Federal subjects of Russia

Summary

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, romanizedsubyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации, romanizedsubyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries.

Federal subjects
Субъекты федерации (Russian)
Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014), disputed Crimea.svg
Crimean peninsula, internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, shown with diagonal stripes.
  Oblasts (provinces)
  Republics
  Krais (territories)
  Autonomous Okrugs (with a substantial ethnic minority)
  Federal cities
  Autonomous Oblast
CategoryFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic
Location Russian Federation
Created
  • 12 December 1993
Number83
Populations41,431 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 13,010,112 (Moscow)
Areas864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)
Government
Subdivisions

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[1] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993, the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 after being annexed from Ukraine, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea were announced as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, a move that was internationally unrecognized.[2][3] During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, four Ukrainian oblasts were annexed by Russia, however they remain internationally recognized as part of Ukraine and are only partially occupied by Russia.[4]

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution or charter and legislation, although the authority of these organs differ. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.[1] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy; republics are offered more autonomy.

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny dogovor),[5] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on 25 December 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policies of Vladimir Putin and of the ruling United Russia party, the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

Terminology

An official government translation of the constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[1] A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".[6]

Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject".[7] This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[8]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian English translations of the constitution ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
(Cyrillic) (Latin) Official[1] Unofficial[6]
субъект Российской Федерации sub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika
republic
2 край
kray
territory administrative territory
3 область oblastʹ oblast region administrative region
3 город федерального значения gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblastʹ autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyy okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district

Types

 

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types.

Legend[2] Description
  46 oblasts
  2 unrecognized
The most common type, with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
Kherson and Zaporozhye oblasts are partially occupied and were annexed in 2022 and are not internationally recognized as parts of Russia.
  21 republics
  3 unrecognized
Nominally autonomous,[9][10] each with its own constitution, language, and legislature, but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Most are home to a specific ethnic minority (or group of minorities, in the cases of Dagestan and Mordovia).
Donetsk and Lugansk Republics are partially occupied since 2014 and were annexed in 2022 and are not internationally recognized as parts of Russia; Crimea was annexed in 2014 and is not internationally recognized as part of Russia.
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", or "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority. With the exception of Chukotka, each of the autonomous okrugs are a part of another oblast (Arkhangelsk and Tyumen), as well as its own federal subject.
  1 unrecognized
Major cities that function as separate regions.
Sevastopol was annexed in 2014 and is not internationally recognized as part of Russia.
The only one is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

