Fregat

Summary

Fregat (Russian: Фрегат, frigate) is an upper stage developed by NPO Lavochkin in the 1990s, which is used in some Soyuz and Zenit launch vehicles, but is universal and can be used as a part of a medium and heavy class launch vehicles. Fregat became operational in February 2000.[3] Its liquid propellant engine uses UDMH and N2O4. Fregat's success rate is 97.8% (with 2 failures in 93 launches), which makes it one of the most reliable upper stages in the world. Fregat has successfully delivered more than 300 payloads into different orbits. It remains the only upper stage in the world that can place its payload into 3 or more different orbits in a single launch.[4]

Fregat [1]
ManufacturerNPO Lavochkin
Country of originRussia
Used onSoyuz-U (retired), Soyuz-FG (retired), Soyuz-2, Zenit-3F
General characteristics
DiameterFregat/Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)
Fregat-SB: 3.875 m (12.71 ft)
Length1.5 m (4 ft 11 in)
Propellant massFregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Empty massFregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)
Associated stages
ComparableBriz-M, Briz-KM
Fregat
Powered byS5.92
Maximum thrust19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse333.2 seconds
Burn time1350 seconds [2]
PropellantN2O4/UDMH
Launch history
StatusActive
Total launches106
Successes
(stage only)
104
Failed2
First flight2 February 2000

DescriptionEdit

The Fregat upper stage is designed for injecting large payloads into a low, medium-height or high geosynchronous orbit. Fregat is a versatile upper stage, in addition to orbital insertion, it can be used as an escape stage to send modern space probes into interplanetary trajectories (e.g. Venus Express and Mars Express). Fregat stages are currently used as the fourth stage of some Soyuz launch vehicles. The stage can be restarted up to 7 times.[5]

NPO Lavochkin has built many interplanetary probes, and the Fregat stage follows their design traditions. The main part of the stage is six intersecting spheres placed on a single plane, four of which contain propellants. The remaining two contain the control equipment. The main engine is placed between the spheres, so Fregat is a tightly-packed stage with a diameter much larger than its height. A set of eight struts through the tanks provide an attachment point for the payload, and also transfer thrust loads to the launcher. The Fregat stage is independent from lower stages, since it has its own guidance, navigation, attitude control, tracking, and telemetry systems. The Fregat uses storable propellants (UDMH/NTO) and can be restarted up to 7 times in flight – enabling it to carry out complex mission profiles. It can provide three-axis or spin stabilization of the spacecraft payload.[6]

Key featuresEdit

• Autonomous – carries the whole payload delivery process itself without any assistance from Earth
• Smart – AI of the upper stage is programmed to avoid various emergency situations by its own algorithm
• Precise – provides almost absolute delivery accuracy right into a target orbit, due to its navigation equipment based on Glonass and GPS
• Multiple-start ability – engine can be restarted up to 7 times, which makes possible to ensure optimal delivery or to deliver multiple payloads on different target orbits
• Versatile – fueled tanks are being loaded before installation in launch complex, which makes Fregat compatible to any launch vehicle
• Active lifetime up to 2 days
• Ability to start from four spaceports : Baikonur, Vostochny, Plesetsk, and Centre Spatial Guyanais

