and software network that provides real-time monitoring, post-mission reconstruction of maneuvers and tactics, participant pairings, and integration of range targets and simulated threats. Blue Force commanders objectively assess mission effectiveness and validate lessons learned from data provided by the RFMDS.

A typical flag exercise year includes ten Green Flags (a close air support (CAS) exercise with the U.S. Army),[6] one Canadian Maple Flag (operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force) and four Red Flags. Each Red Flag exercise normally involves a variety of fighter interdiction, attack/strike, air superiority, enemy air defense suppression, airlift, air refueling and reconnaissance missions. In a 12-month period, more than 500 aircraft fly more than 20,000 sorties, while training more than 5,000 aircrews and 14,000 support and maintenance personnel.

Before a "flag" begins, the Red Flag staff conducts a planning conference where unit representatives and planning staff members develop the size and scope of their participation. All aspects of the exercise, including billeting of personnel, transportation to Nellis AFB, range coordination, ordnance/munitions scheduling, and development of training scenarios, are designed to be as realistic as possible, fully exercising each participating unit's capabilities and objectives.

OriginEdit

 
A United States Air Force F-35A made its debut at Red Flag 17-1[7]

The origin of Red Flag was the unacceptable performance of U.S. Air Force fighter pilots and weapon systems officers (WSO) in air-to-air combat ("air combat maneuvering," ACM) during the Vietnam War in comparison to previous wars.[citation needed] Air combat over North Vietnam between 1965 and 1973 led to an overall exchange ratio (ratio of enemy aircraft shot down to the number of own aircraft lost to enemy fighters) of 2.2:1 (for a while in June and July 1972 during Operation Linebacker the ratio was less than 1:1).

Among the several factors resulting in this disparity was a lack of realistic ACM training. USAF pilots and WSOs of the late 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s were not versed in the core values and basics of ACM due to the belief that "Beyond Visual Range missile" engagements (BVR) and equipment made "close-in" maneuvering in air combat obsolete.[citation needed] As a result of this BVR-only mindset reached its zenith in the early 1960s, nearly all USAF fighter pilots and weapons systems officers (WSO) of the period were unpracticed in maneuvering against dissimilar aircraft because of a concurrent Air Force emphasis on flying safety.

An Air Force analysis known as Project Red Baron II showed that a pilot's chances of survival in combat dramatically increased after he had completed ten combat missions. As a result, Red Flag was created in 1975 to offer USAF pilots and weapon systems officers the opportunity to fly ten realistically simulated combat missions in a safe training environment with measurable results. Many U.S. aircrews had also fallen victim to SAMs during the Vietnam War, and Red Flag exercises provided pilots and WSOs experience in this regime as well.

The concept of Colonel Richard "Moody" Suter became the driving force in Red Flag's implementation, persuading the-Tactical Air Command (TAC) commander, General Robert J. Dixon, to adopt the program. At Nellis, Suter was well-known and well-liked. The first Red Flag exercise was conducted on Gen Dixon's schedule in November 1975. On 1 March 1976, the 4440th Tactical Fighter Training Group (Red Flag) was chartered with Col P.J. White as the first commander, Lt Col Marty Mahrt, as vice commander Lt Col David Burner as Director of Operations. This small crew under Col White's leadership undertook the task of firmly establishing the program.

 
An Indian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30MKI undergoes post-flight maintenance during the Red Flag exercise in 2008.

The "aggressor squadrons", the opponents who flew against the pilots undergoing training, were selected from the top fighter pilots in the U.S. Air Force. These pilots were trained to operate according to the tactical doctrines of the Soviet Union and other enemies of the period, to better simulate what then-TAC, as well as USAFE, PACAF and other NATO pilots and WSOs would likely encounter in real combat against a Warsaw Pact or other Soviet-proxy adversary. The aggressors were initially equipped with readily available T-38 Talon aircraft to simulate Mikoyan MiG-21, the T-38 being similar in terms of size and performance. F-5 Tiger II fighters, painted in color schemes commonly found on Soviet aircraft, were added shortly after that and became the mainstay until the F-16 was introduced.

