|French conquests in North Africa|
Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in the 19th century
|Casualties and losses|
3,336 killed in action,
9,445 dead (1911–34)
500,000–1,000,000 dead (1830–75)
100,000 dead (1911–34)
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France during the 19th and 20th-century colonial era, centering on French Algeria. At its height, it comprised most of the Maghreb.
In the 19th century, the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which had loosely controlled the area since the 16th century, left the region vulnerable to other forces. In 1830, French troops captured Algiers and from 1848 until independence in 1962, France treated Mediterranean Algeria as an integral part of France, the Métropole or metropolitan France. Seeking to expand their influence beyond Algeria, the French established protectorates to the east and west of it. The French protectorate of Tunisia was established in 1881, following a military invasion, and the French protectorate in Morocco in 1912. These lasted until 1955, in the case of Morocco, and 1956, when Tunisia gained full independence.