Fregat upper stage launch statisticsEdit

Date Number Modification Mission Launch vehicle Payload Result
1 2000/02/09 1001 Fregat ST07 Soyuz-U   Full-size satellite layout,
  Inflatable Braking Device
Success
2 2000/03/20 1002 Fregat ST08 Soyuz-U   Dumsat Success
3 2000/07/16 1003 Fregat ST09 Soyuz-U   Cluster FM6,
  Cluster FM7
Success
4 2000/08/09 1004 Fregat ST10 Soyuz-U   Cluster FM5,
  Cluster FM8
Success
5 2003/06/02 1005 Fregat ST11 Soyuz-FG   Mars Express,
  Beagle 2
Success
6 2003/12/27 1006 Fregat ST12 Soyuz-FG   AMOS-2 Success
7 2005/08/13 1007 Fregat ST13 Soyuz-FG   Galaxy 14 Success
8 2005/11/09 1010 Fregat ST14 Soyuz-FG   Venus Express Success
9 2005/12/28 1009 Fregat ST15 Soyuz-FG   GIOVE-A Success
10 2006/10/19 1011 Fregat ST16 Soyuz-2.1a   MetOp-A Success
11 2006/12/24 1012 Fregat Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 11L Success
12 2006/12/27 1013 Fregat ST17 Soyuz-2.1b   COROT Success
13 2007/05/29 1016 Fregat ST18 Soyuz-FG   Globalstar M065,
  Globalstar M069,
  Globalstar M071,
  Globalstar M072
Success
14 2007/10/20 1015 Fregat ST19 Soyuz-FG   Globalstar M066,
  Globalstar M067,
  Globalstar M068,
  Globalstar M070
Success
15 2007/12/14 1015-2 Fregat ST20 Soyuz-FG   RADARSAT-2 Success
16 2008/04/26 1008 Fregat ST21 Soyuz-FG   GIOVE-B Success
17 2009/05/21 1018 Fregat Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 12L Success
18 2009/09/17 1014 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   Meteor-M № 1,
  Sterkh,
  Universitetsky-Tatyana-2,
  UGATUSAT,
  BLITS,
  IRIS,
  Sumbandila
Success
19 2010/10/19 1023 Fregat-M ST22 Soyuz-2.1a   Globalstar M073,
  Globalstar M074,
  Globalstar M075,
  Globalstar M076,
  Globalstar M077,
  Globalstar M079
Success
20 2010/11/02 1022 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 13L Success
21 2011/01/20 2001 Fregat-SB Zenith-3SLBF   Elektro-L No.1 Success
22 2011/02/26 1035 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-K № 11L Success
23 2011/07/13 1024 Fregat-M ST23 Soyuz-2.1a   Globalstar M081,
  Globalstar M083,
  Globalstar M085,
  Globalstar M088,
  Globalstar M089,
  Globalstar M091
Success
24 2011/07/18 2002 Fregat-SB Zenith-3SLBF   Spektr-R Success
25 2011/10/02 1045 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 742 Success
26 2011/10/21 1030 Fregat-MT VS01 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 1,
  European Union Galileo 2
Success
27 2011/11/28 1046 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 746 Success
28 2011/12/17 1021 Fregat VS02 Soyuz-ST-A   Pleiades-1A,
  ELISA W11,
  ELISA E12,
  ELISA W23,
  ELISA E24,
  SSOT
Success
29 2011/12/23 1042 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Meridian № 15L Success
30 2011/12/28 1027 Fregat-M ST24 Soyuz-2.1a   Globalstar M080,
  Globalstar M082,
  Globalstar M084,
  Globalstar M086,
  Globalstar M090,
  Globalstar M092
Success
31 2012/07/22 1019 Fregat Soyuz-FG   Kanopus-V № 1,
  Zond-PP,
  BKA,
  exactView-1,
  TET-1
Success
32 2012/09/17 1037 Fregat-M ST25 Soyuz-2.1a   MetOp-B Success
33 2012/10/12 1031 Fregat-MT VS03 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 3,
  Galileo 4
Success
34 2012/11/14 1034 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 16L Success
35 2012/12/02 1020 Fregat VS04 Soyuz-ST-A   Pléiades-1B Success
36 2013/02/06 1029 Fregat-M ST26 Soyuz-2.1a   Globalstar M078,
  Globalstar M093,
  Globalstar M094,
  Globalstar M095,
  Globalstar M096,
  Globalstar M097
Success
37 2013/04/26 1047 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-K № 747 Success
38 2013/06/25 1041 Fregat-MT VS05 Soyuz-ST-B   O3b FM1,
  O3b FM2,
  O3b FM4,
  O3b FM5
Success
39 2013/12/19 1040 Fregat-MT VS06 Soyuz-ST-B   Gaia Success