Today, the 414th Combat Training Squadron (414 CTS) is the unit currently tasked with running Red Flag exercises, while the 64th Aggressor Squadron (64 AGRS) also based at Nellis AFB uses F-16 aircraft to emulate the MiG-29 Fulcrum. These aircraft continue to be painted in the various camouflage schemes of potential adversaries. An additional squadron at Nellis, the 65th Aggressor Squadron (65 AGRS), operated F-15 aircraft in various camouflage schemes of potential adversaries to replicate Su-27 Flanker and Su-35 Flanker threats. However, the 65 AGRS was inactivated[8] on 26 September 2014 due to the Fiscal Year 2015 budget constraints imposed upon the Air Force that zero-lined the squadron's budget.[9]

The U.S. Navy operates a similar large-force training exercise known as Air Wing Fallon at NAS Fallon and the Fallon Range Training Complex in northern Nevada. Air Wing Fallon is a month-long evolution designed to enhance a carrier air wing's war-fighting ability in both the air-to-air and air-to-ground arenas, with the primary focus being for the air wing to become familiar with the complexity of a massive force strike (LFS). Previously under the aegis of "Strike University" (STRIKE U), an O-6 level command when it was formed in 1984, Strike U was later merged with the fighter community's TOPGUN and the carrier airborne early warning community's TOP DOME following those organization's 1993 BRAC-directed relocation from the former NAS Miramar, California, forming the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center (NSAWC) under the command of naval aviation flag officer at NAS Fallon in July 1996. NSAWC then became the executive agent for Air Wing Fallon.

In the 2010s, NSAWC incorporated the electronic attack community's HAVOC directorate, and in 2016, NSAWC was re-designated as the Naval Aviation Warfighting Development Center (NAWDC).[10] The Commander of NAWDC at NAS Fallon, the Commander of the USAFWC at Nellis AFB, and their respective subordinate units and staffs maintain natural rapport with each other in areas of shared equities and the tactical development of the Joint Force.

Red Flag and Air Wing Fallon should not be confused with smaller, but longer duration, programs that the USAF and USN run to train individual weapons and tactics instructors. In 2009, the 416th Flight Test Squadron from Edwards AFB, California, participated in Red Flag as well, the first time an Air Force Material Command (AFMC) unit had been part of the program.

Participating countriesEdit

 
A USAF E-3 Sentry AWACS used to control the large number of aircraft during Red Flag exercises

Only countries considered friendly towards the United States take part in Red Flag exercises. So far, the countries to have participated in these exercises are:

IncidentsEdit

  • On 5 July 1979, Major Gary Mekash and Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Soeder died in the crash of U.S. Air Force F-111A, serial number 67–0105, of the 430th Tactical Fighter Squadron.[68]
  • On 7 February 1980, a Royal Air Force (RAF) Blackburn Buccaneer S.2B, RAF Serial XV345 of No. XV Squadron crashed after suffering a failure of the main spar, resulting in the deaths of Sqn Ldr Ken Tait and Flt Lt Charles "Rusty" Ruston. Buccaneers were grounded following the accident[69]
  • On 23 March 2001, a German Air Force Panavia Tornado IDS of Jagdbombergeschwader 34 [de] crashed 160 kilometres (99 mi) northwest of Nellis Air Force Base during a low-level attack at night, which was being flown as part of Red Flag. Major Bernd Lothar Koch and Hauptmann Michael Bieler, both of Jagdbombergeschwader 33, were killed in the crash.[70][71][33]
  • On 29 January 2018, right before Red Flag, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Boeing EA-18G Growler A46-311 experienced an engine fire while taking off. The crew aborted and the Growler left the runway, but remained upright on its landing gear, as it came to a halt. Both crew members then evacuated (without ejecting) and neither suffered serious physical injuries. A46-311 was damaged beyond repair and an RAAF investigation confirmed that one of its two General Electric F414 turbofan engines had exploded and disintegrated.[72] Under the contract with which the Growlers were acquired, the manufacturers were not liable for the provision of a replacement aircraft, or any other form of compensation.[citation needed]

Notable appearances in mediaEdit

Red Flag was depicted in a 1981 made-for-TV movie, Red Flag: The Ultimate Game.[73] Red Flag is also featured in a 2004 IMAX film, Fighter Pilot: Operation Red Flag. A set of add-on modules depicting a standard Red Flag campaign is available for the PC flying combat simulator Digital Combat Simulator.[74] It allows the player to pilot an A-10C, AJS-37, F-5E, F-15C, F/A-18C or M2000C as both Blue and Red Forces.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Footnotes

  1. ^ In 2019, the Italian Air Force did not participate with aircraft of their own, but sent three instructor pilots who participated as part of the United States Air Force's 62nd Fighter Squadron.
  2. ^ NATO is not a country, but its E-3A component does not belong to any of the participating air forces and is directly subordinate to NATO.

