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## Summary

In algebraic geometry, a finite morphism between two affine varieties $X,Y$ is a dense regular map which induces isomorphic inclusion $k\left[Y\right]\hookrightarrow k\left[X\right]$ between their coordinate rings, such that $k\left[X\right]$ is integral over $k\left[Y\right]$ . This definition can be extended to the quasi-projective varieties, such that a regular map $f\colon X\to Y$ between quasiprojective varieties is finite if any point like $y\in Y$ has an affine neighbourhood V such that $U=f^{-1}(V)$ is affine and $f\colon U\to V$ is a finite map (in view of the previous definition, because it is between affine varieties).

## Definition by Schemes

A morphism f: XY of schemes is a finite morphism if Y has an open cover by affine schemes

$V_{i}={\mbox{Spec}}\;B_{i}$

such that for each i,

$f^{-1}(V_{i})=U_{i}$

is an open affine subscheme Spec Ai, and the restriction of f to Ui, which induces a ring homomorphism

$B_{i}\rightarrow A_{i},$

makes Ai a finitely generated module over Bi. One also says that X is finite over Y.

In fact, f is finite if and only if for every open affine open subscheme V = Spec B in Y, the inverse image of V in X is affine, of the form Spec A, with A a finitely generated B-module.

For example, for any field k, ${\text{Spec}}(k[t,x]/(x^{n}-t))\to {\text{Spec}}(k[t])$  is a finite morphism since $k[t,x]/(x^{n}-t)\cong k[t]\oplus k[t]\cdot x\oplus \cdots \oplus k[t]\cdot x^{n-1}$  as $k[t]$ -modules. Geometrically, this is obviously finite since this is a ramified n-sheeted cover of the affine line which degenerates at the origin. By contrast, the inclusion of A1 − 0 into A1 is not finite. (Indeed, the Laurent polynomial ring k[y, y−1] is not finitely generated as a module over k[y].) This restricts our geometric intuition to surjective families with finite fibers.

## Properties of finite morphisms

• The composition of two finite morphisms is finite.
• Any base change of a finite morphism f: XY is finite. That is, if g: Z → Y is any morphism of schemes, then the resulting morphism X ×Y ZZ is finite. This corresponds to the following algebraic statement: if A and C are (commutative) B-algebras, and A is finitely generated as a B-module, then the tensor product AB C is finitely generated as a C-module. Indeed, the generators can be taken to be the elements ai ⊗ 1, where ai are the given generators of A as a B-module.
• Closed immersions are finite, as they are locally given by AA/I, where I is the ideal corresponding to the closed subscheme.
• Finite morphisms are closed, hence (because of their stability under base change) proper. This follows from the going up theorem of Cohen-Seidenberg in commutative algebra.
• Finite morphisms have finite fibers (that is, they are quasi-finite). This follows from the fact that for a field k, every finite k-algebra is an Artinian ring. A related statement is that for a finite surjective morphism f: XY, X and Y have the same dimension.
• By Deligne, a morphism of schemes is finite if and only if it is proper and quasi-finite. This had been shown by Grothendieck if the morphism f: XY is locally of finite presentation, which follows from the other assumptions if Y is Noetherian.
• Finite morphisms are both projective and affine.