40 2014/03/23 112-01 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 754 Success
41 2014/04/03 1038 Fregat-M VS07 Soyuz-ST-A   Sentinel-1A Success
42 2014/06/14 112-02 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 755 Success
43 2014/07/08 1025 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Meteor-M №2,
  Vernov,
  DX1 [ru],
  UKube-1,
  TechDemoSat-1,
  SkySat-2,
  AISSat-2
Success
44 2014/07/10 1032 Fregat-MT VS08 Soyuz-ST-B   O3b FM3,
  O3b FM6,
  O3b FM7,
  O3b FM8
Success
45 2014/08/22 1039 Fregat-MT VS09 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 5,
  Galileo 6
Failure
46 2014/10/30 1026 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 17L Success
47 2014/11/30 1044 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-K № 12L Success
48 2014/12/18 133-01 Fregat-MT VS10 Soyuz-ST-B   O3b FM9,
  O3b FM10,
  O3b FM11,
  O3b FM12
Success
49 2015/03/27 133-02 Fregat-MT VS11 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 7,
  Galileo 8
Success
50 2015/09/11 133-03 Fregat-MT VS12 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 9,
  Galileo 10
Success
51 2015/11/17 1033 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   EKS № 1 Success
52 2015/12/11 2004 Fregat-SB Zenith-3SLBF   Elektro-L No.2 № 2 Success
53 2015/12/17 133-04 Fregat-MT VS13 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 11,
  Galileo 12
Success
54 2016/02/07 112-03 Fregat-MT Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 751 Success
55 2016/04/25 133-08 Fregat-M VS14 Soyuz-ST-A   Sentinel-1B Success
56 2016/05/24 133-05 Fregat-MT VS15 Soyuz-ST-B   Galileo 13,
  Galileo 14
Success
57 2016/05/29 112-04 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 753 Success
58 2017/01/28 133-07 Fregat-MT VS16 Soyuz-ST-B   Hispasat 36W-1 Success
59 2017/05/18 133-09 Fregat-M VS17 Soyuz-ST-A   SES-15 Success
60 2017/05/25 111–301 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Tundra № 2 Success
61 2017/07/14 122-02 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Kanopus-V-IK,
  MKA-N № 1,
  MKA-N № 2,
  Mayak,
  Iskra-MAI-85,
  Ecuador UTE-YUZGU»,
  Flying Laptop,
  TechnoSat,
  WNISAT-1R,
  NorSat-1,
  NorSat-2,
  Flock-2k 1...48,
  CICERO 1...3,
  Corvus-BC 1...2,
  Lemur-2 42...49,
  NanoACE
Partial failure
62 2017/09/22 112-05 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 752 Success
63 2017/11/28 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Meteor-M №2,
  Baumanets-2,
  LEO Vantage 2,
  Helios-Wire BIU,
  IDEA-OSG 1,
  AISSat-3,
  D-Star One,
  SEAM,
  Corvus-BC 3,
  Lemur-2 58...67
Failure
64 2017/12/26 2006 Fregat-SB Zenith-3SLBF   Angosat-1 Success
65 2018/02/01 122-03 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Kanopus-V № 3,
  Kanopus-V № 4,
  Lemur-2 74,
  Lemur-2 75,
  Lemur-2 76,
  Lemur-2 77,
  S-Net A,
  S-Net B,
  S-Net C,
  S-Net D,
  D-Star One
Success
66 2018/03/09 133-06 Fregat-MT VS18 Soyuz-ST-B   O3b FM13,
  O3b FM14,
  O3b FM15,
  O3b FM16
Success
67 2018/06/16 112-06 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 756 Success
68 2018/11/03 112-08 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 757 Success
69 2018/11/07 133-14 Fregat-M VS19 Soyuz-ST-B   MetOp-C Success
70 2018/12/19 133-10 Fregat-M VS20 Soyuz-ST-B   Composante Spatiale Optique Success
71 2018/12/27 122-06 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Kanopus-V № 5,
  Kanopus-V № 6,
  GRUS-1,
  ZACube-2,
  Lume-1,
  Flock-3k 1...12,
  Lemur-2 88...95,
  D-Star One iSat,
  D-Star One Sparrow,
  UWE-4,
  ICEYE-Dummy,
  SAMSON-Dummy 1...3
Success
72 2019/02/21 112-07 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   EgyptSat-A Success
73 2019/02/27 133-15 Fregat-M VS21 Soyuz-ST-B   OneWeb-0006,
  OneWeb-0007,
  OneWeb-0008,
  OneWeb-0010,