Citations

  1. ^ "Factsheets : U.S. Air Force Warfare Center". af.mil. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  2. ^ "Factsheets : 57th Wing". af.mil. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Factsheets : 414th Combat Training Squadron "Red Flag"". af.mil. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  4. ^ "Factsheets : 64th Aggressor Squadron". af.mil. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Factsheets : Unknown Fact Sheet". af.mil. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  6. ^ "Factsheets : Green Flag". af.mil. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  7. ^ Demerly, Tom (28 February 2017). ""Red Flag confirmed F-35 dominance with a 20:1 kill ratio" U.S. Air Force says". The Aviationist. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  8. ^ "Nellis aggressor squadron inactivated". af.mil. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  9. ^ "65th Aggressor Squadron Falls Prey to Nellis Budget Cuts". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  10. ^ "About". Archived from the original on 11 October 2016.
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  12. ^ a b Volmer, Jennifer (6 June 2006). "First Red Flag of 2006 begins". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  13. ^ a b McVay, Justin (11 January 2007). "Historic Red Flag kicks off". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  14. ^ "Exercise Red Flag 2016 wrap up". Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  15. ^ a b "Red Flag-Nellis 22-1 kicks off with allied forces". Nellis Air Force Base.
  16. ^ "EAGLE ON THE RANGE". www.defense.gov. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Red Flag 11-2 provides Belgians realistic training". Nellis Air Force Base.
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  19. ^ a b c d e f Ruiz, Angela (21 March 2019). "Colombian Air Force supports US Navy Growlers for premier air-to-air combat". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  20. ^ a b Quevedo, José A. (24 July 2017). "Pilotos latinoamericanos en el Red Flag". infodefensa.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  21. ^ "Four American countries to launch joint military exercises". People's Daily Online. 25 September 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
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  23. ^ "Canada Operations". The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast Page. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
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  25. ^ "RED FLAG". Fuerza Aérea Colombiana.
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  27. ^ a b c Whitney, Ryan (13 November 2007). "Red Flag wraps up". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  28. ^ "Finland's participation in international training and exercises". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Exercice «Red Flag 08» aux USA".
  30. ^ a b c "Exercises - Red Flag Aug 08". Indian Air Force. 5 September 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  31. ^ Lockett, Brian (5 November 1999). "Red Flag Exercise, Nellis AFB, November 5, 1999". Goleta Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 2 April 2022. This exercise marked the introduction of German MiG-29 Fulcrums.
  32. ^ Ridderbusch, Katja (17 February 2000). ""Wir sind gegen einen Mythos geflogen"". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  33. ^ a b Ludwig, Udo (29 September 2002). "Ganz ruhig, okay". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  34. ^ "Red Flag - Changing With The Times". Nellis Air Force Base. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  35. ^ Loera, Miranda A. (9 March 2020). "Red Flag 20-2: Maximizing combat readiness, capability, survivability between forces". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  36. ^ Shiloh, Kenya (31 October 2008). "Multi-national air force training exercise big success". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  37. ^ "IAF may take part in combat exercise in US". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  38. ^ "India to participate in world's largest maritime warfare exercise in US next year". The Indian Express. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  39. ^ "An Israeli Defense Force-Air Force F-15D Eagle aircraft brakes away [...]". National Archives and Records Administration. 25 August 2004. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  40. ^ a b c Valinski, Steven (13 September 2015). "Red Flag 15-4: Live & Virtual over the NTTR". Aviation Photography Digest. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  41. ^ Pickering, Moray (13 August 2016). "Israeli F-16Is head to Red Flag". Military Aviation Review. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  42. ^ Shahm, Nadav (4 September 2016). "The "Red-Flag" Training Exercise Has Come to an End". Israeli Air Force official. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  43. ^ a b Miller, Todd (22 March 2016). "Red Flag 16-2: Italian, Turkish and U.S. Forces Train to Fight Advanced Adversary". The Aviationist. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  44. ^ a b c d "Italian pilots raved about their first 'Red Flag' exercise with the US-made F-35". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
