GLONASS-K

Summary

GLONASS-K
CeBit 2011 - Glosnass-K Satellite Model 11.jpg
Model of Glonass-K satellite at CeBIT 2011
ManufacturerISS Reshetnev
Country of originRussia
OperatorJSC «Navigation-Information systems»
ApplicationsNavigation
Specifications
BusEkspress-1000K
Launch mass935 kg
Power1600 watts
BatteriesNiH2
EquipmentFDMA signals:
L1OF, L1SF, L2OF and L2SF
CDMA signals: L3OC
RegimeMedium Earth orbit (MEO)
Design life10 years (planned)
Dimensions
Production
StatusIn production
Built3
On order9 [1]
Launched3
Operational3
Maiden launch26 February 2011
Last launch25 October 2020

GLONASS-K is the latest satellite design intended as a part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system. Developed by ISS Reshetnev (Information Satellite Systems Reshetnev) and first launched on 26 February 2011, it is a substantial improvement of the previous GLONASS-M second-generation satellites, having a longer lifespan and better accuracy.

History

The Federal Targeted Program "Global Navigation System" 2002–2011, introduced in 2001, stipulated the development of a third-generation navigation satellite design, called GLONASS-K, as part of the overall GLONASS upgrade program in the time frame 2005–2011. The new satellite followed the second generation GLONASS-M, introduced in 2003.[2] The Roscosmos initially ordered 27 GLONASS-K satellites from ISS Reshetnev, the developer of all the previous GLONASS satellites.[3] On 7 December 2010, the company announced it had completed ground tests of the first GLONASS-K satellite.[4] The satellite was launched to orbit on 26 February 2011.[5] On 30 November 2014, the second and supposedly last GLONASS-K1 development satellite was put to orbit as Kosmos 2501.[6]

On 28 May 2014, interview, Nikolay Testoyedov (president of ISS Reshetnev) stated that production of GLONASS-M would end in 2015, with GLONASS-K being exclusively produced after that final batch.[7] On 14 December 2014, an interview with GPS World, he stated that because of Western sanctions that limited the supply of radiation resistant electronics, they had decided to launch nine additional GLONASS-K1 as fleet replacement while they finished the GLONASS-K2 design.[8] In May 2015 presentation, Mr. Testoyedov expected the serial production of GLONASS-K1 to start flying in early 2018, just after the launch of the first GLONASS-K2 prototype. The presentation showed at least eleven additional GLONASS-K1 satellites flying until 2020.[9]

Satellites

GLONASS-K is the first unpressurised GLONASS satellite — all of its equipment is able to operate in a vacuum. Due to this, the satellite's mass has been substantially reduced: GLONASS-K has a mass of just 935 kg compared to its predecessor GLONASS-M, which had a mass of 1450 kg.[10] The new satellite has an operational lifetime of 10 years, three years longer than that of GLONASS-M and seven years longer than the lifetime of the original GLONASS satellite. It also increased the power supply from GLONASS-M's 1400 watts to 1600 watts.[10]

GLONASS-K will transmit additional navigation signals to improve the system's accuracy.[2] Existing FDMA signals, 2 military and 2 civilian, will be transmitted on the L1 and L2 bands, and additional civilian CDMA signals will be transmitted in the L1, L2, L3 and L5 bands.[11][12][13]

GLONASS-V

GLONASS-V is a planned modification of GLONASS-K for use in highly elliptical orbit.[14][15] Roscosmos plans to launch six GLONASS-V satellites in two orbital planes in 2023-2025. The new satellites will improve location accuracy in urban canyons and increase redundancy in longitudes between 20° and 160° East covering most of Russia.

Launches

For launching the satellites, two options are planned: six satellites simultaneously from Baikonur Cosmodrome on the heavy-lift Proton-M, or two simultaneously from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on a Soyuz-2 with a Fregat upper stage.[16] In comparison, the previous GLONASS-M satellites could only be launched three at a time on a Proton-M. The new launch scheme is expected to cut orbiting costs by 50%. The new satellite's advanced equipment — made solely from Russian components — was expected to allow doubling the accuracy.[13] The launch of the first GLONASS-K satellite did however not conform to the general plan, as it was launched alone on a Soyuz-2.1b instead of in a pair.