  OneWeb-0011,
  OneWeb-0012
Success
74 2019/04/04 133-17 Fregat-MT VS22 Soyuz-ST-B   O3b FM17,
  O3b FM18,
  O3b FM19,
  O3b FM20
Success
75 2019/05/27 112-09 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 758 Success
76 2019/07/05 122-04 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Meteor-M No.2
  Sokrat
  VDNH-80
  AmurSat
  SEAM-2.0
  MTCube
  SONATE
  Beesat 9…13
  MOVE-IIb
  TTU-101
  Ecuador-UTE
  El Camino Real
 Lemur-2 100…107
  NSLSat-1
  JAISAT-1
  EXOCONNECT
  LightSat
  Lucky-7
  ICEYE X4
  ICEYE X5
  CarboNIX
  DoT 1
Success
77 2019/07/30 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 18L Success
78 2019/09/26 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Tundra № 3 Success
79 2019/12/11 112-10 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M № 759 Success
80 2019/12/18 Fregat-M VS23 Soyuz-ST-A   COSMO-SkyMed
  CHEOPS
  EyeSat
  ANGELS
  OPS-SAT
Success
81 2020/02/07 Fregat-M ST27 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (34 units) Success
82 2020/02/20 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian № 19L Success
83 2020/03/17 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Glonass-M №760 Success
84 2020/03/21 Fregat-M ST28 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (34 units) Success
85 2020/12/29 Fregat VS24 Soyuz ST-A   Falcon Eye 2 Success
86 2021/02/28 122-07 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1b   Arktika-M №1 Success
87 2021/03/22 122-05 Fregat-M Soyuz-2.1a   CAS500-1
  ELSA-d Target,Chaser
  DMSAT-1
  Fukui Prefectural Satellite
  GRUS-1 × 3
  ADELIS-SAMSON x 3
  BeeSat × 4
  Challenge One
  CubeSX-HSE
  CubeSX-Sirius-HSE
  GRBAlpha
  Hiber-3
  Kepler-6,7
  KMSL
  KSU_Cubesat
  LacunaSat-2b
  Shaheen Sat 17
  NANOSATC-BR2
  OrbiCraft-Zorkiy
  Pumbaa,Timon
   WildTrackCube-SIMBA
  3B5GSAT
  UNISAT-7
  BCCSAT-1
  FEES
  DIY
 SMOG-1
  STECCO
Success
88 2021/03/25 123-05 Fregat ST30 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
89 2021/04/25 123-11 Fregat ST31 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
90 2021/05/28 123-10 Fregat ST32 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
91 2021/07/01 112-15 Fregat ST33 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
92 2021/08/21 123-03 Fregat ST34 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (34 units) Success
93 2021/09/14 123-05 Fregat ST35 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (34 units) Success
94 2021/10/14 123-14 Fregat ST36 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
95 2021/11/25 111–305 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   EKS-5 Success
96 2021/12/05 133-13 Fregat-MT VS26 Soyuz ST-B   Galileo FOC FM23
  Galileo FOC FM24
Success
97 2021/12/27 123-04 Fregat ST37 Soyuz-2.1b   OneWeb (36 units) Success
98 2022/02/05 111–401 Fregat Soyuz-2.1a   Neitron №1 Success
99 2022/02/10 133-19 Fregat-MT VS27 Soyuz ST-B   OneWeb (34 units) Success
100 2022/03/22 111-? Fregat Soyuz-2.1a   Meridian-M 10 (20L) Success
101 2022/07/07 112-13 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   GLONASS-K 16 Success
102 2022/08/09 123-06 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   Khayyam
  CubeXS-HSE-2
  CYCLOPS
  Geoscan-Edelweiss
  ISOI
  KAI-1
  KODIZ
  Kuzbass-300
  MIET-AIS
  Polytech Universe-1, 2
  ReshUCube-1
  Siren
  Skoltech B1, B2
  UTMN
  VIZARD-SS1
Success
103 2022/10/10 112-16 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   GLONASS-K 17 Success
104 2022/10/22 142-503 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   Gonets-M 23, 24, 25
  Skif-D
Success
105 2022/11/02 111-306 Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   EKS-6 Success
106 2022/11/28 112-?? Fregat Soyuz-2.1b   GLONASS-M 761 Success