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  46. ^ "Red Flag 10-04 kicks off July 19". Nellis Air Force Base. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  47. ^ Stella, Annemarie (10 March 2014). "Nellis AFB RED FLAG 14-2 Update 10 March". DVIDS. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
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  49. ^ Miller, Todd (16 March 2015). "All you need to know about the latest Red Flag, world's most realistic aerial exercise". The Aviationist. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  50. ^ Dunn, Paul (23 October 2017). "Exercises and Deployments – Red Flag 17-4". Global Aviation Resource. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  51. ^ Cenciotti, David (14 March 2020). "Awesome Shots Of B-52s Arriving At Nellis AFB For Red Flag 20-2". The Aviationist. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  52. ^ "NATO AWACS provides 'eyes in the sky' during Red Flag 21-2 at Nellis". ac.nato.int. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  53. ^ a b c d Åkerberg, Gunnar (18 March 2013). "Sweden hails Gripen's evolution at Red Flag". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  54. ^ "For the First Time, Norwegian F-35s Used in Red Flag". f35.com. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  55. ^ "Pakistani F-16C/D Block 52+ jets enroute to Green and Red Flag in the U.S. perform stopover at Lajes Field". 22 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  56. ^ "RED FLAG 2000". www.key.aero. 18 September 2000. Retrieved 2 April 2022.[self-published source]
  57. ^ Blades, Josey (17 March 2022). "Swedish Air Bosses participate in Red Flag-Nellis 22-2, exchange information". Nellis Air Force Base. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  58. ^ "RSAF contingent participating in Red Flag 2022 exercise arrives at US Nellis Base". Saudigazette. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  59. ^ "The Spanish Air Force in the Red Flag 16-4". defensa.gob.es. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  60. ^ "Anatolian Eagle 2016". 5 August 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  61. ^ a b Lockett, Brian (2000). "Red Flag Exercise, Nellis AFB, February 1-3, 2000". Goleta Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 2 April 2022. The Royal Air Force and the Turkish Air Force were there.
  62. ^ "Colombia's Air Force Joins Red Flag 2012". dialogo-americas.com. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  63. ^ "UAE Air Force Mirage 2000 fighter jets operations at Nellis Air Force Base". theaviationist.com. 21 March 2013.
  64. ^ "Royal Air Force playing major role in world's premier air combat exercise – GOV.UK". gov.uk. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  65. ^ "RAF Typhoons join Exercise Red Flag in Nevada". raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  66. ^ "F-35 Lightnings depart for Exercise RED FLAG in USA". raf.mod.uk. Royal Air Force. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  67. ^ antrocanal (3 November 2007). "Re: 1992 – Venezuelan Red Flag – Fuerza Aérea Venezolana de 3". Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2017 – via YouTube.
  68. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Accident General Dynamics F-111A 67-0105, 05 Jul 1979". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  69. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Accident Blackburn Buccaneer S.2B XV345, 07 Feb 1980". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  70. ^ "Accident Panavia Tornado IDS 44+98, 23 Mar 2001". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  71. ^ "Luftwaffe: Zwei Tote nach Tornado-Absturz in den USA". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 26 March 2001. ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  72. ^ Rogoway, Tyler. "Exploding Engine Caused Aussie EA-18G Growler Crash At Nellis AFB Last January". The Drive. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  73. ^ "Red Flag: The Ultimate Game (TV Movie 1981)". IMDb. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  74. ^ "F-15C: 16-2 Red Flag Campaign". digitalcombatsimulator.com.

Further reading

  • "Red Flag" Air Force November 2000 via Archive.org
  • "The New Aggressors" Air Force January 2007 (Broken Link) pdf file

External linksEdit

  • DreamlandResort.com: Red Flag Schedule
  • GlobalSecurity.org: Red Flag
  • IMDb: Fighter Pilot: Operation Red Flag (2004)
  • IMDb: Red Flag: The Ultimate Game (1981)
  • 8081rt: Red Flag and Nellis AFB videos
  • Nellis Spotters: Nellis photos and videos