At 03:07 UTC on 26 February 2011, the first GLONASS-K satellite, Kosmos 2471, was launched. The launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on a Soyuz-2.1b rocket with a Fregat upper stage.[17] The satellite reached the correct orbit at 06:39 UTC.[5] At 06:44, ground stations established control over the satellite.[18] A Space Forces spokesman told Interfax: "We have established and are maintaining steady telemetry communications with the spacecraft... the on-board systems of the Glonass-K satellite are functioning normally".[17] Successful reception of the CDMA signal in L3 band has been reported by independent researchers.[19][20]

At 21:52:26 UTC on 30 November 2014, the second GLONASS-K satellite, Kosmos 2501 was launched. The launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on a Soyuz-2.1b rocket with a Fregat upper stage.[21][18] The spacecraft separated from the launch vehicle at 01:25 UTC of 1 December 2014.[22]

A third GLONASS-K satellite, Kosmos-2547 was launched on 25 October 2020 at 19:08:42 UTC by a Soyuz-2.1b launcher from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.[23]

Photogallery from CeBIT 2011 in Hannover

General view of the Payload Module General view General view

Russia has exhibited the Glonass-K spacecraft during the CeBIT 2011 fair, that took place in Hannover from 1st to 5 March 2011.

References

  1. ^ "В ближайшие 15 лет запустят 46 спутников системы ГЛОНАСС" [46 GLONASS satellites will be launched in the next 15 years] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 9 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Glonass-K: a prospective satellite of the current GLONASS system" (PDF). ISS-Reshetnev. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011.
  3. ^ Harvey, Brian (2007). "Military programs". The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program (1st ed.). Germany: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-71354-0.
  4. ^ "ISS-Reshetnev completes tests on Glonass-K". ISS Reshetnev. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Glonass satellite successfully put into orbit". ITAR-TASS. 26 February 2011.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Next-generation Glonass-K satellite launched into orbit". Information Satellite Systems Reshetnev. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  7. ^ "Производство ГЛОНАСС-М решено прекратить в 2015 году" [Production of GLONASS-M to be finished in 2015]. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  8. ^ "Sanctions Delay Russia's GLONASS-K2 Program". GPS World. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  9. ^ Testoyedov, Nikolay (18 May 2015). "Space Navigation in Russia: History of Development" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  10. ^ a b "JSC ISS - Reshetnev Official GLONASS-K". ISS-Reshetnev. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  11. ^ "Russia to launch Glonass satellite on 24 February 2011". RIA Novosti. 9 February 2011.
  12. ^ Urlichich, Y.; Subbotin, V.; Stupak, G.; Dvorkin, V.; Povaliaev, A.; Karutin, S. "GLONASS Developing Strategy" (PDF). ION GNSS 2010, Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation held in Portland, Oregon September 21–24, 2010. The Institute of Navigation. September 2010: 1566–1571.
  13. ^ a b Afanasyev, Igor; Vorontsov, Dmitri (26 November 2010). "Glonass nearing completion". Russia & CIS Observer. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010.
  14. ^ "Directions 2019: High-orbit GLONASS and CDMA signal". 12 December 2018. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  15. ^ ""Роскосмос" в 2023-2025 годах запустит шесть спутников "Глонасс"" [Roscosmos will launch six GLONASS satellites in 2023-2025] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  16. ^ "The Global Navigation System GLONASS: Development and Usage in the 21st Century" (PDF). 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting. 2002.
  17. ^ a b "Glonass-K Successfully Reached the Targeted Orbital Destination". Roscosmos. 26 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2010.
  18. ^ a b Zak, Anatoly. "GLONASS-K". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  19. ^ "First from Javad and from Russia: GLONASS-K L3 CDMA". Javad. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  20. ^ "Septentrio's AsteRx3 Receiver Tracks First GLONASS CDMA Signal on L3". Inside GNSS News. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  21. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (4 August 2015). "Uragan-K1 (GLONASS-K1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  22. ^ "New-generation navigation satellite GLONASS-K launched from Plesetsk space center". ITAR-TASS. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  23. ^ "Russia launches Glonass navigation satellite". Spaceflight Now. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.