FailuresEdit

August 2014 failureEdit

The Arianespace-operated flight of a Fregat MT ended in failure on 22 August 2014 after the vehicle deposited two EU/ESA Galileo navigation satellites into the wrong orbit. The lift off at 12:27:11 UTC from the Sinnamary launch site near Kourou, French Guiana, appeared to go well. However, a failure was only apparent later when, after the second firing of the Fregat MT upper stage had taken place, the satellites were detected as being in the wrong orbit.[7]

The Independent Inquiry Board formed to analyze the causes of the "anomaly" announced its definitive conclusions on 7 October 2014 following a meeting at Arianespace headquarters in Évry, near Paris.[8] The failure occurred during the flight of the Fregat fourth stage. It occurred about 35 minutes after liftoff, at the beginning of the ballistic phase preceding the second ignition of this stage. The scenario that led to an error in the orbital injection of the satellites was precisely reconstructed, as follows:

  • The orbital error resulted from an error in the thrust orientation of the main engine on the Fregat stage during its second powered phase.
  • This orientation error was the result of the loss of inertial reference for the stage.
  • This loss occurred when the stage's inertial system operated outside its authorized operating envelope, an excursion that was caused by the failure of two of Fregat's attitude control thrusters during the preceding ballistic phase.
  • This failure was due to a temporary interruption of the joint hydrazine propellant supply to these thrusters.
  • The interruption in the flow was caused by freezing of the hydrazine.
  • The freezing resulted from the proximity of hydrazine and cold helium feed lines, these lines being connected by the same support structure, which acted as a thermal bridge.
  • Ambiguities in the design documents allowed the installation of this type of thermal "bridge" between the two lines. In fact, such bridges have also been seen on other Fregat stages now under production at NPO Lavochkin.
  • The design ambiguity is the result of not taking into account the relevant thermal transfers during the thermal analyses of the stage system design.

The root cause of the failure of flight VS09 is therefore a shortcoming in the system thermal analysis performed during stage design, and not an operator error during stage assembly.[9]

Since 22 August 2014, Soyuz ST-B launch vehicles with Fregat-MT upper stages have performed three successful launches, six Galileo navigation satellites have been inserted into their target orbits in frame of Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre ongoing ESA programme.[10][11][12]

July 2017 partial failureEdit

In July 2017, a Russian-operated rideshare flight of a Fregat upper stage ended with 9 of 72 small satellites dead-on-orbit.[13]

November 2017 failureEdit

The Russian-operated flight of a Fregat upper stage ended in failure after the vehicle deposited the upper stage, a Meteor MS-1 weather satellite, and 18 secondary cubesats back into Earth's atmosphere due to the first Fregat burn being ignited with the stage in the wrong orientation.[14] The guidance computer on the Soyuz rocket's Fregat upper stage was mis-programmed, causing it to begin an unnecessary turn that left it in the wrong orientation for a critical engine burn required to enter orbit.[15]

DebrisEdit

The Fregats did not have enough impulse capability to de-orbit themselves after placing their payload into orbit and so have remained as space debris. The Fregat-SB upper stage rocket that used to launch the Russian Spektr-R satellite into orbit in 2011, broke into multiple pieces on May 8, 2020 creating even more debris than normal.[16]

VersionsEdit

Fregat-M/Fregat-MTEdit

Fregat-M/Fregat-MT tanks have ball-shaped additions on the tops of the tanks. These additions increase the load capability of the propellant from 5,350 kilograms (11,790 lb) to 6,640 kilograms (14,640 lb), without causing any other changes to the physical dimensions of the vehicle.[2]