List

Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation
Code Name Capital/
Administrative centre[a]
Flag Coat
of arms
Type Head of subject Federal district Economic region Area
(km²)[11]
Population[12] Est.
Total density (km²)
01 Adygea Maykop     republic Murat Kumpilov (UR) Southern North Caucasus 7,792 496,934 63.77 1922
02 Bashkortostan Ufa     Radiy Khabirov (UR) Volga Ural 142,947 4,091,423 28.62 1919
03 Buryatia Ulan-Ude     Alexey Tsydenov (UR) Far Eastern East Siberian 351,334 978,588 2.79 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk     Oleg Khorokhordin (Ind.) Siberian West Siberian 92,903 210,924 2.27 1922
05 Dagestan Makhachkala     Sergey Melikov (Ind.) North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,270 3,182,054 63.30 1921
06 Ingushetia Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
    Mahmud-Ali Kalimatov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 3,628 509,541 163.16 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkaria Nalchik     Kazbek Kokov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,470 904,200 72.51 1936
08 Kalmykia Elista     Batu Khasikov (UR) Southern Volga 74,731 267,133 3.57 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkessia Cherkessk     Rashid Temrezov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,277 469,865 32.91 1957
10 Karelia Petrozavodsk     Artur Parfenchikov (UR) Northwestern Northern 180,520 533,121 2.95 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar     Vladimir Uyba (UR) Northwestern Northern 416,774 737,853 1.77 1921
12 Mari El Yoshkar-Ola     Yury Zaitsev (UR, acting) Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,375 677,097 28.97 1920
13 Mordovia Saransk     Artyom Zdunov (UR) Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,128 783,552 29.99 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Yakutsk     Aysen Nikolayev (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,083,523 995,686 0.32 1922
15 North Ossetia–Alania Vladikavkaz     Sergey Menyaylo (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 7,987 687,357 86.06 1924
16 Tatarstan Kazan     Rustam Minnikhanov (UR) Volga Volga 67,847 4,004,809 59.03 1920
17 Tuva Kyzyl     Vladislav Khovalyg (UR) Siberian East Siberian 168,604 336,651 2.00 1944
18 Udmurtia Izhevsk     Aleksandr Brechalov (UR) Volga Ural 42,061 1,452,914 34.54 1920
19 Khakassia Abakan     Valentin Konovalov (CPRF) Siberian East Siberian 61,569 534,795 8.69 1930
20 Chechnya Grozny     Ramzan Kadyrov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 16,165 1,510,824 93.43 1991
21 Chuvashia Cheboksary     Oleg Nikolayev (SRZP) Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,343 1,186,909 64.71 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul     krai Viktor Tomenko (UR) Siberian West Siberian 167,996 2,163,693 12.88 1937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar     Veniamin Kondratyev (UR) Southern North Caucasus 75,485 5,838,273 77.34 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk     Aleksandr Uss (UR) Siberian East Siberian 2,366,797 2,856,971 1.21 1934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok     Oleg Kozhemyako (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 164,673 1,845,165 11.21 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol     Vladimir Vladimirov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,160 2,907,593 43.95 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk     Mikhail Degtyarev (LDPR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 787,633 1,292,944 1.64 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk     oblast Vasily Orlov (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 361,908 766,912 2.12 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk     Alexander Tsybulsky (UR) Northwestern Northern 413,103 978,873 2.37 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan     Igor Babushkin (Ind.) Southern Volga 49,024 960,142 19.59 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod     Vyacheslav Gladkov (UR) Central Central Black Earth 27,134 1,540,486 56.77 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk     Alexander Bogomaz (UR) Central Central 34,857 1,169,161 33.54 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir     Aleksandr Avdeyev (UR, acting) Central Central 29,084 1,348,134 46.35 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd     Andrey Bocharov (Ind.) Southern Volga 112,877 2,500,781 22.15 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
    Oleg Kuvshinnikov (UR) Northwestern Northern 144,527 1,142,827 7.91 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh     Aleksandr Gusev (UR) Central Central Black Earth 52,216 2,308,792 44.22 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo     Stanislav Voskresensky (Ind.) Central Central 21,437 927,828 43.28 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk     Igor Kobzev (Ind.) Siberian East Siberian 774,846 2,370,102 3.06 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad     Anton Alikhanov (UR) Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,125 1,029,966 68.10 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga     Vladislav Shapsha (UR) Central Central 29,777 1,069,904 35.93 1944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky     krai Vladimir Solodov (Ind.) Far Eastern Far Eastern 464,275 291,705 0.63 2007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo     oblast Sergey Tsivilyov (UR) Siberian West Siberian 95,725 2,600,923 27.17 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov     Aleksandr Sokolov (UR, acting) Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,374 1,153,680 9.58 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma     Sergey Sitnikov (Ind.) Central Central 60,211 580,976 9.65 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan     Vadim Shumkov (Ind.) Ural Ural 71,488 776,661 10.86 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk     Roman Starovoyt (UR) Central Central Black Earth 29,997 1,082,458 36.09 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[b]     Aleksandr Drozdenko (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 83,908 2,000,997 23.85 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk     Igor Artamonov (UR) Central Central Black Earth 24,047 1,143,224 47.54 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan     Sergey Nosov (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 462,464 136,085 0.29 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[c]     Andrey Vorobyov (UR) Central Central 44,329 8,524,665 192.30 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk     Andrey Chibis (UR) Northwestern Northern 144,902 667,744 4.61 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod     Gleb Nikitin (UR) Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,624 3,119,115 40.71 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod     Andrey Nikitin (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 54,501 583,387 10.70 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk     Andrey Travnikov (UR) Siberian West Siberian 177,756 2,797,176 15.74 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk     Alexander Burkov (SRZP) Siberian West Siberian 141,140 1,858,798 13.17 1934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg     Denis Pasler (UR) Volga Ural 123,702 1,862,767 15.06 1934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol     Andrey Klychkov (CPRF) Central Central 24,652 713,374 28.94 1937
58 Penza Oblast Penza     Oleg Melnichenko (UR) Volga Volga 43,352 1,266,348 29.21 1939
59 Perm Krai Perm     krai Dmitry Makhonin (Ind.) Volga Ural 160,236 2,532,405 15.80 2005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov     oblast Mikhail Vedernikov (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 55,399 599,084 10.81 1944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don     oblast Vasily Golubev (UR) Southern North Caucasus 100,967 4,200,729 41.60 1937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan     Pavel Malkov (Ind.) Central Central 39,605 1,102,810 27.85 1937
63 Samara Oblast Samara     Dmitry Azarov (UR) Volga Volga 53,565 3,172,925 59.24 1928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov     Roman Busargin (UR) Volga Volga 101,240 2,442,575 24.13 1936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk     Valery Limarenko (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,101 466,609 5.36 1947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg     Yevgeny Kuyvashev (UR) Ural Ural 194,307 4,268,998 21.97 1935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk     Alexey Ostrovsky (LDPR) Central Central 49,779 888,421 17.85 1937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov     Maksim Yegorov (UR, acting) Central Central Black Earth 34,462 982,991 28.52 1937
69 Tver Oblast Tver     Igor Rudenya (UR) Central Central 84,201 1,230,171 14.61 1935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk     Vladimir Mazur (UR, acting) Siberian West Siberian 314,391 1,062,666 3.38 1944
71 Tula Oblast Tula     Aleksey Dyumin (UR) Central Central 25,679 1,501,214 58.46 1937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen     Aleksandr Moor (UR) Ural West Siberian 160,122 1,601,940 10.00 1944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk     Aleksey Russkikh (CPRF) Volga Volga 37,181 1,196,745 32.19 1943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk     Aleksey Teksler (UR) Ural Ural 88,529 3,431,224 38.76 1934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita     krai Aleksandr Osipov (Ind.) Far Eastern East Siberian 431,892 1,004,125 2.32 2008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl     oblast Mikhail Yevrayev (Ind.) Central Central 36,177 1,209,811 33.44 1936
77 Moscow     federal city Sergey Sobyanin (UR) Central Central 2,561 13,010,112 5,080.09 1147
78 Saint Petersburg     Alexander Beglov (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 1,403 5,601,911 3,992.81 1703
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan     autonomous oblast Rostislav Goldstein (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,271 150,453 4.15 1934
80 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar     autonomous okrug Yury Bezdudny (UR) Northwestern Northern 176,810 41,434 0.23 1929
81 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
    Natalya Komarova (UR) Ural West Siberian 534,801 1,711,480 3.20 1930
82 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr     Roman Kopin (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 721,481 47,490 0.07 1930
83 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
    Dmitry Artyukhov (UR) Ural West Siberian 769,250 510,490 0.66 1930
Federal subjects whose territories are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine:
84 Republic of Crimea[d] Simferopol     republic Sergey Aksyonov (UR) Southern[13][14] North Caucasus 26,081 1,934,630 74.18 2014
85 Sevastopol[d]     federal city Mikhail Razvozhayev (UR) Southern[13][14] North Caucasus 864 547,820 634.05 2014
86 Donetsk People's Republic[d][f] Donetsk     republic Denis Pushilin (UR) 26,517[g] 4,100,280[15][g] 154.63[g] 2022
87 Lugansk People's Republic[d][f] Luhansk     Leonid Pasechnik (UR) 26,684[g] 2,121,322[15][g] 79.50[g] 2022
88 Zaporozhye Oblast[d][f] Melitopol
(de facto)
Zaporizhzhia
(claimed)
    oblast Yevgeny Balitsky (UR) 27,183[g] 1,666,515[15][g] 61.31[g] 2022
89 Kherson Oblast[d][f] Henichesk
(de facto)
Kherson
(claimed)
(Largest city: Nova Kakhovka)
    Volodymyr Saldo 28,461[g] 1,016,707[15][g] 35.72[g] 2022

