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In arithmetic geometry, the **Mordell conjecture** is the conjecture made by Louis Mordell^{[1]} that a curve of genus greater than 1 over the field **Q** of rational numbers has only finitely many rational points. In 1983 it was proved by Gerd Faltings,^{[2]} and is now known as **Faltings's theorem**. The conjecture was later generalized by replacing **Q** by any number field.

Field | Arithmetic geometry |
---|---|

Conjectured by | Louis Mordell |

Conjectured in | 1922 |

First proof by | Gerd Faltings |

First proof in | 1983 |

Generalizations | Bombieri–Lang conjecture Mordell–Lang conjecture |

Consequences | Siegel's theorem on integral points |

Let *C* be a non-singular algebraic curve of genus *g* over **Q**. Then the set of rational points on *C* may be determined as follows:

- Case
*g*= 0: no points or infinitely many;*C*is handled as a conic section. - Case
*g*= 1: no points, or*C*is an elliptic curve and its rational points form a finitely generated abelian group (*Mordell's Theorem*, later generalized to the Mordell–Weil theorem). Moreover, Mazur's torsion theorem restricts the structure of the torsion subgroup. - Case
*g*> 1: according to the Mordell conjecture, now Faltings's theorem,*C*has only a finite number of rational points.

Igor Shafarevich conjectured that there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of abelian varieties of fixed dimension and fixed polarization degree over a fixed number field with good reduction outside a fixed finite set of places.^{[3]} Aleksei Parshin showed that Shafarevich's finiteness conjecture would imply the Mordell conjecture, using what is now called Parshin's trick.^{[4]}

Gerd Faltings proved Shafarevich's finiteness conjecture using a known reduction to a case of the Tate conjecture, together with tools from algebraic geometry, including the theory of Néron models.^{[5]} The main idea of Faltings's proof is the comparison of Faltings heights and naive heights via Siegel modular varieties.^{[a]}

- Paul Vojta gave a proof based on diophantine approximation.
^{[6]}Enrico Bombieri found a more elementary variant of Vojta's proof.^{[7]} - Brian Lawrence and Akshay Venkatesh gave a proof based on p-adic Hodge theory, borrowing also some of the easier ingredients of Faltings's original proof.
^{[8]}

Faltings's 1983 paper had as consequences a number of statements which had previously been conjectured:

- The
*Mordell conjecture*that a curve of genus greater than 1 over a number field has only finitely many rational points; - The
*Isogeny theorem*that abelian varieties with isomorphic Tate modules (as**Q**_{ℓ}-modules with Galois action) are isogenous.

A sample application of Faltings's theorem is to a weak form of Fermat's Last Theorem: for any fixed *n* ≥ 4 there are at most finitely many primitive integer solutions (pairwise coprime solutions) to *a*^{n} + *b*^{n} = *c*^{n}, since for such *n* the Fermat curve *x*^{n} + *y*^{n} = 1 has genus greater than 1.

Because of the Mordell–Weil theorem, Faltings's theorem can be reformulated as a statement about the intersection of a curve *C* with a finitely generated subgroup Γ of an abelian variety *A*. Generalizing by replacing *A* by a semiabelian variety, *C* by an arbitrary subvariety of *A*, and Γ by an arbitrary finite-rank subgroup of *A* leads to the Mordell–Lang conjecture, which was proved in 1995 by McQuillan^{[9]} following work of Laurent, Raynaud, Hindry, Vojta, and Faltings.

Another higher-dimensional generalization of Faltings's theorem is the Bombieri–Lang conjecture that if *X* is a pseudo-canonical variety (i.e., a variety of general type) over a number field *k*, then *X*(*k*) is not Zariski dense in *X*. Even more general conjectures have been put forth by Paul Vojta.

The Mordell conjecture for function fields was proved by Yuri Ivanovich Manin^{[10]} and by Hans Grauert.^{[11]} In 1990, Robert F. Coleman found and fixed a gap in Manin's proof.^{[12]}

**^**"Faltings relates the two notions of height by means of the Siegel moduli space.... It is the main idea of the proof." Bloch, Spencer (1984). "The Proof of the Mordell Conjecture".*The Mathematical Intelligencer*.**6**(2): 44. doi:10.1007/BF03024155. S2CID 306251.

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