Fregat-SBEdit

A version called Fregat-SB can be used with Zenit-2SB launch vehicle. This version is a variation of Fregat-M with a block of drop-off tanks ("SBB" or Сбрасываемый Блок Баков in Russian) which makes increased payload capability possible. The torus-shaped SBB weighs 360 kg (790 lb) and contains up to 3,050 kg (6,720 lb) of propellant. The total dry weight of the Fregat-SB (including SBB) is 1,410 kg (3,110 lb) and the maximum propellant carrying capacity is 10,150 kg (22,380 lb).[17]

Fregat-SB was launched for the first time on 20 January 2011, when it lifted the Elektro-L weather satellite into geosynchronous orbit.[18]

All versions dataEdit

Fregat Upper Stage Family[19]
Stage Fregat Fregat-M Fregat-MT Fregat-SB Fregat-SBU Fregat-2
Engine S5.92 S5.92 l.n. (Long Nozzle)
Total Launches 39 46 17 4
Thrust (Low) 13.73 kN (3,090 lbf) 13.96 kN (3,140 lbf)
Thrust (High) 19.61 kN (4,410 lbf) 20.01 kN (4,500 lbf)
Specific Impulse (Low) 3,168 N*s/kg 3,222 N*s/kg
Specific Impulse (High) 3,207 N*s/kg 3,268 N*s/kg
Propellant (Max) 5,350 kg (11,790 lb) 6,640 kg (14,640 lb) 7,100 kg (15,700 lb) 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) 10,710 kg (23,610 lb) 12,240 kg (26,980 lb)
Burn Time 1235...874 seconds 1535...1085 seconds 1640...1160 seconds 2310...1635 seconds 2475...1750 seconds 2830...2000 seconds
Flow Rate 4.3...6.1 kg/s
Total Impulse 16.9...17.2 MN*s 21.4...21.7 MN*s 22.9...23.2 MN*s 32.2...32.7 MN*s 34.5...35.0 MN*s 39.4...40.0 MN*s

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Конструкция разгонного блока "Фрегат"". NPO Lavochkin (in Russian). Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Fregat space tug". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  3. ^ "Cluster II on track after maiden flight of Fregat upper stage". 9 February 2000.
  4. ^ "Photo-Report from Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association, One Day at Fregat Upper Stage Manufacturing Facility".
  5. ^ "Универсальный разгонный блок "Фрегат"". Laspace.ru. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  6. ^ "Soyuz".
  7. ^ "Soyuz Fregat launch failure dooms two Galileo satellites to useless orbit in embarrassing case of premature congratulation | Hyperbola". Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Soyuz Flight VS09: Independent Inquiry Board announces definitive conclusions concerning the Fregat upper stage anomaly" (Press release). Evry: Arianespace. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Soyuz Flight VS09: Independent Inquiry Board announces definitive conclusions concerning the Fregat upper stage anomaly". Arianespace. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Two new satellites join the Galileo constellation / Launching Galileo / The future - Galileo / Navigation / Our Activities / ESA". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Galileo taking flight: Ten satellites now in orbit / Launching Galileo / The future - Galileo / Navigation / Our Activities / ESA". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  12. ^ "Galileo's dozen: 12 satellites now in orbit / Launching Galileo / The future - Galileo / Navigation / Our Activities / ESA". www.esa.int. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015.
  13. ^ "Insurance firm paid Astro Digital's claim for lost cubesats, sources said". spacenews.com. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Russian weather satellite and 18 secondary payloads lost after rocket failure". Spaceflight Now. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Russian official blames November 28 launch failure on botched software programming". Spaceflight Now. 30 December 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  16. ^ Gill, Prabhjote. "A Russian rocket broke up in space above the Indian Ocean — leaving dangerous debris in its wake". Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  17. ^ "L'étage supérieur Fregat-SB : descriptif technique (in French)". Kosmonavtika.com. 12 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Russia meteo satellite Electro-L successfully orbited". ITAR-TASS. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011.
  19. ^ "NPO Lavochkin's Fregat upper stage, Gallery". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.

External linksEdit

  • Fregat page on the manufacturer site