Notes

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative centre.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

d. ^ Internationally recognized as a part of Ukraine.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

f. ^ Claimed, but only partially controlled by Russia.

g. ^ As Russia only partially controls the region, this is a claimed figure.

Statistics of federal subjects

Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

 
Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:

With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a Gross Regional Product [GRP] per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.

In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average.[16][17]

Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.

In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[18][19] The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.[20]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Government of the Russian Federation. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  2. ^ a b Heaney, Dominic, ed. (2022). "Territorial Surveys". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2022 (23rd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 9781032249698.
  3. ^ Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  4. ^ "Putin to annex seized Ukrainian land, U.N. Warns of 'dangerous escalation'". Reuters. September 29, 2022.
  5. ^ This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  6. ^ a b "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Garant-Internet. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Knizhnik, Irina (2009). "On legal terminology, the jury is still out" (PDF). SlavFile. Slavic Languages Division, American Translators Association. 18 (1): 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  8. ^ Nekrasova, Tamara (2011). "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" (PDF). Eulita. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  9. ^ The Territories of the Russian Federation 2012. Taylor & Francis. 2012. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-135-09584-0. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  10. ^ Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-5381-2048-4. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  11. ^ "Таблица 5. Численность населения России, федеральных округов, субъектов Российской Федерации, городских округов, муниципальных районов, муниципальных округов, городских и сельских поселений, городских населенных пунктов, сельских населенных пунктов с населением 3000 человек и более". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  12. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  13. ^ a b "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  14. ^ a b "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  16. ^ [3][4] Archived March 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ ""Рейтинг трезвости-2017": кто в России меньше всех пьет".
  18. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  19. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  20. ^ Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved July 6, 2020.

Sources

  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).